Legio III Augusta
Legio tertia Augusta was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. Its origin may have been the Republican 3rd Legion which served the general Pompey during his civil war against Gaius Julius Caesar, it supported the general Octavian in his civil war against Mark Antony. It was refounded in 30 BC, when Octavian achieved sole mastery of the Roman empire. In that year, it was deployed in the Roman province of Africa, where it remained until at least the late 4th century AD; the Third Augustan Legion was not only a source of protection for the Roman Empire, but it was largely responsible for the urbanization of the North African provinces. The Legion was stationed in Ammaedara where they built their first military camp. From there they invested part of their time in the construction of roads; these new connections led to the development of new towns and cities for civilians, camps for the military and colonies for the veterans. These were distinct from each other, but as time progressed they began to merge.
The Legion did not always build up the entire town. The most common projects for soldiers were aqueducts and amphitheaters, their work was for more "monumental projects" rather than "pure architecture." The legion was not therefore a military force but undertook engineering and surveying functions requiring an advanced mix of skills. The first instance of military roads was in 14 AD; the Legion built a road from their base through Thelepte, to the Oasis of Gafsa. Further expansion occurred under the rule of Tiberius with a road from the Oasis of Gafsa to the Oasis of Gabes. Between these two cities the Legion created five stations; the Legion sometimes followed the old dirt tracks from the previous Punic towns, but they created new roads. Their construction followed a distinct system. Since these roads were built for the use of military movement, the roads needed to be kept as simple as possible. Therefore, the roads tended to be on higher grounds, avoided valleys and remained as straight as possible.
The soldiers were able to construct the roads to drain water. It is calculated that the total length of roads in North Africa reached about 19300 kilometresOther important roads for the Legion included the road from Tebessa to the port of Hippo Regius, its construction was imperative for more efficient delivery of supplies to town. Another was the road from Tebessa to Carthage. Both roads were built during Vespasian's reign. A road built under Trajan ran south across the mountains of Gulf Syrte; this was important. Some Emperors encouraged the building of roads. One in particular was Hadrian, he was involved with the work of the Third Augustan Legion and sought to make sure they were engaged in building projects. It was beneficial to stimulate the construction of these roads because they happened to create positive externalities. For example, the long roads built in Leptis helped open up the interior lands. Farmers seized this opportunity to plant more olive groves and therefore more oil was able to be exported to Rome.
Once the birth of towns occurred in the locations near the military camps, marks of separation were needed. Arches were used to mark this distinction on the roads that connected the town and camp. One famous road that used this tactic was the Via Septimiana—a road built under the reign of Septimius Severus in the town of Lambaesis. On the road the Triple Arch was built and it created a boundary for where the Third Augustan Legion could march; the members of the Third Augustan Legion did not consist of military men. The Emperors made an effort to recruit some men that were experts in surveying and the mathematics of construction. There is good evidence of this from emperors like Augustus and Trajan, who all held engineers responsible for both construction and the military. There were not always many of these talented men in Northern Africa so it was important to train other men for the job, thus over time the army became a place to learn the technical skills of surveying. These men would become involved in the construction of the big duties like aqueducts.
The construction of aqueducts was not an easy job. It was difficult to make sure all the pipes were level and that the pressure was correct at both ends; the surveyor was responsible for calculating all these measurements beforehand and leaving the directions with the procurator. They would most be handed off to an officer known as the mensor, whose position was comparable to that of a contractor, he was in charge of overseeing the production, his main purpose was to assist in the layout of Roman camps and towns, he directed the use of measuring instruments. One of the most used devices was a groma which helped with the measurement of right angles. However, the mensor and the legionaries were not always experts so the accuracy of the groma only helped to a certain extent; when this happened, surveyors had to be recalled for recalculations. There is a well-preserved inscription depicting this situation in Africa; the surveyor, Nonius Datus, wrote about his encounters with the Third Augustan Legion and how he had surveyed, taken the measures of all the mountains and mapped out the axis for which the tunnel would need to be excavated.
