Legio III Gallica
Legio tertia Gallica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey. The cognomen Gallica suggests that recruits were from Gaul; the legion was still active in Egypt in the early 4th century. The legion's symbol was a bull; the legion took part in all Julius Caesar's campaigns against his enemies, including the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Following Caesar's death, III Gallica was integrated in the army of Mark Antony, a member of the Second Triumvirate, for his campaigns against the Parthians, they were included in the army levied by Fulvia and Lucius Antonius to oppose Octavian, but ended by surrendering in Perugia, in the winter of 41 BC. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide during Antony's Civil War, the III Gallica was sent again to the East, where they garrisoned the province of Syria. III Gallica was used in Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo's campaign against the Parthians over the control of Armenia.
Corbulo's successes triggered the emperor Nero's paranoia of persecution and the general was forced to commit suicide. After this, III Gallica was transferred to the province of Moesia on the Danube. In the Year of the Four Emperors in 69, the legion, the rest of the Danubian army, aligned first with Otho with Vespasian, they were instrumental in the final defeat of Vitellius in the second Battle of Bedriacum and in the accession of the Flavians to the throne of Rome. This legion during its service in Syria had developed the custom of saluting the rising sun, when dawn broke at Bedriacum they turned east to do so; the Vitellian forces thought. In these years, one of the military tribunes of the III Gallica was Pliny the Younger. After this civil war, the legion was again sent to Syria, where they fought against the Jewish rebellions of the 2nd century, they took part in Lucius Verus' campaign and in next Septimius Severus campaign against the Parthian Empire, none with noteworthy success. During the reign of Roman Emperor Caracalla, the Legion left an inscription amongst the Commemorative stelae of Nahr el-Kalb.
III Gallica played a central role in the early reign of Elagabalus. In 218, during Macrinus' reign, Julia Maesa went to Raphana, where the legion was based under the command of Publius Valerius Comazon, she donated to the legion, which, in turn, proclaimed emperor Julia Maesa's grandson, the fourteen-year-old Elagabalus, on the dawn of 16 May. On June 8, 218 near Antioch. Gannys, Elagabalus' tutor, defeated Macrinus and his son, with the help of the III Gallica and the other legions of the East. In 219, the legion, exhausted by Elagabalus excesses, supported its commander, senator Verus, who proclaimed himself emperor. Elagabalus had Verus executed, dispersed the legion; the legionaries were transferred namely to III Augusta, stationed in the Africa provinces. However, the following emperor, Alexander Severus, reconstituted the legion and redeployed them back in Syria. Valerius Comazon entered in Elagabalus court, becoming prefect of the Praetorian Guard and consul in 220. III Gallica records become obscure.
Little is known about the legion's whereabouts. List of Roman legions livius.org account of Legio III Gallica
Legio X Gemina
Legio decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was one of the four legions used for his invasion of Gaul. There are still records of the X Gemina in Vienna in the beginning of the 5th century; the legion symbol was a bull. Early on in its history, the legion was called X Equestris, because Caesar once used the legionaries as cavalry. See Legio X EquestrisIn the Gallic Wars, X Equestris played an important role on Caesar's military success and for this reason is sometimes said to be his favorite. In Caesar's campaigns they were present in the battle of the Sabis, the invasions of Britain, the battle of Gergovia, they remained faithful to Caesar in the civil war against Pompey, being present in the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. In 45 BC Caesar disbanded the legion, giving the veterans farmlands near Narbonne in Gaul and in Hispania; the legion was reconstituted in 42 BC and fought for Augustus and Mark Antony in the Battle of Philippi against the murderers of Caesar. After this, they followed Mark Antony in his campaign against Parthia and were defeated with him at Actium.
Augustus took control of the legion and settled the veterans in Patras. The legion lost its cognomen Equestris as punishment. Replacements were added from other legions, the Tenth was rebaptized Gemina. From about 30 BC the newly formed X Gemina was relocated to Petavonium in Hispania Tarraconensis, where Augustus was preparing a campaign against the Cantabrians, their veterans were among the first inhabitants of modern Zaragoza and Emerita Augusta, modern Mérida. The legion was sent to Carnuntum in Pannonia in about 63 AD after legio XV Apollinaris left and went to the east. During the brief reign of Galba, it was transferred back to Hispania. However, its stay in Hispania was to be brief. In 70, after the Batavian rebellion was suppressed by the new emperor Vespasian, X Gemina was sent to Batavia in Germania Inferior to police the lands and prevent new revolts. From 71 to 103, the legion was stationed at the base built by II Adiutrix at Oppidum Batavorum, the present day Dutch city of Nijmegen.
