Legio XIII Gemina
Legio tertia decima Geminia, in English the 13th Twin Legion known as Legio tertia decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was one of Julius Caesar's key units in Gaul and in the civil war, was the legion with which he famously crossed the Rubicon on January 10, 49 BC; the legion appears to have still been in existence in the 5th century AD. Its symbol was the lion. Legio XIII was levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC, before marching against the Belgae, in one of his early interventions in intra-Gallic conflicts. During the Gallic Wars, Legio XIII was present at the Battle against the Nervians, the Siege of Gergovia, while not mentioned in the sources, it is reasonable to assume that Legio XIII was present for the Battle of Alesia. After the end of the Gallic wars, the Roman Senate refused Caesar his second consulship, ordered him to give up his commands, demanded he return to Rome to face prosecution. Forced to choose either the end of his political career or civil war, Caesar brought Legio XIII across the Rubicon river and into Italy.
The legion remained faithful to Caesar during the resulting civil war between Caesar and the conservative Optimates faction of the senate, whose legions were commanded by Pompey. Legio XIII was active throughout the entire war, fighting at Pharsalus. After the decisive victory over Pompey at Pharsalus, the legion was to be disbanded, the legionaries "pensioned off" with the traditional land grants. After Munda, Caesar disbanded the legion, retired his veterans, gave them farmland in Italy. Augustus reconstituted the legion once again in 41 BC to deal with the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. Legio XIII acquired the cognomen Gemina after being reinforced with veteran legionaries from other legions following the war against Mark Antony and the Battle of Actium. Augustus sent the legion to Burnum, in Illyricum, a Roman province in the Adriatic Sea. In 16 BC, the legion was transferred to Emona in Pannonia. After the disaster of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9, the legion was sent as reinforcements to Augusta Vindelicorum, to Vindonissa, Raetia, to prevent further attacks from the Germanic tribes.
Emperor Claudius sent them back to Pannonia around 45 and the legion built its legionary fortress at Poetovium. In the year of the four emperors, XIII Gemina supported first Otho and Vespasian against Vitellius, fighting in the two Battles of Bedriacum. Under Trajan the legion took part in both Dacian wars, it was transferred by Trajan in 106 to the newly conquered province of Dacia to garrison it. Vexillationes of the XIII Gemina fought under Emperor Gallienus in northern Italy; the emperor issued a legionary antoninianus celebrating the legion, showing the legion's lion. Another vexillatio was present in the army of the emperor of the Gallic Empire Victorinus: this emperor, in fact, issued a gold coin celebrating the legion and its emblem. In 271, the legion was relocated when the Dacia province was evacuated, restationed in Dacia Aureliana. In the 5th century, according to the Notitia Dignitatum, a legio tertiadecima gemina was in Babylon in Egypt, a strategic fortress on the Nile at the traditional border between Lower Egypt and Middle Egypt, under the command of the Comes limitis Aegypti.
- Marco Cornelio Marci filio Galeria Nigrino / Curiatio Materno consuli - / - tribuno militum legionis XIIII Geminae. Liria, Spain. CIL II2/14. - Caio Iulio Galeria Lepido Iessonensi primi pilari centurioni legionis XIII Geminae Piae Fidelis centurioni. Lerida, Spain. CIL II 4463. A fictionalized account of the actions of Legio XIII Gemina during the struggle between Julius Caesar and the Optimates faction under Pompey can be seen in the joint HBO/BBC/RAI television production Rome, most notably two of its soldiers: Centurion Lucius Vorenus and Legionary Titus Pullo, named after real-life Centurions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo of the Legio XI Claudia. Roman legion List of Roman legions Dacia Ripensis "Notitia Dignitatum". Retrieved 2006-11-22. Lendering, Jona. "Legio XIII Gemina". Retrieved 2006-11-18. Cowan, Ross. Imperial Roman Legionary AD 161-284. Angus McBride. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-601-1. Media related to Legio XIII Gemina at Wikimedia Commons LEGIO TREDICI GEMINA, Italian re-enactment group LEG XIII GEM, Austrian re-enactment group LEGIO XIII GEMINA Blog Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix
Legio III Diocletiana
Legio III Diocletiana was a comitatensis Roman legion, levied in 296 by Diocletian, from whom the legion took its name. The aim of this legion was to guard the newly re-organized province of Aegyptus, being based in Alexandria, it was created to support II Traiana Fortis, therefore it took the numeral III. During the 4th century, some vexillationes of the III Diocletiana were sent in the south of Egypt, in Thebes and Kom Ombo. Theodosius I sent soldiers from the north to III Diocletiana in Egypt, Egyptian soldiers in Macedonia, forming the III Diocletiana Thebaeorum, under the command of the Magister Militum per Thracias; the shield pattern of III Diocletiana Thebaeorum was a red. List of Roman legions Livius.org: Account of Legio III Diocletiana
Legio II Italica
Legio secunda Italica, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. The legion was founded in AD 165 by emperor Marcus Aurelius alongside III Italica at a time when the Roman Empire was fighting both in Germania and in Parthia; the legion main theatre of operations was the Roman province of Noricum, in the south margin of the Danube, where Germanic incursions were frequent. In 180 II Italica was stationed in Lauriacum, modern Lorch. In 193, II Italica marched into Rome with Septimius Severus fighting for power; the new emperor awarded them the title of Fidelis to acknowledge the support. Septimius Severus would use II Italica against the rebellions of Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus, in his Parthian campaigns. In the 3rd century, support of the legions was a crucial demand for candidates to the throne. Well aware of this fact, Gallienus granted II Italica the cognomina VII Pia VII Fidelis to secure their continuing support. There are still records of the II Italica in Noricum in the beginning of the 5th century.
