Diocletian, born Diocles, was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor; the title was claimed by Carus' surviving son, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century, he appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus, co-emperor, in 286. Diocletian reigned in the Eastern Empire, Maximian reigned in the Western Empire. Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively. Under this'tetrarchy', or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire. Diocletian purged it of all threats to his power, he defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between 285 and 299, the Alamanni in 288, usurpers in Egypt between 297 and 298.
Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned against Sassanid Persia, the empire's traditional enemy. In 299 he sacked Ctesiphon. Diocletian achieved a lasting and favourable peace. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire, he established new administrative centres in Nicomedia, Mediolanum and Trevorum, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism, he styled himself an autocrat, elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonies and architecture. Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. From at least 297 on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, levied at higher rates. Not all of Diocletian's plans were successful: the Edict on Maximum Prices, his attempt to curb inflation via price controls, was counterproductive and ignored.
Although effective while he ruled, Diocletian's tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine, sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively. The Diocletianic Persecution, the empire's last and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity, failed to eliminate Christianity in the empire. Despite these failures and challenges, Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain intact for another 150 years despite being near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth. Weakened by illness, Diocletian left the imperial office on 1 May 305, became the first Roman emperor to abdicate the position voluntarily, he lived out his retirement in his palace on the Dalmatian coast. His palace became the core of the modern-day city of Split in Croatia. Diocletian was born near Salona in Dalmatia, some time around 244.
His parents gave him the Greek name Diocles, or Diocles Valerius. The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes his official birthday, 22 December, as his actual birthdate. Other historians are not so certain, his parents were of low status. The first forty years of his life are obscure; the Byzantine chronicler Joannes Zonaras states that he was Dux Moesiae, a commander of forces on the lower Danube. The often-unreliable Historia Augusta states that he served in Gaul, but this account is not corroborated by other sources and is ignored by modern historians of the period; the first time Diocletian's whereabouts are established, in 282, the Emperor Carus made him commander of the Protectores domestici, the elite cavalry force directly attached to the Imperial household – a post that earned him the honour of a consulship in 283. As such, he took part in Carus' subsequent Persian campaign. Carus's death, amid a successful war with Persia and in mysterious circumstances – he was believed to have been struck by lightning or killed by Persian soldiers – left his sons Numerian and Carinus as the new Augusti.
Carinus made his way to Rome from his post in Gaul as imperial commissioner and arrived there by January 284, becoming legitimate Emperor in the West. Numerian lingered in the East; the Roman withdrawal from Persia was unopposed. The Sassanid king Bahram II could not field an army against them as he was still struggling to establish his authority. By March 284, Numerian had only reached Emesa in Syria. In Emesa he was still alive and in good health: he issued the only extant rescript in his name there, but after he left the city, his staff, including the prefect Aper, reported that he suffered from an inflammation of the eyes, he travelled in a closed coach from on. When the army reached Bithynia, some of the soldiers smelled an odor emanating from the coach, they opened its curtains and inside
Legio I Parthica
Legio prima Parthica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 197 by the emperor Septimius Severus for his forthcoming war against Parthia. The legion's presence in the Middle East is recorded until the early 5th century; the legions I, II, III Parthica were levied by Septimius Severus for his campaign against the Parthian Empire. After the success of this campaign, I and III Parthica remained in the region, in the camp of Singara, in Mesopotamia, to prevent subsequent rebellions and to guard the eastern provinces from attacks from the Parthian Empire. Legionaries from I Parthica were sent to other provinces, namely Lycia and Cyrenaica. In 360, I Parthica unsuccessfully defended its camp against a Sasanid attack. After that, the legion was moved to Constantina; the legion emblem was the centaur. List of Roman legions Roman legion livius.org account of Legio I Parthica
Legio VI Victrix
Legio sexta victrix was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in 41 BC by the general Octavian. It was the twin legion of VI Ferrata and held veterans of that legion, some soldiers kept to the traditions of the Caesarian legion; the legion saw its first action in Perusia in 41 BC. It served against the Sextus Pompeius, who occupied Sicily and made threats to discontinue sending grain to Rome. In 31 BC the legion fought in the Battle of Actium against Mark Antony; the legion took part in the final stage of the Roman conquest of Hispania, participating in Augustus' major war against the Cantabrians, from 29 BC to 19 BC, that brought all of the Iberian Peninsula under Roman rule. The legion stayed in Spain for nearly a century and received the surname Hispaniensis, founding the city of Legio. Soldiers of this unit and X Gemina numbered among the first settlers of Caesaraugusta, what became modern-day Zaragoza; the cognomen Victrix dates back to the reign of Nero. But Nero was unpopular in the area, when the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, Servius Sulpicius Galba, said he wished to overthrow Nero, the legion supported him and he was proclaimed Emperor in the VI Victrix legionary camp.
