The Notitia Dignitatum is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires. It is unique as one of few surviving documents of Roman government and describes several thousand offices from the imperial court to provincial governments, diplomatic missions, army units, it is considered to be accurate for the Western Roman Empire in the AD 420s and for the Eastern or Byzantine Empire in the AD 390s. However, the text itself is not dated, omissions complicate ascertaining its date from its content. There are several extant 15th- and 16th-century copies of the document, plus a colour-illuminated iteration of 1542. All the known, extant copies are derived, either directly or indirectly, from Codex Spirensis, a codex known to have existed in the library of the Chapter of Speyer Cathedral in 1542, but, lost before 1672 and has not been rediscovered; the Codex Spirensis was a collection of documents, of which the Notitia was the final and largest document, occupying 164 pages, that brought together several previous documents of which one was of the 9th century.
The heraldry in illuminated manuscript copies of the Notitia is thought to copy or imitate only that illustrated in the lost Codex Spirensis. The iteration of 1542 made for Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, was revised with "illustrations more faithful to the originals added at a date", is preserved by the Bavarian State Library; the most important copy of the Codex is that made for Pietro Donato in 1436 and illuminated by Peronet Lamy, now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. For each half of the Empire, the Notitia enumerates all the major "dignities", i. e. offices, that it could bestow with the location and specific officium enumerated, except for the most junior members, for each. The dignities are ordered by: Court officials, including the most senior dignitaries such as praetorian prefects; the Notitia presents four primary problems as regards the study of the Empire's military: The Notitia depicts the Roman army at the end of the AD 4th century. Therefore, its development from the structure of the Principate is conjectural because of the lack of other evidence.
It was compiled at two different times. The section for the Eastern Empire dates from circa AD 395 and that for the Western Empire from circa AD 420. Further, each section is not a contemporaneous "snapshot", but relies on data pre-dating it by as many as 20 years; the Eastern section may contain data from as early as AD 379, the beginning of the reign of Emperor Theodosius I. The Western section contains data from as early as circa AD 400: for example, it shows units deployed in Britannia, which must date from before 410, when the Empire lost the island. In consequence, there is substantial duplication, with the same unit listed under different commands, it is impossible to ascertain whether these were detachments of the same unit in different places or the same whole unit at different times. It is that some units were nominal or minimally staffed. According to Roger Collins, the Notitia Dignitatum was an archaising text written circa AD 425, whose unreliability is demonstrated by "the supposed existence of traditional units in Britain and Spain at a time when other evidence shows they were not there."
The Notitia has many sections missing and lacunae within sections. This is doubtless due to accumulated textual losses and copying errors, because it was copied over the centuries: the earliest manuscript possessed today dates from the 15th century; the Notitia can not therefore provide a comprehensive list of all units. The Notitia does not record the number of personnel. Given that and the paucity of other evidence of unit sizes at that time, the size of individual units and the various commands cannot be ascertained. In turn, this makes it impossible to assess the total size of the army. Depending on the strength of units, the late AD 4th century army may, at one extreme, have equaled the size of the AD 2nd century force, i. e. over 400,000 men. For example, the forces deployed in Britain circa AD 400 may have been 18,000 against circa 55,000 in the AD 2nd century; the Notitia contains symbols similar to the diagram which came to be known as yin and yang symbol. The infantry units armigeri defensores seniores and Mauri Osismiaci had a shield design which corresponds to the dynamic, clockwise version of the symbol, albeit with red dots, instead of dots of the opposite colour.
The emblem of the Thebaei, another Western Roman infantry regiment, featured a pattern of concentric circles comparable to its static version. The Roman patterns predate the earliest Taoist versions by seven hundred years, there is no evidence for a connection between the two. Laeti Tabula Peutingeriana List of Late Roman provinces Notitia Dignitatum, edited by Robert Ireland, in British Archaeological Reports, International Series 63.2. Westermann Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte contains many precise maps Pauly-Wissowa. A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284-602. A Social and Administrative Survey, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986, ISBN 0-8018-3285-3 The Compilation'notitia dignitatum', extensive links and resources Placenames from Notitia Dignitatum GIS from Pelagios/Pleiades. 1505 toponyms. 1164 matches. Bodleian Library: full scan of 1436 edition Bavarian State Library: Notitia Dignitatum
Legio V Parthica
Legio quinta Parthica was a legion of the Roman Empire garrisoned in Amida, established by the Roman emperor Diocletian, who reorganized the eastern frontier. The legion is described by the historian Ammianus Marcellinus; the cognomen "Parthica" was an archaism, as the Parthian Empire was replaced by the Sasanian Empire at the time of the establishment of the legion. In 359, Amida was besieged by the Sasanian forces under their allies. Although V Parthica was reinforced by six more legions, the city fell. V Parthica was not re-established as its name is absent in the document Notitia Dignitatum
Legio V Iovia
Legio V Iovia was a Roman legion levied by Diocletian in the end of the 3rd century, was still in service at the beginning of the 5th century. The cognomen of the legion refers to Jupiter, to whom Diocletian was identified; the V Iovia was stationed, together to her sister legion VI Herculia, in Pannonia Secunda, a new province created with the segmentation of the old Pannonia province. The legion received the ordinal "Fifth" because in Pannonia there were four legions; the purpose of the legion, having her permanent camp in Bononia and an advanced castellum in Onagrinum, was to protect the imperial residence of Diocletian in Sirmium. The Notitia Dignitatum locates the legion still in Illyricum at the beginning of the 5th century, it is possible that some men from this legion and from the VI Herculia formed the Jovians and Herculians, the new imperial bodyguard of Diocletian. If this identification is correct, V Iovia men had the appellative martiobarbuli, since they were expert in throwing plumbata, small darts carried by five in the inside of their shields.