The legion symbol is a she-wolf and the twins Romulus and Remus, is a reference to the rule of Marcus Aurelius and his colleague Lucius Verus. List of Roman legions Roman legion Saint Florian livius.org account of Legio II Italica
Legio V Macedonica
Legio quinta Macedonica was a Roman legion. It was originally levied in 43 BC by consul Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus and Octavian, it was based in the Balkan provinces of Macedonia and Dacia. In the Notitia Dignitatum records from beginning of the fifth century, the legion was still stationed in Dacia, with detachments stationed in the east and Egypt; the last known evidence shows the legion, or detachments from it, stationed in Egypt in the seventh century one or two years before the Islamic conquest of Egypt. It is assumed that the legion fought in this war and was destroyed, although it is uncertain whether detachments or the whole legion were in Egypt, there is no further evidence of the legion's eventual fate, its symbol was the bull. The Legio V was one of the original twenty-eight legions raised by Octavian. There are two other fifth legions recorded: the V Urbana, it is possible. The legion participated in the Battle of Actium, it moved to Macedonia, where it stayed from 30 BC to AD 6, gaining its cognomen, before moving to Oescus.
In 62, some vexillationes of the Fifth fought under Lucius Caesennius Paetus in Armenia against the Parthian Empire. After the defeat of the Battle of Rhandeia, the whole V Macedonica, together with III Gallica, VI Ferrata, X Fretensis under the command of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, was sent to the east to fight in the victorious war against the Parthians; the Fifth was still in the East when the Great Jewish Revolt in Iudaea Province began in 66. Nero gave the V Macedonica, the X Fretensis and the XV Apollinaris to Titus Flavius Vespasianus to counter the revolt. In 67, in Galilee, the city of Sepphoris surrendered peacefully to the Roman army, the V Macedonica conquered Mount Gerizim, the chief sanctuary of the Samaritans. In the Year of the Four Emperors, 68, the legion stayed inactive in Emmaus, where several tombstones of soldiers of the V Macedonica remain. After the proclamation of Vespasian as Emperor and the end of the war under his son Titus, the V Macedonica left Iudaea and returned to Oescus.
In 96, the emperor Hadrian served the legion as tribunus militum. In 101, the legion moved to Dacia. After the war ended in 106, the legion remained in Troesmis, near the Danube Delta since 107. A centurion of the legion, Calventius Viator, rose to prominence and was promoted to commander of the emperor's horse guards, the equites singulares Augusti. Based on a Roman inscription discovered near Betar, Hadrian removed the V Macedonica from Dacia and sent it to Provincia Iudaea, or what is Judea, along with the Eleventh Claudian Legion, in order to put down an insurrection that broke out in the 16th year of his reign as Roman Emperor, while Tineius Rufus was governor of the province, which became known as the Jewish Revolt under Bar Kokhba; when Emperor Lucius Verus started his campaign against the Parthians, the legion moved to the east, but was returned in Dacia Porolissensis, with a basecamp in Potaissa. The northern frontier was a hot border of the Empire. At the beginning of the reign of Commodus, the V Macedonica and the XIII Gemina defeated once again the Iazyges, under the usurpers Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus.