Galba marched on Rome, where Nero killed himself. For a brief period (approximately 110 AD to 119, the legion was stationed along the Rhine River in the Roman province of Germany Inferior. In 119, Hadrian relocated the legion to northern Britannia, to assist those legions present in quelling the resistance there. Victrix was key in securing victory, would replace the diminished IX Hispana at Eboracum. In 122 the legion started work on Hadrian's Wall. Twenty years they helped construct the Antonine Wall and its forts such as Castlecary but it was abandoned by 164. In 175, the Roman emperor, Marcus Aurelius, defeated the Iazyges tribe of Sarmatians, he settled 5,500 of them in Britain. The only detachment attested in Britain is a unit at Ribchester, south of Lancaster. Less certain is evidence from Bainesse, near Catterick, where lost tiles stamped BSAR may be evidence for the presence of a Sarmatian unit there. Legio VI was awarded the honorary title'Britannica' by Commodus in AD 184 following his own adoption of the title.
In 185, the British legions mutinied and put forward Priscus a commander of their own to replace the unpopular Emperor Commodus, but the former declined. The mutiny was suppressed by Pertinax, who would become emperor himself after Commodus was murdered; the large fort at Carpow was occupied from about 184 by Legio VI who completed the fort with the'principia' and praetorium which they roofed with tiles bearing their new'cognomen'. The Legate of the legion in the late second century, Claudius Hieronymianus, dedicated a temple to Serapis in Eboracum in advance of the arrival of Septimius Severus in AD208. An altar to Hercules was dedicated by Gaius Vitellius Atticianus, Centurion of the Legio VI Victrix, at Whitley Castle. Quintus Antonius Isauricus - AD 130s Claudius Hieronymianus - AD 190-AD 212 - Dis Manibus Gai Iuli Galeria tribu Caleni Lugduno veterani ex legione VI Victrice Pia Fideli heres a se memoriae fecit. Lincoln, U. K. RIB 252 = CIL VII 182. - Dis Manibus sacrum Nig̣ṛiṇae vixit annos XXXX Aurelius Casitto legionis VI Victricis Piae Fidelis curavit.
Great Chesters, U. K. RIB 1746 = CIL VII 740. - Dis Manibus Titi Flavi Flavini legionis VI Victricis Classicius Aprilis heres prius quam obiretfieri iussit. York, U. K. RIB 675. - Dis Manibus Lucius Bebius Augusta Crescens Vindelicum miles legionis VI Victricis Piae Fidelis annorum XLIII stipendiorum XXIII heres amico faciendum curavit. York, U. K. RIB 671. - Dis Manibus Flaviae Augustinae vixit annos XXXVIIII menses VII dies XI filius Saenius Augustinus vixit annum I dies III vixit annum I menses VIIII dies V Gaius Aeresius Saenus veteranus legionis VI Victricis coniugi carissimae et sibi faciendum curavit. York, U. K. RIB 685 = CIL VII 245. - Dis Manibus Gaius Iulius Gai filius colonia Flavia Ingenuus miles legionis VI Victricis Piae Fidelis. High Rochester, U. K. RIB 1292 = CIL VII 1057. - Dis Manibus Flavius Agricola miles legionis VI Victricis vixit annos XLII dies X Albia Faustina coniugi inconparabilifaciendum curavit. London, U. K. CIL V 25. -Lucio Pompeio Luci filio / Quirina Faventino / praefecto cohortis VI Asturum / tribuno militum legionis VI Victricis.
