Legio III Diocletiana
Legio III Diocletiana was a comitatensis Roman legion, levied in 296 by Diocletian, from whom the legion took its name. The aim of this legion was to guard the newly re-organized province of Aegyptus, being based in Alexandria, it was created to support II Traiana Fortis, therefore it took the numeral III. During the 4th century, some vexillationes of the III Diocletiana were sent in the south of Egypt, in Thebes and Kom Ombo. Theodosius I sent soldiers from the north to III Diocletiana in Egypt, Egyptian soldiers in Macedonia, forming the III Diocletiana Thebaeorum, under the command of the Magister Militum per Thracias; the shield pattern of III Diocletiana Thebaeorum was a red. List of Roman legions Livius.org: Account of Legio III Diocletiana
Legio IV Flavia Felix
Legio quarta Flavia Felix, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 70 by the emperor Vespasian from the cadre of the disbanded Legio IV Macedonica. The legion was active in Moesia Superior in the first half of the 5th century; the legion symbol was a lion. During the Batavian rebellion, the IV Macedonica fought for Vespasian, but the emperor distrusted his men because they had supported Vitellius two years before; therefore IV Macedonica was disbanded, a new Fourth legion, called Flavian Felix was levied by the emperor, who gave the legio his nomen, Flavia. Since the symbol of the legion is a lion, it was levied in July/August 70. IV Flavia Felix was camped in Burnum, where it replaced XI Claudia. After the Dacian invasion of 86, Domitian moved the legion to Moesia Superior, in Singidunum, although there is some evidence of the presence of this legion, of one of its vexillationes in Viminacium, base of VII Claudia. In 88 the Fourth participated to the retaliation invasion of Dacia.
It participated in the Dacian Wars of Trajan, being victorious at the Second Battle of Tapae. The legion participated at the final and decisive battle against the Dacians, conquering their capital, Sarmisegetusa. Monuments of IV Flavia Felix have been found at Aquincum; this suggests that a subunit replaced II Adiutrix during its absence during the wars of Lucius Verus against the Parthian empire. In the Marcomannic Wars, the fourth fought on the Danube against the Germanic tribes. After the death of Pertinax, the IV Flavia Felix supported Septimius Severus against usurpers Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus; the legion may have fought in one of the several wars against the Sassanids, but stayed in Moesia Superior until the first half of the 5th century. This Roman Legion was featured in the beginning of the movie Gladiator where Maximus Decimus Meridius was the Legion general, leading the campaign in Germania against the Marcomanni. List of Roman legions Roman legion Legio IIII Macedonica livius.org account of Legio IIII Flavia Felix Reenactment Legion based in Southern Ontario, Canada portraying IIII Flavia Felix
Legio IV Scythica
Legio quarta Scythica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded c. 42 BC by the general Mark Antony, for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence its other cognomen, Parthica. The legion was still active in Syria in the early 5th century. In its first years, the whereabouts of IV Scythica are uncertain, although it is probable that it took part in Antony's campaign against the Parthians; the name suggests. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, Octavian transferred IV Scythica to the Danube province of Moesia; the legion is reported to have taken part in civilian tasks, such as the building and keeping of roads. In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion. King Vologases I of Parthia invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome, in 58. Nero ordered the new legate of Cappadocia, to manage the matter. Corbulo brought IIII Scythica from Moesia, with III Gallica and VI Ferrata defeated the Parthians, restoring Tigranes VI on Armenian throne. In 62, IIII Scythica and XII Fulminata, commanded by the new legate of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, were defeated by the Parthians at the Battle of Rhandeia and forced to surrender.