As part of the army of Germania Inferior, X Gemina fought against the rebellion of the governor of Germania Superior, L. Antonius Saturninus, against Emperor Domitian. For this reason, the Tenth — as well as the other legions of the army, I Minervia, VI Victrix, XXII Primigenia — received the title Pia Fidelis Domitiana, "faithful and loyal to Domitian", with the reference to the Emperor dropped at his death and subsequent damnatio memoriae. During the Trajan's first campaign in Dacia, the legion participated at the Second Battle of Tapae, fighting against the army of the Dacians led by King Decebalus. In 103, it was moved to Aquincum and to Vindobona, in Pannonia Superior, which would be the legion's camp until the 5th century. Vexillationes of the X Gemina fought against the rebellion of Simon bar Kokhba in 132-135, in Iudaea, others participated in the Parthian campaign of Lucius Verus in 162. Another major campaign was the one fought against the Quadi and the Lombards, in Moravia, under the command of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
A garrison of Legio X GPF was found in the Czech Republic in Roman fortress in Moravia X Gemina supported its governor, Septimius Severus, in his bid for purple, many men of the legion went to Rome to become part of the Praetorian Guard of the new Emperor. During the 3rd century, the legion fought for several emperors, who awarded the legion with titles showing the fidelity of the legion and the favour gained by the Emperor himself; the titles Antoniniana, Deciana and Cariniana were short-lived and dropped after the death of the Emperor. For its support of Emperor Gallienus against Postumus, the Gemina was awarded the title Pia VI Fidelis VI, "six times faithful, six times loyal". At the time in which Notitia Dignitatum was written, the first detachment of Decima Gemina was under the command of the Magister Militum per Orientem, was a comitatensis unit; the other detachment was still in Vindobona, under the command of the Dux Pannoniae primae et Norici ripensis. - Lucius Lavius Luci filius Aemilia tri Tuscus Felicitis Iulia miles legionis X Geminae Victricis- Porto, Portugal.
AE 1953, 268. - sacrum Caius Valerius Carus miles legionis X Geminae votum solvit libens merito. Lugo, Spain. Hisp. Epi. 19118. - Caius Iulius Sergia Hispali Victor miles legionis X Gemina (centuria Fabi Celtiberi annorum XLII aerum / XVIII hic. Pontevedra, Spain. CIL II 2545. - Iovi Augusto Ultori sacrum Lucius Valerius Paternus miles legionis X Geminae optio centuria Censoris exs. Pontevedra, Spain. AE 1908, 147. - Gaius Iulius Primus miles veteranus. Jaen, Andalucía, Spain. CIL II2/5, 5. - Dis Manibus Gaio Urbanio Firmino militi legionis. Jaen, Andalucía, Spain. CIL II 1691 - Capito Sunnae filius decurio equitum alae geminae legionis X Rustica Galli filia. Sevilla, Spain. CIL II2/5, 1136. - Publius Talius Quinti filius. Beja, Portugal. Hisp. Epi. 23031. - Marcus Aurelius Marci filius. Beja, Portugal. AE 1980, 562. - Lucius Octavius Luci fillius Pupinia Baeterensis Magius annorum XXXVII / aerorum XIX tubicen / miles legionis X Geminae. Astorga, Spain. AE 1928, 163. - Caius Pelgus Luci filius Scaptia Cle
Legio IV Scythica
Legio quarta Scythica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded c. 42 BC by the general Mark Antony, for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence its other cognomen, Parthica. The legion was still active in Syria in the early 5th century. In its first years, the whereabouts of IV Scythica are uncertain, although it is probable that it took part in Antony's campaign against the Parthians; the name suggests. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, Octavian transferred IV Scythica to the Danube province of Moesia; the legion is reported to have taken part in civilian tasks, such as the building and keeping of roads. In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion. King Vologases I of Parthia invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome, in 58. Nero ordered the new legate of Cappadocia, to manage the matter. Corbulo brought IIII Scythica from Moesia, with III Gallica and VI Ferrata defeated the Parthians, restoring Tigranes VI on Armenian throne. In 62, IIII Scythica and XII Fulminata, commanded by the new legate of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, were defeated by the Parthians at the Battle of Rhandeia and forced to surrender.