Astorga, Spain. CIL II 2637 = AE 1966, 187. - Lucius Valerius Silvanus / miles legionis VI Victricis / Deo Turiaco / votum solvit libens merito. Porto, Portugal. CIL II 2374 = AE 1959, 103. · - Titus Pompeius Titi filius / Tromentina / Albinus' domo Vienna / IIvir tribunus militum legionis VI Victricis. Mérida, Spain. AE 2002, 929. - Dis Manibus sacrum Gaius Iulius Severus veteranus legionis VI Victricis annorum LXI Iulia Danae liberta ex testamento. Mérida, Spain. CIL II 490. - Marcus Tavonius / Marci filius / Romilia / Firmus domo Ateste / miles legionis VI Victricis. Mérida, Spain. Museo Nacional de Arte Romano - Mérida. - Dis Manibus sacrum / Gaius Iulius Severus / veteranus legionis VI Victricis / annorum LXI / Iulia Danae liberta ex testamento. Mérida, Spain. CIL II 490. - Dis Manibus sacrum Lucius Maelonius Aper veteranus legionis VI Victricis Piae Fidelis annorum LXX militavit beneficiariuscode: lat promoted to code: la. Mérida, Spain
Legio XII Fulminata
The Legio duodecima Fulminata known as Paterna, Antiqua, Certa Constans, Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and which accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC; the unit was still guarding the Euphrates River crossing near Melitene at the beginning of the 5th century. The legion's emblem was a thunderbolt. In centuries it came to be called but incorrectly, the Legio Fulminatrix, the Thundering Legion; the Twelfth legion, as it is better known, fought in the Battle against the Nervians, also in the Siege of Alesia. The Twelfth fought at the Battle of Pharsalus. After Caesar won the civil war, the legion was named Victrix, enlisted in 43 BC by Lepidus and Mark Anthony. Mark Anthony led the Twelfth, renamed XII Antiqua during his campaign against the Parthian Empire. During the latest part of Augustus' principality, XII Fulminata served in Syria, they were the Lost Legion in Syria. From his eastern Parthian Empire in present-day Iran and Iraq, King Vologeses I in 58 AD invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome.
Emperor Nero ordered the new Legate of Cappadocia, to manage the matter. Corbulo ordered Legion IV Scythica from Moesia, along with the III Gallica and VI Ferrata defeated the Parthians, restoring Tigranes VI to the Armenian throne. In 62 AD, the XII Fulminata joined the IV Scythica, now commanded by the new Legate of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus. Both legions were defeated by the Armenians at the battle of Rhandeia. In 66, after a Zealot revolt had destroyed the Roman garrison in Jerusalem, the XII Fulminata, with vexillationes of IV Scythica and VI Ferrata, were sent to retaliate; this force was sent back by Gaius Cestius Gallus, Legate of Syria, when he recognized the legion was too weak. On its way back, XII Fulminata was ambushed and defeated by Eleazar ben Simon in the Battle of Beth Horon losing its aquila. However, XII Fulminata fought well in the last part of the war, supported its commander T. Flavius Vespasian in his successful bid for the imperial throne. At the end of the war, XII Fulminata and XVI Flavia Firma were sent to guard the Euphrates border, camping at Melitene.
In 75 AD, the XII Fulminata was in the Caucasus, where Emperor Vespasian had sent the legion to support the allied kingdoms of Iberia and Albania. An inscription from this period has been found in modern-day Azerbaijan which reads: IMP DOMITIANO CAESARE AVG GERMANIC, LVCIVS IVLIVS MAXIMVS, LEG XII FVL Translation: Imp Domitian Caesar Aug'Germanic', Lucius Julius Maximus, Leg XII Ful; some historians argue that the settlement of Ramana near Baku was founded by the Roman troops of Lucius Julius Maximus from Legio XII Fulminata in circa 84-96 AD and derives its name from the Latin Romana. Facts that strengthen this hypothesis include: a military-topographical map of the Caucasus published in 1903 by Russian administrators, which refers to the town as "Romana"; the legion was in Armenia during Trajan's campaign of 114 AD, that ended with the annexation of the Kingdom of Armenia. In 134, the threat of the Alans was subdued by the governor of Cappadocia, who defeated the invaders with the aid of XII Fulminata and XV Apollinaris.