Ritterling, Emil, "Legio - Legio V Iovia", Realencyclopädie of Klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, vol 12, 1925. Through livius.org account
Legio I Adiutrix
Legio prima adiutrix, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 68 by Galba when he rebelled against emperor Nero. The last record mentioning the Adiutrix is in 344, when it was stationed at Brigetio, in the Roman province of Pannonia; the emblem of the legion was a capricorn, used along with the winged horse Pegasus, on the helmets the symbol used by I Adiutrix legionaries was a dolphin. The legion originated from the I Classica, a legion levied by Nero among the marines of the Classis Misenensis, but was completed by Galba; the legion was stationed near Rome. In the confusing Year of the Four Emperors, the legion fought in Otho's army in the Battle of Bedriacum, where this emperor was defeated by Vitellius The victorious Vitellius ordered the legion transferred to Spain, but by the year 70 it was fighting in the Batavian rebellion; the city of Moguntiacum is the legion's first known base camp, shared with Legio XIV Gemina, where they attended building activities. In 83, they fought the Germanic wars against the Chatti, a German tribe living across the Rhine, under the command of Emperor Domitian.
After that they were transferred to the Danubian army stationed in the Roman province of Pannonia, to fight the Dacians. Following the murder of Domitian in 96, the Adiutrix, along with the Danubian army, played an important role in Roman politics, forcing Nerva to adopt Trajan as his successor; when Trajan became emperor, he gave the legion the cognomen Pia Fidelis to acknowledge their support. Between 101 and 106, under the new emperor's command, I Adiutrix, along with IV Flavia Felix and XIII Gemina, conquered Dacia and occupied the newly formed province. Trajan used his Pia Fidelis in the campaign against Parthia, but they were sent back to Pannonia by his successor emperor Hadrian, with base in Brigetio. During the next decades, I Adiutrix remained in the Danube frontier. Under Marcus Aurelius, I Adiutrix fought the war against Marcomanni commanded by Marcus Valerius Maximianus. Between 171 and 175, the commander was Pertinax, emperor for a brief period in 193; when Septimius Severus became emperor, I Adiutrix was among his supporters, following him in the march for Rome.
In the next decades, the main base was again Pannonia, but they played a part in several Parthian wars, namely the campaigns of 195 and 197–198 of Septimius Severus, 215–217 led by Caracalla and 244 by Gordian III. It took part in the battle of Mediolanum; the legion received Constans, sometime in the 3rd century. Gabara was a three-meter tall Arabian giant that, according to the historian Pliny the Elder, served in the Adiutrix legion under the Roman emperor Claudius. According to the story, Gabara was so admired by his fellow soldiers that some worshipped him like a god. List of Roman legions Tacitus, Histories. J. B. Campbell, art. Legio, in NP 7, klm. 7-22. L. J. F. Keppie, The Origins and Early History of the Second Augustan Legion, in L. J. F. Keppie and Veterans: Roman Army Papers 1971-2000, Stuttgart, 2000, pp. 123–160. Livius.org account for I Adiutrix
Diocese of Egypt
The Diocese of Egypt was a diocese of the Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of Egypt and Cyrenaica. Its capital was at Alexandria, its governor had the unique title of praefectus augustalis instead of the ordinary vicarius; the diocese was part of the Diocese of the East, but in ca. 380, it became a separate entity, which lasted until its territories were overrun by the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the 640s. Egypt was formed into a separate diocese in about 381. According to the Notitia Dignitatum, which for the Eastern part of the Empire dates to ca. 401, the diocese came under a vicarius of the praetorian prefecture of the East, with the title of praefectus augustalis, included six provinces: Aegyptus established in the early 4th century as Aegyptus Iovia, under a praeses Augustamnica established in the early 4th century as Aegyptus Herculia, under a corrector Arcadia, established ca. 397 and having briefly listed in the 320s as Aegyptus Mercuria, under a praeses Thebais, under a praeses Libya Inferior or Libya Sicca, under a praeses Libya Superior or Pentapolis, under a praesesParallel to the civil administration, the Roman army in Egypt had been placed under a single general and military governor styled dux in the Tetrarchy.