The legions were removed from the war theatre to Zeugma. This city would be the base camp of IIII Scythica for the next century. In 69, the legion, like the rest of the Eastern army, sided with Vespasian immediately. Despite the demonstrated loyalty, IV Scythica was not involved in actual fighting because it was not considered a high quality legion; this has to do with another defeat years earlier in the Jewish rebellion. It took part in the war against the Parthians between 161-166 Between AD181 and AD183 Septimius Severus acted as the commander of the Eastern legions, relied on the power of said legions to become emperor; the Legion's former commander, now Emperor, led another campaign against the Parthians. The legion disappears from the sources after AD219, when their commander, Gellius Maximus, rebelled against Emperor Elagabalus and proclaimed himself emperor, but was defeated by Elagabalus. However, according to Notitia Dignitatum, in the early 5th century, IIII Scythica was still in Syria, camped in Orese.
Quintus Varius Nepos was a military tribune for Legio IV Scythica at one point. - Caio Sempronio Marci filio Galeria Fido Calagorritano / tribuno militum legionis IIII Scythicae tribuno militum. Tarragona, Spain. CIL II 4427. - D M / Ael Verecundinus | leg IIII / Scy hastatus rior natus / in Dacia ad Vatabos mil ann XXI / primum exactus librarius / frum speculator evocatus | et | frum / vixit ann XXXVI Ael Rufinus lib ex bon/is eius fecit. Epigraphic Database Heidelberg HD053009; the legion's symbol was a capricorn. The Legion appeared in Harry Sidebottom's historical fiction series Warrior Of Rome. List of Roman legions Siege of Dura-Europos livius.org account of Legio IV Scythica
A Roman legion was a large unit of the Roman army. In the early Roman Kingdom "legion" may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few and unreliable; the subsequent organization of legions varied over time but legions were composed of around five thousand soldiers. During much of the republican era, a legion was divided into three lines of ten maniples. In the late republic and much of the imperial period, a legion was divided into ten cohorts, each of six centuries. Legions included a small ala, or cavalry, unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. For most of the Roman Imperial period, the legions formed the Roman army's elite heavy infantry, recruited from Roman citizens, while the remainder of the army consisted of auxiliaries, who provided additional infantry and the vast majority of the Roman army's cavalry.
The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted of auxiliaries rather than legions. Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, notably Legio V Macedonica, founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt; because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified; the republican legions were composed of levied men that paid for their own equipment and thus the structure of the Roman army at this time reflected the society, at any time there would be four consular legions and in time of war extra legions could be levied. Toward the end of the 2nd century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army; this prompted consul Gaius Marius to remove property qualifications and decree that all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for service in the Roman army with equipment and rewards for fulfilling years of service provided by the state.
The Roman army became a volunteer and standing army which extended service beyond Roman citizens but to non-citizens that could sign on as auxillia and were rewarded Roman citizenship upon completion of service and all the rights and privileges that entailed. In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions and this remained the figure for most of the empire's history; the legion evolved from 3,000 men in the Roman Republic to over 5,200 men in the Roman Empire, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century, ten cohorts made up a Roman legion; this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size with the first cohort being of double strength. By the fourth century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them; this had come about as the large formation legion and auxiliary unit, 10,000 men, was broken down into smaller units - temporary detachments - to cover more territory.
In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the Republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. A legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries, it was always accompanied by one or more attached units of auxiliaries, who were not Roman citizens and provided cavalry, ranged troops and skirmishers to complement the legion's heavy infantry. The recruitment of non-citizens appears to have occurred in times of great need. A Legion consisted of a Contubernium, consisted of 8 Legionaries; these Legionaries Were accompanied by 2 slaves. The Legionaries would select a man amongst their ranks to become a Decanus this was more of an election than a decision by one person; the size of a typical legion varied throughout the history of ancient Rome, with complements of 4,200 legionaries and 300 equites in the republican period of Rome, to 5,200 men plus 120 auxiliaries in the imperial period.
In the period before the raising of the legio and the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Republic, forces are described as being organized into centuries of one hundred men. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them; such independent organization persisted until the 2nd century BC amongst light infantry and cavalry, but was discarded in periods with the supporting role taken instead by allied troops. The roles of century leader, secon
Diocletian, born Diocles, was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor; the title was claimed by Carus' surviving son, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century, he appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus, co-emperor, in 286. Diocletian reigned in the Eastern Empire, Maximian reigned in the Western Empire. Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively. Under this'tetrarchy', or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire. Diocletian purged it of all threats to his power, he defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between 285 and 299, the Alamanni in 288, usurpers in Egypt between 297 and 298.
Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned against Sassanid Persia, the empire's traditional enemy. In 299 he sacked Ctesiphon. Diocletian achieved a lasting and favourable peace. Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire, he established new administrative centres in Nicomedia, Mediolanum and Trevorum, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism, he styled himself an autocrat, elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonies and architecture. Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. From at least 297 on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, levied at higher rates. Not all of Diocletian's plans were successful: the Edict on Maximum Prices, his attempt to curb inflation via price controls, was counterproductive and ignored.
Although effective while he ruled, Diocletian's tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine, sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively. The Diocletianic Persecution, the empire's last and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity, failed to eliminate Christianity in the empire. Despite these failures and challenges, Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain intact for another 150 years despite being near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth. Weakened by illness, Diocletian left the imperial office on 1 May 305, became the first Roman emperor to abdicate the position voluntarily, he lived out his retirement in his palace on the Dalmatian coast. His palace became the core of the modern-day city of Split in Croatia. Diocletian was born near Salona in Dalmatia, some time around 244.
His parents gave him the Greek name Diocles, or Diocles Valerius. The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes his official birthday, 22 December, as his actual birthdate. Other historians are not so certain, his parents were of low status. The first forty years of his life are obscure; the Byzantine chronicler Joannes Zonaras states that he was Dux Moesiae, a commander of forces on the lower Danube. The often-unreliable Historia Augusta states that he served in Gaul, but this account is not corroborated by other sources and is ignored by modern historians of the period; the first time Diocletian's whereabouts are established, in 282, the Emperor Carus made him commander of the Protectores domestici, the elite cavalry force directly attached to the Imperial household – a post that earned him the honour of a consulship in 283. As such, he took part in Carus' subsequent Persian campaign. Carus's death, amid a successful war with Persia and in mysterious circumstances – he was believed to have been struck by lightning or killed by Persian soldiers – left his sons Numerian and Carinus as the new Augusti.
Carinus made his way to Rome from his post in Gaul as imperial commissioner and arrived there by January 284, becoming legitimate Emperor in the West. Numerian lingered in the East; the Roman withdrawal from Persia was unopposed. The Sassanid king Bahram II could not field an army against them as he was still struggling to establish his authority. By March 284, Numerian had only reached Emesa in Syria. In Emesa he was still alive and in good health: he issued the only extant rescript in his name there, but after he left the city, his staff, including the prefect Aper, reported that he suffered from an inflammation of the eyes, he travelled in a closed coach from on. When the army reached Bithynia, some of the soldiers smelled an odor emanating from the coach, they opened its curtains and inside
Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of different extent at different periods, but covering what is now the district of Bozkır and its surroundings in the Konya Province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. In its coastal extension it bordered on Cilicia, it derives its name from the contentious Isaurian tribe and twin settlements Isaura Palaea and Isaura Nea. Isaurian marauders were fiercely independent mountain people who created havoc in neighboring districts under Macedonian and Roman occupations; the permanent nucleus of Isauria was north of the Taurus range which lies directly to south of Iconium and Lystra. Lycaonia had all the Iconian plain, its two original towns, Isaura Nea and Isaura Palaea, one among these foothills and the other on the watershed. Approx N37° 29′ E32° 12′ near Bozkir. In the 4th century BC, Isauria was the wild district about Isaura Palaea and the heads of the Calycadnus; when the capital, Isaura, a fortified city at the foot of Mt. Taurus, was besieged by Perdiccas, the Macedonian regent after Alexander the Great's death, the Isaurians set the place alight and let it perish in flames rather than submit to capture.