The legions were removed from the war theatre to Zeugma. This city would be the base camp of IIII Scythica for the next century. In 69, the legion, like the rest of the Eastern army, sided with Vespasian immediately. Despite the demonstrated loyalty, IV Scythica was not involved in actual fighting because it was not considered a high quality legion; this has to do with another defeat years earlier in the Jewish rebellion. It took part in the war against the Parthians between 161-166 Between AD181 and AD183 Septimius Severus acted as the commander of the Eastern legions, relied on the power of said legions to become emperor; the Legion's former commander, now Emperor, led another campaign against the Parthians. The legion disappears from the sources after AD219, when their commander, Gellius Maximus, rebelled against Emperor Elagabalus and proclaimed himself emperor, but was defeated by Elagabalus. However, according to Notitia Dignitatum, in the early 5th century, IIII Scythica was still in Syria, camped in Orese.
Quintus Varius Nepos was a military tribune for Legio IV Scythica at one point. - Caio Sempronio Marci filio Galeria Fido Calagorritano / tribuno militum legionis IIII Scythicae tribuno militum. Tarragona, Spain. CIL II 4427. - D M / Ael Verecundinus | leg IIII / Scy hastatus rior natus / in Dacia ad Vatabos mil ann XXI / primum exactus librarius / frum speculator evocatus | et | frum / vixit ann XXXVI Ael Rufinus lib ex bon/is eius fecit. Epigraphic Database Heidelberg HD053009; the legion's symbol was a capricorn. The Legion appeared in Harry Sidebottom's historical fiction series Warrior Of Rome. List of Roman legions Siege of Dura-Europos livius.org account of Legio IV Scythica
Legio I Italica
Legio Prima Italica: the epithet Italica is a reference to the Italian origin of its first recruits) was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded by emperor Nero on September 22, 66. There are still records of the I Italica on the Danube border at the beginning of the 5th century; the emblem of the legion was a boar. In the aftermath of the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63, Emperor Nero levied the I Italica with the name phalanx Alexandri Magni, for a campaign in Armenia, ad portas Caspias - to the pass of Chawar; the sources mention the peculiar fact that the original legionaries were Italics, all over six feet tall. However, since the Jewish Revolt broke out a few weeks the projected Armenian campaign never took place; the governor of Gaul, Gaius Julius Vindex, rose in revolt in early 68 and I Italica was redirected there, arriving just in time to see the end of the revolt. In the Year of the Four Emperors, after the death of Nero, the legion received the name I Italica and fought for Vitellius at the second Battle of Bedriacum, where the Vitellians were defeated by forces supporting Vespasian.
The new emperor sent I Italica to the province of Moesia in 70. They encamped at Novae; the legion served on campaign during the Dacian wars of Trajan. The legion was responsible for bridge construction over the Danube. Building activities seem to have been an area of expertise for the legion. On 3 December 1969 a Roman votive altar was found at Old Kilpatrick on the Antonine Wall dating from around 140 A. D, it has been scanned and a video produced. The inscription mentions the First Cohort of Baetasians known to have been at Bar Hill, Julius Candidus, a centurion from I Italica. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Legio I Italica was involved in the wars against the Germanic tribes that threatened to cross the Danube. After a long war, the Romans had conquered much territory on the left side of the Danube. There Marcus Aurelius had intended to form a new province under governor Aulus Julius Pompilius Piso, commander of I Italica and IV Flavia Felix, but the revolt of Avidius Cassius in the East prevented the formation of the new province.