The Twelfth fought in the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus, in 162-166, if a mixed unit of XII and XV controlled for some time the newly conquered Armenian capital Artaxata. Emperor Marcus Aurelius commanded the XII Fulminata in his campaign against the Quadi, a people inhabiting an area in modern-day Slovakia, an episode of a miraculous rain and lightning saving a Twelfth subunit from defeat is reported by the sources. At this time, most of the Twelfth was composed chiefly of Christians. There was a belief that this had led to the emperor issuing a decree forbidding the persecution of the Christians, but this seems to have been based on a forgery. In 175, the legion was in Melitene. After the death of Emperor Pertinax, 193, XII Fulminata supported the governor of Syria, Pescennius Niger, in the end defeated by Emperor Septimius Severus; when the Eastern frontier of the Empire was moved from the Euphrates to the Tigris, the Twelfth stayed in the reserve as a punishment for its support of Severus' rival.
The region around Melitene was one of the first. Polyeuctes is a martyr under Valerian, a soldier of the Twelfth; the Sassanid Empire was a major threat to the Roman power in the East. King Shapur II conquered the base of the XV Apollinaris and sacked Trapezus. Emperor Valerian was defeated and captured; the defeat caused the partial collapse of the Empire, with the secessionistic Gallic Empire in the West and Palmyrene Empire in the East. It is known that the XII Fulminata was under the command of Odaenathus, ruler of the Palmyrene Empire, but that Emperor Gallienus awarded the legion with the cognomen Galliena. After these episodes, the records of the Fulminata are scarce; the Palmyrene Empire was reconquered by Aurelian. The Twelfth, which took part to these campaigns, is recorded guarding the frontier of the Eup
Legio I Italica
Legio Prima Italica: the epithet Italica is a reference to the Italian origin of its first recruits) was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded by emperor Nero on September 22, 66. There are still records of the I Italica on the Danube border at the beginning of the 5th century; the emblem of the legion was a boar. In the aftermath of the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63, Emperor Nero levied the I Italica with the name phalanx Alexandri Magni, for a campaign in Armenia, ad portas Caspias - to the pass of Chawar; the sources mention the peculiar fact that the original legionaries were Italics, all over six feet tall. However, since the Jewish Revolt broke out a few weeks the projected Armenian campaign never took place; the governor of Gaul, Gaius Julius Vindex, rose in revolt in early 68 and I Italica was redirected there, arriving just in time to see the end of the revolt. In the Year of the Four Emperors, after the death of Nero, the legion received the name I Italica and fought for Vitellius at the second Battle of Bedriacum, where the Vitellians were defeated by forces supporting Vespasian.
The new emperor sent I Italica to the province of Moesia in 70. They encamped at Novae; the legion served on campaign during the Dacian wars of Trajan. The legion was responsible for bridge construction over the Danube. Building activities seem to have been an area of expertise for the legion. On 3 December 1969 a Roman votive altar was found at Old Kilpatrick on the Antonine Wall dating from around 140 A. D, it has been scanned and a video produced. The inscription mentions the First Cohort of Baetasians known to have been at Bar Hill, Julius Candidus, a centurion from I Italica. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Legio I Italica was involved in the wars against the Germanic tribes that threatened to cross the Danube. After a long war, the Romans had conquered much territory on the left side of the Danube. There Marcus Aurelius had intended to form a new province under governor Aulus Julius Pompilius Piso, commander of I Italica and IV Flavia Felix, but the revolt of Avidius Cassius in the East prevented the formation of the new province.