When the Romans first encountered the Isaurians, they regarded Cilicia Trachea as part of Isauria, which thus extended to the Mediterranean Sea. The whole basin of the Calycadnus was reckoned Isaurian, the cities in the valley of its southern branch formed what was known as the Isaurian Decapolis; the Isaurians were brought under control by the Romans. During the war of the Cilician and other pirates against Rome, the Isaurians took so active a part that the proconsul P. Servilius deemed it necessary to follow them into their rugged strongholds, compel the whole people to submission, an exploit for which he received the title of Isauricus; the Isaurians were afterwards placed for a time under the rule of king of Galatia. In the 3rd century they sheltered the rebel emperor Trebellianus. In the early 4th century, all Cilicia was detached by order of Diocletian for administrative purposes from the northern slope of Taurus, we find a province called at first Isauria-Lycaonia, Isauria alone, extending up to the limits of Galatia, but not passing Taurus on the south.
Pisidia, part of which had hitherto been included in one province with Isauria, was detached, made to include Iconium. The coastal Metropolis of Seleucia was designated as Isauria's provincial capital. In the 4th century they were still described by Ammianus Marcellinus as the scourge of the neighbouring provinces of Asia Minor, with a major series of raids occurring from AD 404 to 409, including one campaign to eradicate them led by the Eastern Roman general Arbazacius, but they were said to have been effectually subdued in the reign of Justinian I. Several Byzantine emperors were οf Isaurian descent: Zeno, whose native name was Tarasicodissa Rousoumbladadiotes, Leontios who reigned from 695 to 698, Leo III, who ascended the throne of Constantinople in 718, reigned until 741, his son Constantine V; the empire used Isaurians as soldiers, generals and at one point they formed part of the emperor's personal guard, the Excubitores. However, the population of Constantinople considered the Isaurians as barbarians, emperor Anastasius I had to fight a long war against Isaurian rebels.
The site contains ruins of its fortifications. The ruins of Isaura Palaea are remarkable for their fine situation and tombs; those of Isaura Nea have disappeared, but numerous inscriptions and many sculpture stelae, built into the houses of Dorla, prove the site. It was the latter, not the former town, that Servilius reduced by cutting off the water supply. J. R. S. Sterrett explored in the highland of Isauria in 1885 but it was not exhaustive; the site was identified by W. M. Ramsay in 1901. Ramsay discovered there more than fifty Greek inscriptions, the greater number Christian, as well as magnificent tombs; these monuments date from the third and fifth centuries. The Isaurian church was under the authority of the Patriarch of Antioch, but was attached to the Patriarch of Constantinople in the late 7th or early 8th century; because Aetius, fl 451. is called in inscriptions bishop of Isauropolis and Isaura Palaea and as no Notitia episcopatuum makes mention of Isaura, or Isauropolis, Ramsay supposes that the Diocese of Isaura Nova was early joined with that of Leontopolis, the more recent name of Isaura Palaea, mentioned in all the "Notitiae".
Ancient regions of Anatolia Isaurians Olba — Hellenistic period city in Isauria
Legio X Gemina
Legio decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was one of the four legions used for his invasion of Gaul. There are still records of the X Gemina in Vienna in the beginning of the 5th century; the legion symbol was a bull. Early on in its history, the legion was called X Equestris, because Caesar once used the legionaries as cavalry. See Legio X EquestrisIn the Gallic Wars, X Equestris played an important role on Caesar's military success and for this reason is sometimes said to be his favorite. In Caesar's campaigns they were present in the battle of the Sabis, the invasions of Britain, the battle of Gergovia, they remained faithful to Caesar in the civil war against Pompey, being present in the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. In 45 BC Caesar disbanded the legion, giving the veterans farmlands near Narbonne in Gaul and in Hispania; the legion was reconstituted in 42 BC and fought for Augustus and Mark Antony in the Battle of Philippi against the murderers of Caesar. After this, they followed Mark Antony in his campaign against Parthia and were defeated with him at Actium.