In 193, the Governor of Pannonia Superior, Septimius Severus moved to Italia. I Italica did not move to Italy; the legion fought against Severus' rival, Pescennius Niger, besieging Byzantium together with XI Claudia, fighting at Issus. The First took part in the Parthian campaign of Severus. In the 3rd century, during the rule of Caracalla, the legion participated in the construction of the Limes Transalutanus, a defensive wall along the Danube, which began near Novae. Under Alexander Severus, some vexillationes of the I Italica moved to Salonae, guarding the Dalmatian coast. Capidava List of Roman legions livius.org account of Legio I Italica Legio I Italica - reenactment group
Legio VIII Augusta
Legio octava Augusta was one of the oldest legions of the Imperial Roman army founded by Pompey in 65 BC, along with the 6th, 7th and 9th, continuing in service to Rome for at least 400 years thereafter. They were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul around 58 BC by Julius Caesar, marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars, they stood with him at the Battle of Pharsalus. The legion was present in Egypt, when Caesar captured Egypt for Cleopatra. In 46 BC the legion took part in the Battle of Thapsus, shortly before their disbandment. In 44 BC, Augustus reconstituted the legion; this loyalty gave the legion the cognomen Augusta. Around 45 AD the VIII Augusta took part in the suppression of the Thracian uprising, founded its castrum at Novae where the Danube has its most southern bend and from where the legion controlled a long section of the Danube. In 69 AD, the Year of the Four Emperors, following the suicide of Nero, the legion took the side of Vespasian, the new emperor; the legion went with Vespasian to Mirebeau-sur-Bèze in Gaul in 70 AD to oppose the revolts of the Treveri and the Ubii and Lingons against Rome, where it built its new base.
The legion left at latest, to its next base at Argentoratum. The legion fought in Parthia with Septimius Severus and with his successors. Records indicate that they were still active during the first years of the 4th century at the Rhine frontier; this means that the history of the legion covers more than 400 years of continuous service. In 371 it was stationed in Germania Superior, according to an inscription; the Roman general Stilicho, was compelled to move the German legions back to Italy to defend it against the Visigothic invasion. According to Notitia Dignitatum, around 420 an Octaviani unit was under the Magister Peditum of Italia. - ri G̣allorum tribunus militum legionis VIII Augustae. Cohort of Gauls, military of the Eighth Legion Augusta. Brougham. CIL VII 300 = RIB 782. List of Roman legions and Roman legion livius.org account VEX LEG VIII AVG, German re-enactment society LEGION VIII AUGUSTA, French re-enactment society LEGIO VIII AUGUSTA, US re-enactment society LEGIO VIII AVGVSTA MGV, British re-enactment society Octaviani in Notitia Dignitatum
Legio VII Claudia
Legio septima Claudia was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. Its emblem, like that of all Caesar's legions, was the bull, together with the lion; the Seventh, the Sixth, the Eighth and the Ninth were all founded by Pompey in Spain in 65 BC. With the Eighth and Tenth legions, the Seventh was among the oldest units in the imperial Roman army, they were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul around 58 BC by Julius Caesar, marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars. The Roman commander mentions the Seventh in his account of the battle against the Nervians, it seems that it was employed during the expedition through western Gaul led by Caesar's deputy Crassus. In 56, the Seventh was present during the Venetic campaign. During the crisis caused by Vercingetorix, it fought in the neighborhood of Lutetia. Legio VII was one of the two legions used in Caesar's invasions of Britain, played a crucial role in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, it existed at least until the end of the 4th century, guarding the middle Danube.
Tiberius Claudius Maximus, the Roman soldier who brought the head of Decebalus to the emperor Trajan, was serving in Legio VII Claudia. An inscription in Pompeii revealed that a certain Floronius served in the seventh legion; the inscription says: "privileged soldier of the 7th legion, was here. The women did not know of his presence. Only six women came to know, too few for such a stallion." List of Roman legions livius.org account
Legio I Isaura Sagittaria
Legio I Isaura Sagitaria was a pseudocomitatensis Roman legion, levied no than under Diocletian, already present under Probus. As its name suggests, its legionaries could be used as archers, an uncommon feature for Roman legions. According to Notitia Dignitatum, in the beginning of the 5th century the I Isaura was under the command of the Magister Militum per Orientem, but it is possible that in the beginning it was used to defend the Isauria region, together with the II and III Isaura. List of Roman legions Ritterling's "Legio", through romanarmy.com livius.org account