In 193, the Governor of Pannonia Superior, Septimius Severus moved to Italia. I Italica did not move to Italy; the legion fought against Severus' rival, Pescennius Niger, besieging Byzantium together with XI Claudia, fighting at Issus. The First took part in the Parthian campaign of Severus. In the 3rd century, during the rule of Caracalla, the legion participated in the construction of the Limes Transalutanus, a defensive wall along the Danube, which began near Novae. Under Alexander Severus, some vexillationes of the I Italica moved to Salonae, guarding the Dalmatian coast. Capidava List of Roman legions livius.org account of Legio I Italica Legio I Italica - reenactment group
Legio I Adiutrix
Legio prima adiutrix, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 68 by Galba when he rebelled against emperor Nero. The last record mentioning the Adiutrix is in 344, when it was stationed at Brigetio, in the Roman province of Pannonia; the emblem of the legion was a capricorn, used along with the winged horse Pegasus, on the helmets the symbol used by I Adiutrix legionaries was a dolphin. The legion originated from the I Classica, a legion levied by Nero among the marines of the Classis Misenensis, but was completed by Galba; the legion was stationed near Rome. In the confusing Year of the Four Emperors, the legion fought in Otho's army in the Battle of Bedriacum, where this emperor was defeated by Vitellius The victorious Vitellius ordered the legion transferred to Spain, but by the year 70 it was fighting in the Batavian rebellion; the city of Moguntiacum is the legion's first known base camp, shared with Legio XIV Gemina, where they attended building activities. In 83, they fought the Germanic wars against the Chatti, a German tribe living across the Rhine, under the command of Emperor Domitian.
After that they were transferred to the Danubian army stationed in the Roman province of Pannonia, to fight the Dacians. Following the murder of Domitian in 96, the Adiutrix, along with the Danubian army, played an important role in Roman politics, forcing Nerva to adopt Trajan as his successor; when Trajan became emperor, he gave the legion the cognomen Pia Fidelis to acknowledge their support. Between 101 and 106, under the new emperor's command, I Adiutrix, along with IV Flavia Felix and XIII Gemina, conquered Dacia and occupied the newly formed province. Trajan used his Pia Fidelis in the campaign against Parthia, but they were sent back to Pannonia by his successor emperor Hadrian, with base in Brigetio. During the next decades, I Adiutrix remained in the Danube frontier. Under Marcus Aurelius, I Adiutrix fought the war against Marcomanni commanded by Marcus Valerius Maximianus. Between 171 and 175, the commander was Pertinax, emperor for a brief period in 193; when Septimius Severus became emperor, I Adiutrix was among his supporters, following him in the march for Rome.
In the next decades, the main base was again Pannonia, but they played a part in several Parthian wars, namely the campaigns of 195 and 197–198 of Septimius Severus, 215–217 led by Caracalla and 244 by Gordian III. It took part in the battle of Mediolanum; the legion received Constans, sometime in the 3rd century. Gabara was a three-meter tall Arabian giant that, according to the historian Pliny the Elder, served in the Adiutrix legion under the Roman emperor Claudius. According to the story, Gabara was so admired by his fellow soldiers that some worshipped him like a god. List of Roman legions Tacitus, Histories. J. B. Campbell, art. Legio, in NP 7, klm. 7-22. L. J. F. Keppie, The Origins and Early History of the Second Augustan Legion, in L. J. F. Keppie and Veterans: Roman Army Papers 1971-2000, Stuttgart, 2000, pp. 123–160. Livius.org account for I Adiutrix
Legio V Macedonica
Legio quinta Macedonica was a Roman legion. It was originally levied in 43 BC by consul Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus and Octavian, it was based in the Balkan provinces of Macedonia and Dacia. In the Notitia Dignitatum records from beginning of the fifth century, the legion was still stationed in Dacia, with detachments stationed in the east and Egypt; the last known evidence shows the legion, or detachments from it, stationed in Egypt in the seventh century one or two years before the Islamic conquest of Egypt. It is assumed that the legion fought in this war and was destroyed, although it is uncertain whether detachments or the whole legion were in Egypt, there is no further evidence of the legion's eventual fate, its symbol was the bull. The Legio V was one of the original twenty-eight legions raised by Octavian. There are two other fifth legions recorded: the V Urbana, it is possible. The legion participated in the Battle of Actium, it moved to Macedonia, where it stayed from 30 BC to AD 6, gaining its cognomen, before moving to Oescus.
