Triumphal Arch of Orange
The Triumphal Arch of Orange is a triumphal arch located in the town of Orange, southeast France. There is debate about when the arch was built, but current research that accepts the inscription as evidence favours a date during the reign of emperor Augustus, it was built on the former via Agrippa to honor the veterans of the Gallic Wars and Legio II Augusta. It was reconstructed by emperor Tiberius to celebrate the victories of Germanicus over the German tribes in Rhineland; the arch contains an inscription dedicated to emperor Tiberius in AD 27. On the northern facade, the architrave and cornice have been cut back and a bronze inscription inserted, now lost; the arch is decorated with various reliefs of military themes, including naval battles, spoils of war and Romans battling Germanics and Gauls. A Roman foot soldier carrying the shield of Legio II Augusta is seen on the north front battle relief; the arch was built into the town's walling during the Middle Ages to guard the northern entry points of the town.
Architect Augustin Caristie carried out restoration work in the 1850s. The arch was constructed using large unmortared limestone blocks, it has the center one being larger than the flanking ones. The entire structure measures 19.57 meters long by 8.40 meters wide, standing to a height of 19.21 meters. Each façade has four semi-engaged Corinthian columns; the arch is the oldest surviving example of a design, used in Rome itself, for the Arch of Septimius Severus and the Arch of Constantine. The visible pocks or holes are left by practicing medieval crossbowmen with little appreciation for art or history
Legio VIII Augusta
Legio octava Augusta was one of the oldest legions of the Imperial Roman army founded by Pompey in 65 BC, along with the 6th, 7th and 9th, continuing in service to Rome for at least 400 years thereafter. They were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul around 58 BC by Julius Caesar, marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars, they stood with him at the Battle of Pharsalus. The legion was present in Egypt, when Caesar captured Egypt for Cleopatra. In 46 BC the legion took part in the Battle of Thapsus, shortly before their disbandment. In 44 BC, Augustus reconstituted the legion; this loyalty gave the legion the cognomen Augusta. Around 45 AD the VIII Augusta took part in the suppression of the Thracian uprising, founded its castrum at Novae where the Danube has its most southern bend and from where the legion controlled a long section of the Danube. In 69 AD, the Year of the Four Emperors, following the suicide of Nero, the legion took the side of Vespasian, the new emperor; the legion went with Vespasian to Mirebeau-sur-Bèze in Gaul in 70 AD to oppose the revolts of the Treveri and the Ubii and Lingons against Rome, where it built its new base.
The legion left at latest, to its next base at Argentoratum. The legion fought in Parthia with Septimius Severus and with his successors. Records indicate that they were still active during the first years of the 4th century at the Rhine frontier; this means that the history of the legion covers more than 400 years of continuous service. In 371 it was stationed in Germania Superior, according to an inscription; the Roman general Stilicho, was compelled to move the German legions back to Italy to defend it against the Visigothic invasion. According to Notitia Dignitatum, around 420 an Octaviani unit was under the Magister Peditum of Italia. - ri G̣allorum tribunus militum legionis VIII Augustae. Cohort of Gauls, military of the Eighth Legion Augusta. Brougham. CIL VII 300 = RIB 782. List of Roman legions and Roman legion livius.org account VEX LEG VIII AVG, German re-enactment society LEGION VIII AUGUSTA, French re-enactment society LEGIO VIII AUGUSTA, US re-enactment society LEGIO VIII AVGVSTA MGV, British re-enactment society Octaviani in Notitia Dignitatum
Legio IX Hispana
Legio IX Hispana written Legio nona Hispana or Legio VIIII Hispana, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that existed from the 1st century BC until at least AD 120. The legion fought in various provinces of early Roman Empire, it was stationed in Britain following the Roman invasion in 43 AD. The legion disappears from surviving Roman records after c. AD 120 and there is no extant account of what happened to it; the unknown fate of the legion has been the subject of considerable speculation. One theory was that the legion was wiped out in action in northern Britain soon after 108, the date of the latest datable inscription of the Ninth found in Britain during a rising of northern tribes against Roman rule; this view was popularised by the 1954 novel The Eagle of the Ninth in which the legion is said to have marched into Caledonia, after which it was "never heard of again". This theory fell out of favour among modern scholars as successive inscriptions of IX Hispana were found in the site of the legionary base at Nijmegen, suggesting the Ninth may have been based there from c.