The Fifth supported Septimius Severus, in his fight for the purple. In 185 or 187, the legion was awarded of the title Pia Constans or Pia Fidelis, after defeating a mercenary army in Dacia. While staying in Potaissa for most of the 3rd century, V Macedonica fought several times, earning honors. Valerian gave the Fifth the name III Pia III Fidelis. A vexillatio fought against Victorinus; the legion returned to Oescus in 274. It guarded the province in centuries, becoming a comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Orientis, it became part of the Byzantine army. The cavalry unit created by Gallienus was definitively detached by Diocletian, become part of his comitatus; this unit was sent to Mesopotamia, where it fought against the Sassanid Empire in 296, to Memphis, where it remained until becoming part of the Byzantine army. Legio V Macedonica is mentioned again in the Notitia Dignitatum, stationed in Dacia Ripensis, with detachments in the Oriental Field Army and in Egypt. Legio V Macedonica is again mentioned in both Antaeapolis and Heliopolis in inscriptions, which seem to have been detachments of the units in Memphis.
The last inscription provides the date of 635 or 636, indicating that at least part of the Legion was in Egypt until just before the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs began in 637. This would make Legio V Macedonica the longest-lived Roman Legion known to history, spanning 680 years from 43 BC to 637 AD. List of Roman legions livius.org account E. Ritterling, Legio, RE XII, col. 1572-5 Rumen Ivanov, Lixa Legionis V Macedonicae aus Oescus, ZPE 80, 1990, p. 131-136 D. Barag, S. Qedar, A Countermark of the Legio Quinta Scytica from the Jewish War, INJ 13, pp. 66–69. S. Gerson, A New Countermark of the Fifth Legion, INR 1
Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of different extent at different periods, but covering what is now the district of Bozkır and its surroundings in the Konya Province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. In its coastal extension it bordered on Cilicia, it derives its name from the contentious Isaurian tribe and twin settlements Isaura Palaea and Isaura Nea. Isaurian marauders were fiercely independent mountain people who created havoc in neighboring districts under Macedonian and Roman occupations; the permanent nucleus of Isauria was north of the Taurus range which lies directly to south of Iconium and Lystra. Lycaonia had all the Iconian plain, its two original towns, Isaura Nea and Isaura Palaea, one among these foothills and the other on the watershed. Approx N37° 29′ E32° 12′ near Bozkir. In the 4th century BC, Isauria was the wild district about Isaura Palaea and the heads of the Calycadnus; when the capital, Isaura, a fortified city at the foot of Mt. Taurus, was besieged by Perdiccas, the Macedonian regent after Alexander the Great's death, the Isaurians set the place alight and let it perish in flames rather than submit to capture.
When the Romans first encountered the Isaurians, they regarded Cilicia Trachea as part of Isauria, which thus extended to the Mediterranean Sea. The whole basin of the Calycadnus was reckoned Isaurian, the cities in the valley of its southern branch formed what was known as the Isaurian Decapolis; the Isaurians were brought under control by the Romans. During the war of the Cilician and other pirates against Rome, the Isaurians took so active a part that the proconsul P. Servilius deemed it necessary to follow them into their rugged strongholds, compel the whole people to submission, an exploit for which he received the title of Isauricus; the Isaurians were afterwards placed for a time under the rule of king of Galatia. In the 3rd century they sheltered the rebel emperor Trebellianus. In the early 4th century, all Cilicia was detached by order of Diocletian for administrative purposes from the northern slope of Taurus, we find a province called at first Isauria-Lycaonia, Isauria alone, extending up to the limits of Galatia, but not passing Taurus on the south.
Pisidia, part of which had hitherto been included in one province with Isauria, was detached, made to include Iconium. The coastal Metropolis of Seleucia was designated as Isauria's provincial capital. In the 4th century they were still described by Ammianus Marcellinus as the scourge of the neighbouring provinces of Asia Minor, with a major series of raids occurring from AD 404 to 409, including one campaign to eradicate them led by the Eastern Roman general Arbazacius, but they were said to have been effectually subdued in the reign of Justinian I. Several Byzantine emperors were οf Isaurian descent: Zeno, whose native name was Tarasicodissa Rousoumbladadiotes, Leontios who reigned from 695 to 698, Leo III, who ascended the throne of Constantinople in 718, reigned until 741, his son Constantine V; the empire used Isaurians as soldiers, generals and at one point they formed part of the emperor's personal guard, the Excubitores. However, the population of Constantinople considered the Isaurians as barbarians, emperor Anastasius I had to fight a long war against Isaurian rebels.