In 62, some vexillationes of the Fifth fought under Lucius Caesennius Paetus in Armenia against the Parthian Empire. After the defeat of the Battle of Rhandeia, the whole V Macedonica, together with III Gallica, VI Ferrata, X Fretensis under the command of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, was sent to the east to fight in the victorious war against the Parthians; the Fifth was still in the East when the Great Jewish Revolt in Iudaea Province began in 66. Nero gave the V Macedonica, the X Fretensis and the XV Apollinaris to Titus Flavius Vespasianus to counter the revolt. In 67, in Galilee, the city of Sepphoris surrendered peacefully to the Roman army, the V Macedonica conquered Mount Gerizim, the chief sanctuary of the Samaritans. In the Year of the Four Emperors, 68, the legion stayed inactive in Emmaus, where several tombstones of soldiers of the V Macedonica remain. After the proclamation of Vespasian as Emperor and the end of the war under his son Titus, the V Macedonica left Iudaea and returned to Oescus.
In 96, the emperor Hadrian served the legion as tribunus militum. In 101, the legion moved to Dacia. After the war ended in 106, the legion remained in Troesmis, near the Danube Delta since 107. A centurion of the legion, Calventius Viator, rose to prominence and was promoted to commander of the emperor's horse guards, the equites singulares Augusti. Based on a Roman inscription discovered near Betar, Hadrian removed the V Macedonica from Dacia and sent it to Provincia Iudaea, or what is Judea, along with the Eleventh Claudian Legion, in order to put down an insurrection that broke out in the 16th year of his reign as Roman Emperor, while Tineius Rufus was governor of the province, which became known as the Jewish Revolt under Bar Kokhba; when Emperor Lucius Verus started his campaign against the Parthians, the legion moved to the east, but was returned in Dacia Porolissensis, with a basecamp in Potaissa. The northern frontier was a hot border of the Empire. At the beginning of the reign of Commodus, the V Macedonica and the XIII Gemina defeated once again the Iazyges, under the usurpers Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus.
The Fifth supported Septimius Severus, in his fight for the purple. In 185 or 187, the legion was awarded of the title Pia Constans or Pia Fidelis, after defeating a mercenary army in Dacia. While staying in Potaissa for most of the 3rd century, V Macedonica fought several times, earning honors. Valerian gave the Fifth the name III Pia III Fidelis. A vexillatio fought against Victorinus; the legion returned to Oescus in 274. It guarded the province in centuries, becoming a comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Orientis, it became part of the Byzantine army. The cavalry unit created by Gallienus was definitively detached by Diocletian, become part of his comitatus; this unit was sent to Mesopotamia, where it fought against the Sassanid Empire in 296, to Memphis, where it remained until becoming part of the Byzantine army. Legio V Macedonica is mentioned again in the Notitia Dignitatum, stationed in Dacia Ripensis, with detachments in the Oriental Field Army and in Egypt. Legio V Macedonica is again mentioned in both Antaeapolis and Heliopolis in inscriptions, which seem to have been detachments of the units in Memphis.
The last inscription provides the date of 635 or 636, indicating that at least part of the Legion was in Egypt until just before the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs began in 637. This would make Legio V Macedonica the longest-lived Roman Legion known to history, spanning 680 years from 43 BC to 637 AD. List of Roman legions livius.org account E. Ritterling, Legio, RE XII, col. 1572-5 Rumen Ivanov, Lixa Legionis V Macedonicae aus Oescus, ZPE 80, 1990, p. 131-136 D. Barag, S. Qedar, A Countermark of the Legio Quinta Scytica from the Jewish War, INJ 13, pp. 66–69. S. Gerson, A New Countermark of the Fifth Legion, INR 1