Shortly after the creation of Egypt as a separate diocese, the post evolved into the comes limitis Aegypti, directly responsible for Lower Egypt, while the subordinate dux Thebaidis was in charge of Upper Egypt. In the middle of the 5th century, the latter was promoted to the rank of comes; the two officers were responsible for the limitanei troops stationed in the province, while until the time of Anastasius I the comitatenses field army came under the command of the magister militum per Orientem, the palatini under the two magistri militum praesentales in Constantinople. The comes limitis Aegypti enjoyed great power and influence in the diocese, rivalling that of the praefectus augustalis himself. From the 5th century, the comes is attested as exercising some civilian duties as well, from 470 on, the offices of comes and praefectus augustalis were sometimes combined in a single person; this tendency to unite civil and military authority was formalized by Justinian I in his 539 reform of Egyptian administration.
The diocese was abolished, regional ducates established, where the presiding dux et augustalis was placed above the combined civil and military authority: dux et augustalis Aegypti, controlling Aegyptus I and Aegyptus II dux et augustalis Thebaidis, controlling Thebais superior and Thebais inferior Augustamnica I and Augustamnica II were probably — the relevant portion of the edict is defective — were placed under a single dux et augustalis in the two Libyan provinces, the civil governors were subordinated to the respective dux Arcadia remained under its praeses subordinated to the dux et augustalis Thebaidos, a dux et augustalis Arcadiae does not appear until after the Persian occupation of 619–629. Taken from the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: Eutolmius Tatianus Olympius Palladius Aelius Palladius Publius Bassianus Hadrianus Iulianus Antoninus Palladius Hypatius Optatus Florentius Paulinus Eusebius Flavius Ulpius Erythrius Alexander Evagrius Hypatius Potamius Orestes Theognostus Petrus Marcellinus Felix Liberius Hendy, Michael F..
Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300–1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24715-2. Palme, Bernhard. "The Imperial Presence: Government and Army". In Bagnall, Roger S. Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 244–270. ISBN 0521871379
Legio III Gallica
Legio tertia Gallica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey. The cognomen Gallica suggests that recruits were from Gaul; the legion was still active in Egypt in the early 4th century. The legion's symbol was a bull; the legion took part in all Julius Caesar's campaigns against his enemies, including the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Following Caesar's death, III Gallica was integrated in the army of Mark Antony, a member of the Second Triumvirate, for his campaigns against the Parthians, they were included in the army levied by Fulvia and Lucius Antonius to oppose Octavian, but ended by surrendering in Perugia, in the winter of 41 BC. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide during Antony's Civil War, the III Gallica was sent again to the East, where they garrisoned the province of Syria. III Gallica was used in Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo's campaign against the Parthians over the control of Armenia.
Corbulo's successes triggered the emperor Nero's paranoia of persecution and the general was forced to commit suicide. After this, III Gallica was transferred to the province of Moesia on the Danube. In the Year of the Four Emperors in 69, the legion, the rest of the Danubian army, aligned first with Otho with Vespasian, they were instrumental in the final defeat of Vitellius in the second Battle of Bedriacum and in the accession of the Flavians to the throne of Rome. This legion during its service in Syria had developed the custom of saluting the rising sun, when dawn broke at Bedriacum they turned east to do so; the Vitellian forces thought. In these years, one of the military tribunes of the III Gallica was Pliny the Younger. After this civil war, the legion was again sent to Syria, where they fought against the Jewish rebellions of the 2nd century, they took part in Lucius Verus' campaign and in next Septimius Severus campaign against the Parthian Empire, none with noteworthy success. During the reign of Roman Emperor Caracalla, the Legion left an inscription amongst the Commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb.
III Gallica played a central role in the early reign of Elagabalus. In 218, during Macrinus' reign, Julia Maesa went to Raphana, where the legion was based under the command of Publius Valerius Comazon, she donated to the legion, which, in turn, proclaimed emperor Julia Maesa's grandson, the fourteen-year-old Elagabalus, on the dawn of 16 May. On June 8, 218 near Antioch. Gannys, Elagabalus' tutor, defeated Macrinus and his son, with the help of the III Gallica and the other legions of the East. In 219, the legion, exhausted by Elagabalus excesses, supported its commander, senator Verus, who proclaimed himself emperor. Elagabalus had Verus executed, dispersed the legion; the legionaries were transferred namely to III Augusta, stationed in the Africa provinces. However, the following emperor, Alexander Severus, reconstituted the legion and redeployed them back in Syria. Valerius Comazon entered in Elagabalus court, becoming prefect of the Praetorian Guard and consul in 220. III Gallica records become obscure.
Little is known about the legion's whereabouts. List of Roman legions livius.org account of Legio III Gallica