120 than the legion's supposed annihilation in Britain. The Nijmegen evidence has led to suggestions that IX Hispana was destroyed in conflicts of the 2nd century. Suggestions include the Bar Kokhba revolt or Marcus Aurelius' war against Parthia in Armenia. However, some scholars have ascribed the Nijmegen evidence to a mere detachment of IX Hispana. In any event, it is clear that the IX Hispana did not exist during the reign of the emperor Septimius Severus, as it is not included in two identical but independent lists of the 33 legions existing in this period; the origin of the legion is uncertain, but a 9th legion seems to have participated in the siege of Asculum during the Social War in 90 BC. According to Stephen Dando-Collins the legion was raised, along with the 6th, 7th and 8th, by Pompey in Hispania in 65 BC; when he became governor of Cisalpine Gaul in 58 BC, Julius Caesar inherited four legions, numbered VII to X, that were based there. The Ninth may have been quartered in Aquileia "to guard against attacks from the Illyrians".
Caesar created two more legions, using all six for his attack on the Helvetii initiating the Gallic wars. The Caesarian Ninth Legion fought in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus and in the African campaign of 46 BC. After his final victory, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled the veterans in the area of Picenum. Following Caesar's assassination, Caesar's ally Ventidius Bassus made attempts to recreate the 7th, 8th and 9th legions, but "it is not clear that any of these survived to the time of Philippi". Octavian recalled the veterans of the Ninth to fight against the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. After defeating Sextus, they were sent to the province of Macedonia; the Ninth remained with Octavian in his war of 31 BC against Mark Antony and fought by his side in the Battle of Actium. With Octavian, whom the Senate titled Augustus, established as sole ruler of the Roman world, the legion was sent to Hispania to take part in the large-scale campaign against the Cantabrians; the nickname Hispana is first found during the reign of Augustus and originated at that time.
After this, the legion was part of the imperial army in the Rhine borderlands, campaigning against the Germanic tribes. Following the abandonment of the eastern Rhine area, the Ninth was relocated in Pannonia. In AD 43, the legion most participated in the Roman invasion of Britain led by the emperor Claudius and general Aulus Plautius, because they soon appear amongst the provincial garrison. In AD 50, the Ninth was one of two legions. Around the same year, the legion constructed Lindum Colonia, at Lincoln. Under the command of Caesius Nasica they put down the first revolt of Venutius between 52 and 57; the Ninth suffered a serious defeat at the Battle of Camulodunum under Quintus Petillius Cerialis in the rebellion of Boudica, when most of the foot-soldiers were killed in a disastrous attempt to relieve the besieged city of Camulodunum. Only the cavalry escaped; the legion was reinforced with legionaries from the Germania provinces. When Cerialis returned as governor of Britain ten years he took command of the Ninth once more in a successful campaign against the Brigantes in 71-2, to subdue north-central Britain.
Around this time they constructed a new fortress at York, as shown by finds of tile-stamps from the site. The Ninth participated in Agricola's invasion of Caledonia in 82-3. According to Tacitus, the legion narrowly escaped destruction when the Caledonians beyond the Forth launched a surprise attack at night on their fort; the Caledonians "burst upon them as they were terrified in their sleep". In desperate hand-to-hand fighting the Caledonians entered the camp, but Agricola was able to send cavalry to relieve the legion. Seeing the relief force, "the men of the Ninth Legion recovered their spirit, sure of their safety, fought for glory", pushing back the Caledonians; the legion participated in the decisive Battle of Mons Graupius. The last attested activity of the Ninth in Britain is during the rebuilding in stone of the legionary fortress at York in 108; this is recorded in an inscribed stone tablet discovered in 1864. Several inscriptions attesting IX Hispana have been found in the site of the legionary fortress on the lower Rhine river at Noviomagus Batavorum (Ni
Legio I Italica
Legio Prima Italica: the epithet Italica is a reference to the Italian origin of its first recruits) was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded by emperor Nero on September 22, 66. There are still records of the I Italica on the Danube border at the beginning of the 5th century; the emblem of the legion was a boar. In the aftermath of the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63, Emperor Nero levied the I Italica with the name phalanx Alexandri Magni, for a campaign in Armenia, ad portas Caspias - to the pass of Chawar; the sources mention the peculiar fact that the original legionaries were Italics, all over six feet tall. However, since the Jewish Revolt broke out a few weeks the projected Armenian campaign never took place; the governor of Gaul, Gaius Julius Vindex, rose in revolt in early 68 and I Italica was redirected there, arriving just in time to see the end of the revolt. In the Year of the Four Emperors, after the death of Nero, the legion received the name I Italica and fought for Vitellius at the second Battle of Bedriacum, where the Vitellians were defeated by forces supporting Vespasian.