The site contains ruins of its fortifications. The ruins of Isaura Palaea are remarkable for their fine situation and tombs; those of Isaura Nea have disappeared, but numerous inscriptions and many sculpture stelae, built into the houses of Dorla, prove the site. It was the latter, not the former town, that Servilius reduced by cutting off the water supply. J. R. S. Sterrett explored in the highland of Isauria in 1885 but it was not exhaustive; the site was identified by W. M. Ramsay in 1901. Ramsay discovered there more than fifty Greek inscriptions, the greater number Christian, as well as magnificent tombs; these monuments date from the third and fifth centuries. The Isaurian church was under the authority of the Patriarch of Antioch, but was attached to the Patriarch of Constantinople in the late 7th or early 8th century; because Aetius, fl 451. is called in inscriptions bishop of Isauropolis and Isaura Palaea and as no Notitia episcopatuum makes mention of Isaura, or Isauropolis, Ramsay supposes that the Diocese of Isaura Nova was early joined with that of Leontopolis, the more recent name of Isaura Palaea, mentioned in all the "Notitiae".
Ancient regions of Anatolia Isaurians Olba — Hellenistic period city in Isauria
Legio XIV Gemina
Legio quarta decima Gemina was a legion of the Imperial Roman army, levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC. The cognomen Gemina was added when the legion was combined with another understrength legion after the Battle of Actium; the cognomen Martia Victrix was added sequentially following their service in the Pannonian War c. AD 9 and the defeat of Boudicca in AD 61; the emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Caesar, their shield device displayed the thunderbolt of Jupiter with wings. It was the only legion to do so in the same manner as the Praetorian Guard; the XIV G. M. V was first raised by Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul during his raids into, conquest of, Gaul. Following its first destruction under Caesar it was reconstituted, their enlistment term was for 16 years, as per the other Republican legions. For years after the Massacre at Atuatuca carried out by the Eburones under Ambiorix together with Cativolcus they were viewed as an unlucky legion, but survived due to the efforts of their Aquilifer, Lucius Petrosidius.
They were left behind to guard the camp during battles and raids. The XIV G. M. V fought under General Germanicus Caesar against the German rebel Hermann. A decade before this campaign, Hermann succeeded in wiping out three entire legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, one of the greatest disasters in Roman military history, they secured a victory for Germanicus, earned him a triumph from his adopted father, Emperor Tiberius. Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior from AD 9, XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43, it built its legionary fortress at Mancetter on Watling Street and by AD 58 it had moved its base to Wroxeter. It took part in the defeat of Boudicca in 60 or 61. At the Battle of Watling Street the 14th defeated Boudicca's force of 230,000, according to Tacitus and Dio, with their meager force of 10,000 Legionaries and Auxiliaries; this act secured them as Nero's "most effective" legion, he kept them garrisoned in Britain during the next few years to keep the uneasy tribes in check.
In 67 AD the legion was sent to the Balkans in preparation for a campaign against the Parthians that Nero planned but which never materialised. In AD 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, rebelled against Domitian, with the support of the XIVth and of the XXI Rapax, but the revolt was suppressed; when the XXIst legion was lost in AD 92, XIV Gemina was sent to Pannonia to replace it, setting up camp in Vindobona. After a war with the Sarmatians and Trajan's Dacian Wars, the legion was moved to Carnuntum, where it stayed for three centuries; some sub-units of the Fourteenth fought in the wars against the Mauri, under Antoninus Pius, the legion participated in the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus. During his war against the Marcomanni, Emperor Marcus Aurelius based his headquarters in Carnuntum. In AD 193, after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the Fourteenth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, above all by his own. XIV Gemina fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus, contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger, fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the empire, Ctesiphon.