This he gave to the procurator. He gave the information to the contractor just to be sure everything was done correctly; as Datus' skills were so needed, he had to leav
Legio XIII Gemina
Legio tertia decima Geminia, in English the 13th Twin Legion known as Legio tertia decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was one of Julius Caesar's key units in Gaul and in the civil war, was the legion with which he famously crossed the Rubicon on January 10, 49 BC; the legion appears to have still been in existence in the 5th century AD. Its symbol was the lion. Legio XIII was levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC, before marching against the Belgae, in one of his early interventions in intra-Gallic conflicts. During the Gallic Wars, Legio XIII was present at the Battle against the Nervians, the Siege of Gergovia, while not mentioned in the sources, it is reasonable to assume that Legio XIII was present for the Battle of Alesia. After the end of the Gallic wars, the Roman Senate refused Caesar his second consulship, ordered him to give up his commands, demanded he return to Rome to face prosecution. Forced to choose either the end of his political career or civil war, Caesar brought Legio XIII across the Rubicon river and into Italy.
The legion remained faithful to Caesar during the resulting civil war between Caesar and the conservative Optimates faction of the senate, whose legions were commanded by Pompey. Legio XIII was active throughout the entire war, fighting at Pharsalus. After the decisive victory over Pompey at Pharsalus, the legion was to be disbanded, the legionaries "pensioned off" with the traditional land grants. After Munda, Caesar disbanded the legion, retired his veterans, gave them farmland in Italy. Augustus reconstituted the legion once again in 41 BC to deal with the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. Legio XIII acquired the cognomen Gemina after being reinforced with veteran legionaries from other legions following the war against Mark Antony and the Battle of Actium. Augustus sent the legion to Burnum, in Illyricum, a Roman province in the Adriatic Sea. In 16 BC, the legion was transferred to Emona in Pannonia. After the disaster of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9, the legion was sent as reinforcements to Augusta Vindelicorum, to Vindonissa, Raetia, to prevent further attacks from the Germanic tribes.
Emperor Claudius sent them back to Pannonia around 45 and the legion built its legionary fortress at Poetovium. In the year of the four emperors, XIII Gemina supported first Otho and Vespasian against Vitellius, fighting in the two Battles of Bedriacum. Under Trajan the legion took part in both Dacian wars, it was transferred by Trajan in 106 to the newly conquered province of Dacia to garrison it. Vexillationes of the XIII Gemina fought under Emperor Gallienus in northern Italy; the emperor issued a legionary antoninianus celebrating the legion, showing the legion's lion. Another vexillatio was present in the army of the emperor of the Gallic Empire Victorinus: this emperor, in fact, issued a gold coin celebrating the legion and its emblem. In 271, the legion was relocated when the Dacia province was evacuated, restationed in Dacia Aureliana. In the 5th century, according to the Notitia Dignitatum, a legio tertiadecima gemina was in Babylon in Egypt, a strategic fortress on the Nile at the traditional border between Lower Egypt and Middle Egypt, under the command of the Comes limitis Aegypti.
- Marco Cornelio Marci filio Galeria Nigrino / Curiatio Materno consuli - / - tribuno militum legionis XIIII Geminae. Liria, Spain. CIL II2/14. - Caio Iulio Galeria Lepido Iessonensi primi pilari centurioni legionis XIII Geminae Piae Fidelis centurioni. Lerida, Spain. CIL II 4463. A fictionalized account of the actions of Legio XIII Gemina during the struggle between Julius Caesar and the Optimates faction under Pompey can be seen in the joint HBO/BBC/RAI television production Rome, most notably two of its soldiers: Centurion Lucius Vorenus and Legionary Titus Pullo, named after real-life Centurions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo of the Legio XI Claudia. Roman legion List of Roman legions Dacia Ripensis "Notitia Dignitatum". Retrieved 2006-11-22. Lendering, Jona. "Legio XIII Gemina". Retrieved 2006-11-18. Cowan, Ross. Imperial Roman Legionary AD 161-284. Angus McBride. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-601-1. Media related to Legio XIII Gemina at Wikimedia Commons LEGIO TREDICI GEMINA, Italian re-enactment group LEG XIII GEM, Austrian re-enactment group LEGIO XIII GEMINA Blog Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix
Legio I Parthica
Legio prima Parthica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 197 by the emperor Septimius Severus for his forthcoming war against Parthia. The legion's presence in the Middle East is recorded until the early 5th century; the legions I, II, III Parthica were levied by Septimius Severus for his campaign against the Parthian Empire. After the success of this campaign, I and III Parthica remained in the region, in the camp of Singara, in Mesopotamia, to prevent subsequent rebellions and to guard the eastern provinces from attacks from the Parthian Empire. Legionaries from I Parthica were sent to other provinces, namely Lycia and Cyrenaica. In 360, I Parthica unsuccessfully defended its camp against a Sasanid attack. After that, the legion was moved to Constantina; the legion emblem was the centaur. List of Roman legions Roman legion livius.org account of Legio I Parthica