The new emperor sent I Italica to the province of Moesia in 70. They encamped at Novae; the legion served on campaign during the Dacian wars of Trajan. The legion was responsible for bridge construction over the Danube. Building activities seem to have been an area of expertise for the legion. On 3 December 1969 a Roman votive altar was found at Old Kilpatrick on the Antonine Wall dating from around 140 A. D, it has been scanned and a video produced. The inscription mentions the First Cohort of Baetasians known to have been at Bar Hill, Julius Candidus, a centurion from I Italica. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Legio I Italica was involved in the wars against the Germanic tribes that threatened to cross the Danube. After a long war, the Romans had conquered much territory on the left side of the Danube. There Marcus Aurelius had intended to form a new province under governor Aulus Julius Pompilius Piso, commander of I Italica and IV Flavia Felix, but the revolt of Avidius Cassius in the East prevented the formation of the new province.
In 193, the Governor of Pannonia Superior, Septimius Severus moved to Italia. I Italica did not move to Italy; the legion fought against Severus' rival, Pescennius Niger, besieging Byzantium together with XI Claudia, fighting at Issus. The First took part in the Parthian campaign of Severus. In the 3rd century, during the rule of Caracalla, the legion participated in the construction of the Limes Transalutanus, a defensive wall along the Danube, which began near Novae. Under Alexander Severus, some vexillationes of the I Italica moved to Salonae, guarding the Dalmatian coast. Capidava List of Roman legions livius.org account of Legio I Italica Legio I Italica - reenactment group
Legio III Gallica
Legio tertia Gallica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey. The cognomen Gallica suggests that recruits were from Gaul; the legion was still active in Egypt in the early 4th century. The legion's symbol was a bull; the legion took part in all Julius Caesar's campaigns against his enemies, including the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Following Caesar's death, III Gallica was integrated in the army of Mark Antony, a member of the Second Triumvirate, for his campaigns against the Parthians, they were included in the army levied by Fulvia and Lucius Antonius to oppose Octavian, but ended by surrendering in Perugia, in the winter of 41 BC. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide during Antony's Civil War, the III Gallica was sent again to the East, where they garrisoned the province of Syria. III Gallica was used in Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo's campaign against the Parthians over the control of Armenia.
Corbulo's successes triggered the emperor Nero's paranoia of persecution and the general was forced to commit suicide. After this, III Gallica was transferred to the province of Moesia on the Danube. In the Year of the Four Emperors in 69, the legion, the rest of the Danubian army, aligned first with Otho with Vespasian, they were instrumental in the final defeat of Vitellius in the second Battle of Bedriacum and in the accession of the Flavians to the throne of Rome. This legion during its service in Syria had developed the custom of saluting the rising sun, when dawn broke at Bedriacum they turned east to do so; the Vitellian forces thought. In these years, one of the military tribunes of the III Gallica was Pliny the Younger. After this civil war, the legion was again sent to Syria, where they fought against the Jewish rebellions of the 2nd century, they took part in Lucius Verus' campaign and in next Septimius Severus campaign against the Parthian Empire, none with noteworthy success. During the reign of Roman Emperor Caracalla, the Legion left an inscription amongst the Commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb.
III Gallica played a central role in the early reign of Elagabalus. In 218, during Macrinus' reign, Julia Maesa went to Raphana, where the legion was based under the command of Publius Valerius Comazon, she donated to the legion, which, in turn, proclaimed emperor Julia Maesa's grandson, the fourteen-year-old Elagabalus, on the dawn of 16 May. On June 8, 218 near Antioch. Gannys, Elagabalus' tutor, defeated Macrinus and his son, with the help of the III Gallica and the other legions of the East. In 219, the legion, exhausted by Elagabalus excesses, supported its commander, senator Verus, who proclaimed himself emperor. Elagabalus had Verus executed, dispersed the legion; the legionaries were transferred namely to III Augusta, stationed in the Africa provinces. However, the following emperor, Alexander Severus, reconstituted the legion and redeployed them back in Syria. Valerius Comazon entered in Elagabalus court, becoming prefect of the Praetorian Guard and consul in 220. III Gallica records become obscure.
Little is known about the legion's whereabouts. List of Roman legions livius.org account of Legio III Gallica
Legio II Italica
Legio secunda Italica, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. The legion was founded in AD 165 by emperor Marcus Aurelius alongside III Italica at a time when the Roman Empire was fighting both in Germania and in Parthia; the legion main theatre of operations was the Roman province of Noricum, in the south margin of the Danube, where Germanic incursions were frequent. In 180 II Italica was stationed in Lauriacum, modern Lorch. In 193, II Italica marched into Rome with Septimius Severus fighting for power; the new emperor awarded them the title of Fidelis to acknowledge the support. Septimius Severus would use II Italica against the rebellions of Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus, in his Parthian campaigns. In the 3rd century, support of the legions was a crucial demand for candidates to the throne. Well aware of this fact, Gallienus granted II Italica the cognomina VII Pia VII Fidelis to secure their continuing support. There are still records of the II Italica in Noricum in the beginning of the 5th century.