In the turmoil following the defeat of Valerian, the XIV Gemina supported usurper Regalianus against Emperor Gallienus Gallienus against Postumus of the Gallic Empire, after Gallienus' death, Gallic Emperor Victorinus. At the beginning of the 5th century, XIV Gemina was still assigned at Carnuntum, it dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in the 430s. The Notitia Dignitatum lists a Quartodecimani comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias. List of Roman legions Dando-Collins, Stephen Legions of Rome. Mommsen, Theodor The History of Rome, Volume 1. Pollard, Nigel & Berry, Joanne The Complete Roman Legions. Parker, H. M. D; the Roman Legions. Ireland, Stanley Roman Britain: A Sourcebook, 3rd Edition. Legio XIIII Gemina at livius.org
Legio III Cyrenaica
Legio tertia Cyrenaica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. The origins of the legion remain unknown. One source believes the legion was founded by Mark Antony around 36 BC, when he was governor of Cyrenaica; the legion's origins may come from the fact it was commanded by Lucius Pinaris Scarpus, an ally of Mark Antony whom Antony appointed to be governor of Cyrenaica in eastern Libya. There are still records of the legion in Syria in the beginning of the 5th century; the legion symbol is unknown. Legion III Cyrenaica was one of the longest-living Roman legions; the origin of the title/name Cyrenaica is not known - it may have been given to the Legion to signify its origin in Cyrene, or to signify a major victory or for notable action in that province. Difficulties tracing the history of any Roman legion, including III Cyrenaica, are multiple. Firstly, contemporary historians agree. Secondly, when discussing Roman legions, there is confusion—especially after Augustus became Caesar until the end of the empire some 500 years later—caused by the Roman habit of numbering several legions over successive centuries as "III Legion".
Distinguishing between the legions is only done via regional title such as III Cyrenaica etc. To illustrate the confusion this causes, authoritative sources list that in AD 20, just in the southern and eastern Mediterranean, there is a Legio III Augusta stationed in Africa, a Legio III Cyrenaica in Egypt and a Legio III Gallica in Syria. Legio III Cyrenaica may have been stationed in Alexandria, sharing a'double-fortress' with Legio XXII Deiotariana, where it may have stayed for about one hundred years before re-locating to Bostra, Syria. However, the Roman habit of sending vexillations from parent legions to be assigned to campaigns, these assignments lasting several years complicates making absolute statements regarding which legions fought in any specific location. Furthermore, in the case of the list below, just how long III Cyrenaica may have served with XXII Deiotariana as the garrison of Egypt is unclear. In the Parthian campaigns, which of those legions bearing the designation III served in Parthia is difficult to ascertain (sources credit at least three.
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, is known to have received vexillations from the Egypt garrison, but the identity of the legions supplying the vexillations is unclear. In AD 215, during the reign of the emperor Caracalla, Legio III Parthica is listed as assigned to Mesopotamia, Legio III Gallica as garrisoning Syria, Legio III Augusta as assigned to North Africa, whilst Legio III Cyrenaica is listed as assigned to Arabia Petraea. Emperor Septimius Severus in AD 197 is known to have raised three legions–I, II and III Parthica—for service in the east, leaving Legio II Parthica in Rome, but taking the other two legions with him on his Parthian campaign. From c. AD 140 to AD 395, Legio III Cyrenaica is known to have been garrisoned at Bosra in southern modern-day Syria, east of the Sea of Galilee; the following is a list of campaigns and actions thought to have been seen by Legion III Cyrenaica during much of its existence: 35 BC - Leg. III is formed by Mark Antony or Lepidus in Cyrene. At this time, Legions still hold to the Republic tradition of being numbered in order of their creation, so this may have been the third Legion that had established and had under his direct command and loyalty.
31 BC - - Either before or after Anthony and Cleopatra are defeated by Octavian, it is thought soldiers of Leg. III Cyrenaica defect from Anthony and claim allegiance to Octavian - who spares the Legion from being disbanded. 26 - 25 BC - Action in Arabia Felix, commanded by Aelius Gallus, Prefect of Egypt. 23 BC - Action against Nubian invaders, Elements of III stationed in Thebes, Egypt. 23 BC - Roman military presence in Egypt is reduced to 2 Legions: III Cyrenaica and XXII Deiotariana. Which other Legions, or how many there were, is not known. AD 7 - 11 - Suggested time period that the double-fortress at Nikopolis is established. AD 11 - Elements of Leg III under command of Publius Juventius Rufus, stationed in Berenike. AD 39 / 40 - A detachment of Leg III was sent up to the northern coast of Gaul to assist Emperor Caligula's legions with his rather unimpressive invasion of Britain. III was used as a logistics and supplies organizer for the invasion / landing force. AD 58 - 63 - Under the command of Gn.
Domitius Corbulo, elements of III saw action in the Parthian frontier. AD 66 - 70 - The First Jewish–Roman War. An uprising of Jews starts in Alexandria, spreads to Judea. Elements of III and XXII fought their way to Jerusalem, with the assistance of several other legion and allied forces surrounded and besieged the city, led by Vespasian, Proconsul of Africa. AD 69 - "Year of the Four Emperors". Factions led by Galba and Vitellius all tried to seize control of Rome after the death of Nero; these factions, who had no aristocratic claim to the throne, all tried to take control one after