Augustus took control of the legion and settled the veterans in Patras. The legion lost its cognomen Equestris as punishment. Replacements were added from other legions, the Tenth was rebaptized Gemina. From about 30 BC the newly formed X Gemina was relocated to Petavonium in Hispania Tarraconensis, where Augustus was preparing a campaign against the Cantabrians, their veterans were among the first inhabitants of modern Zaragoza and Emerita Augusta, modern Mérida. The legion was sent to Carnuntum in Pannonia in about 63 AD after legio XV Apollinaris left and went to the east. During the brief reign of Galba, it was transferred back to Hispania. However, its stay in Hispania was to be brief. In 70, after the Batavian rebellion was suppressed by the new emperor Vespasian, X Gemina was sent to Batavia in Germania Inferior to police the lands and prevent new revolts. From 71 to 103, the legion was stationed at the base built by II Adiutrix at Oppidum Batavorum, the present day Dutch city of Nijmegen.
As part of the army of Germania Inferior, X Gemina fought against the rebellion of the governor of Germania Superior, L. Antonius Saturninus, against Emperor Domitian. For this reason, the Tenth — as well as the other legions of the army, I Minervia, VI Victrix, XXII Primigenia — received the title Pia Fidelis Domitiana, "faithful and loyal to Domitian", with the reference to the Emperor dropped at his death and subsequent damnatio memoriae. During the Trajan's first campaign in Dacia, the legion participated at the Second Battle of Tapae, fighting against the army of the Dacians led by King Decebalus. In 103, it was moved to Aquincum and to Vindobona, in Pannonia Superior, which would be the legion's camp until the 5th century. Vexillationes of the X Gemina fought against the rebellion of Simon bar Kokhba in 132-135, in Iudaea, others participated in the Parthian campaign of Lucius Verus in 162. Another major campaign was the one fought against the Quadi and the Lombards, in Moravia, under the command of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
A garrison of Legio X GPF was found in the Czech Republic in Roman fortress in Moravia X Gemina supported its governor, Septimius Severus, in his bid for purple, many men of the legion went to Rome to become part of the Praetorian Guard of the new Emperor. During the 3rd century, the legion fought for several emperors, who awarded the legion with titles showing the fidelity of the legion and the favour gained by the Emperor himself; the titles Antoniniana, Deciana and Cariniana were short-lived and dropped after the death of the Emperor. For its support of Emperor Gallienus against Postumus, the Gemina was awarded the title Pia VI Fidelis VI, "six times faithful, six times loyal". At the time in which Notitia Dignitatum was written, the first detachment of Decima Gemina was under the command of the Magister Militum per Orientem, was a comitatensis unit; the other detachment was still in Vindobona, under the command of the Dux Pannoniae primae et Norici ripensis. - Lucius Lavius Luci filius Aemilia tri Tuscus Felicitis Iulia miles legionis X Geminae Victricis- Porto, Portugal.
AE 1953, 268. - sacrum Caius Valerius Carus miles legionis X Geminae votum solvit libens merito. Lugo, Spain. Hisp. Epi. 19118. - Caius Iulius Sergia Hispali Victor miles legionis X Gemina (centuria Fabi Celtiberi annorum XLII aerum / XVIII hic. Pontevedra, Spain. CIL II 2545. - Iovi Augusto Ultori sacrum Lucius Valerius Paternus miles legionis X Geminae optio centuria Censoris exs. Pontevedra, Spain. AE 1908, 147. - Gaius Iulius Primus miles veteranus. Jaen, Andalucía, Spain. CIL II2/5, 5. - Dis Manibus Gaio Urbanio Firmino militi legionis. Jaen, Andalucía, Spain. CIL II 1691 - Capito Sunnae filius decurio equitum alae geminae legionis X Rustica Galli filia. Sevilla, Spain. CIL II2/5, 1136. - Publius Talius Quinti filius. Beja, Portugal. Hisp. Epi. 23031. - Marcus Aurelius Marci filius. Beja, Portugal. AE 1980, 562. - Lucius Octavius Luci fillius Pupinia Baeterensis Magius annorum XXXVII / aerorum XIX tubicen / miles legionis X Geminae. Astorga, Spain. AE 1928, 163. - Caius Pelgus Luci filius Scaptia Cle