The legion symbol is a she-wolf and the twins Romulus and Remus, is a reference to the rule of Marcus Aurelius and his colleague Lucius Verus. List of Roman legions Roman legion Saint Florian livius.org account of Legio II Italica
Legio VI Ferrata
Legio sexta ferrata was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It originated from the Republican general Pompey's 6th legion in Spain. In 30 BC it became part of the emperor Augustus's standing army, it continued in existence into the 4th century. A Legio VI fought in the Roman Republican civil wars of the 40s and 30s BC. Sent to garrison the province of Judaea, it remained there for the next two centuries; the Legion was known as Fidelis Constans, meaning "loyal and steadfast". It is unclear when this title was given, but several sources indicate that it may have been in the 1st century AD; the symbol for Legio VI Ferrata was the bull. It carried the symbolic she-wolf with Romulus and Remus. Raised in Cisalpine Gaul in 52 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar, the Sixth Legion served with him during his tenure as governor and fought at the Siege of Alesia, before being stationed at Cabillonum in 51 BC and suppressing a revolt of the Carnutes at Cenabum in 50 BC. In 49 BC it was transferred to Spain to fight in the civil wars, where it earned the title “Hispaniensis” after fighting at Ilerda.
Seeing action at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, Julius Caesar took the 6th to Alexandria to settle the dispute in Egypt with Cleopatra. Alexandria was besieged, the 6th suffered many casualties, losing two-thirds of its strength. Caesar triumphed when reinforcements under Mithridates of Pergamum arrived. Caesar took his "Veteran Sixth Legion" with him to Pontus. "When Caesar reached Pontus he gathered all his forces together in one spot. They were modest in number and experience of war, with the exception of the veteran Sixth Legion, which he had brought with him from Alexandria; this culminated in the battle of Zela where victory was won by Legio VI. "The origin of our victory lay in the bitter and intense hand-to-hand battle joined on the right wing, where the veteran Sixth Legion was stationed"."Caesar was quite overjoyed at such a victory, although he had been victorious in many battles. He had brought a major war to an astonishingly rapid end... He ordered the Sixth Legion back to Italy to receive their rewards and honors..."During Caesar's African war against Scipio in 46 BC, the Sixth Legion deserted en masse from Scipio to reinforce Caesar and fought under him.
The legion was disbanded in 45 BC after the battle of Munda, establishing a colony at Arelate, but was re-formed by Lepidus the following year and was handed over to Mark Antony the year after. Following the defeat of the republican generals Cassius and Brutus in successive battles at Philippi in 42 BC and the subsequent division of control between Mark Antony and Caesar's nephew and heir Octavian, a colony was again formed from retired veterans at Beneventum in 41 BC, the remainder of Legio VI Ferrata was taken by Mark Antony to the East where it garrisoned Judea. Another Sixth Legion, Legio VI Victrix, evidently saw action at Perusia in 41 BC, which presents us with a problem because the official Legio VI Ferrata was at that moment with Mark Antony in the East; the latter had serving with him Legio VI Ferrata and Legio X Equestris. Soon we find Octavian's army boasting of a Legio V, Legio VI and Legio X. Of these, Legio V and Legio X, less Legio VI, bore under the empire a bull-emblem which would indicate a foundation by Caesar.
Legio VI Ferrata fought in Antony's Parthian War in 36 BC. During the war between Antony and Octavian the Legio VI's Ferrata and Victrix found themselves on opposing sides at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Legio VI Ferrata was mauled by Octavian's forces. Following the battle, another colony of veterans seems to have been created at Byllis in Illyricum together with soldiers from other legions, the remainder of VI Ferrata was moved to Syria/Judea where it was to remain, while Legio VI Victrix was sent to Spain. From 54 AD to 68 AD the Sixth Legion Ferrata served under Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo at Artaxata and Tigranocerta against the Parthians. In 69 AD the Sixth Legion fought in the Jewish War; as the War wound down, the Legion was responsible for Mucianus' victory over the forces of Vitellius during the brief Civil War following the death of Nero. In 106 AD a vexillatio of the legion participated at the final decisive battle against Dacia; the core of the legion can be placed at Bostra in Nabatea under Aulus Cornelius Palma Frontonianus.
In 138 AD, after the Bar Kokhba revolt, the Legion was stationed in a camp known as Legio, near ancient Caparcotna and modern Lajjun, in Syria Palaestina - a strategic point on Palestine's Via Maris. It was sent to Africa during the reign of Antoninus Pius. In 150 AD the Legion was once again in Syria Palaestina, an inscription found dedicated to Legio VI Ferrata places them still there in 215 AD. Coins of Philip the Arab, found in Caesarea Maritima, indicate the Legion was still present ca 244 AD. Under Diocletian, it might have moved to the base of Adrou, on the s