Legio I Parthica
Legio prima Parthica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD197 by the emperor Septimius Severus for his forthcoming war against Parthia. The legions presence in the Middle East is recorded until the early 5th century, the legions I, II, and III Parthica were levied by Septimius Severus for his campaign against the Parthian Empire. Legionaries from I Parthica were usually sent to provinces, namely Lycia, Cilicia. After that, the legion was moved to Constantina, where it is last mentioned in the 5th century, the legion emblem was the centaur. List of Roman legions Roman legion livius. org account of Legio I Parthica
Legio III Gallica
Legio tertia Gallica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against the conservative Republicans led by Pompey. The cognomen Gallica suggests that recruits were originally from Gaul, the legion was still active in Egypt in the early 4th century. The legions symbol was a bull, the legion took part in all Julius Caesars campaigns against his enemies, including the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Following Caesars death, III Gallica was integrated in the army of Mark Antony and they were included in the army levied by Fulvia and Lucius Antonius to oppose Octavian, but ended by surrendering in Perugia, in the winter of 41 BC. After the battle of Actium and Antonys suicide during Antonys civil war, the III Gallica was sent again to the East, III Gallica was used in Gnaeus Domitius Corbulos campaign against the Parthians over the control of Armenia. Corbulos successes triggered the emperor Neros paranoia of persecution and eventually the general was forced to commit suicide, after this, III Gallica was transferred to the province of Moesia on the Danube.
In the Year of the Four Emperors in 69, the legion, and they were instrumental in the final defeat of Vitellius in the second Battle of Bedriacum and in the accession of the Flavians to the throne of Rome. This legion during its service in Syria had developed the custom of saluting the rising sun, the Vitellian forces thought that they were saluting reinforcements from the east and lost heart. In these years, one of the tribunes of the III Gallica was Pliny the Younger. After this civil war, the legion was sent to Syria. They took part in Lucius Verus campaign and in next Septimius Severus campaign against the Parthian Empire, during the reign of Roman Emperor Caracalla, the Legion left an inscription amongst the Commemorative stela of Nahr el-Kalb. III Gallica played a role in the early reign of Elagabalus. In 218, during Macrinus reign, Julia Maesa went to Raphana and she largely donated to the legion, which, in turn, proclaimed emperor Julia Maesas grandson, the fourteen-year-old Elagabalus, on the dawn of 16 May.
On June 8,218 near Antioch, Elagabalus tutor, defeated Macrinus and his son, with the help of the III Gallica and the other legions of the East. In 219, the legion, exhausted by Elagabalus excesses, supported its commander, senator Verus, Elagabalus had Verus executed, and dispersed the legion. The legionaries were transferred namely to III Augusta, stationed in the Africa provinces, the following emperor, Alexander Severus, reconstituted the legion and redeployed them back in Syria. Valerius Comazon entered in Elagabalus court, becoming prefect of the Praetorian Guard, III Gallica records become obscure. Little is known about the whereabouts, but, in 323
Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He is known for building Hadrians Wall, which marked the limit of Britannia. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus, philhellene in most of his tastes, he is considered by some to have been a humanist, and he is regarded as the third of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family, although Italica near Santiponce is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. It is generally accepted that he came from a family with roots in Hispania. His predecessor, was a cousin of Hadrians father. Trajan did not designate an heir officially, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajans wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian travelled to every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and he used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism, and this led to the establishment of one of the most popular cults of ancient times.
Hadrian spent a deal of time with the military, he usually wore military attire and even dined. He ordered rigorous military training and drilling and made use of reports of attacks to keep the army on alert. On his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajans conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 138 Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on the condition that he adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his own heirs and they would eventually succeed Antoninus as co-emperors. Hadrian died the year at Baiae. In Hadrians time, there was already an established convention that one could not write a contemporary Roman imperial history for fear of competing with the emperors themselves. Information on the history of Hadrians reign comes mostly from later. A general account of his reign is Book 69 of the early 3rd century Roman History by Cassius Dio and his original Greek text of this book is lost, what survives is a brief, much later, Byzantine-era abridgment by the 11th century monk Xiphilinius.
He selected from Dios account of Hadrians reign based on his religious interests
Viminacium was a major city and military camp of the Roman province of Moesia, and the capital of Moesia Superior. The site is located 12 km from the town of Kostolac in Eastern Serbia. The city dates back to the 1st century AD, and at its peak it is believed to have had 40,000 inhabitants and it lies on the Roman road Via Militaris. Viminacium was devastated by Huns in the 5th century, but was rebuilt by Justinian. It was completely destroyed with the arrival of Slavs in the 6th century, the archaeological site occupies a total of 450 hectares, and contains remains of temples, squares, palaces and Roman baths. Viminacium was one of the most important Roman cities and military camps in the period from 1st to 4th centuries and its exceptional strategic importance was reflected both in the defense of the northern border of the Roman empire and in turn of communications and commercial transactions. No less appealing to the Romans was the hinterland of the Mlava river valley, in Roman times, the town on the northern side of relying directly on the branch of the Danube, while the western side, touching the walls Mlava rivers.
Only in the period, Viminacium spread to the left bank of Mlava. Thanks to the location and waterways, Viminacium represented one of areas where the encounter of cultures between East and West was inevitable. In Viminacium, Roman legion VII Claudia was stationed, and a civilian settlement emerged from the military camp. In 117 during the reign of Hadrian it received city status, in the camp,6.000 soldiers were stationed, and 30-40.000 lived nearby. In the first half of the 3rd century the city was in development, as evidenced by the fact that at that time it acquired the status of a Roman colony. Here, in 196, Septimius Severus declared his son Caracalla as successor with the status of Caesar, in the mausoleum and the excavated tombs, the Roman emperor Hostilian, who died in 251, was buried. A legion may have been stationed here as early as Augustus, in 33/34 AD a road was built, linking Viminacium and Ratiaria. Claudius garrisoned Viminacium and Novae as camps for the Moesian legions, the first legion attested at Viminacium was the VII Claudia that came from Dalmatia in 52 AD.
Emperor Trajan was headquartered here during the Dacian Wars and it became a colonia with minting privilege in 239 AD during the rule of Gordian III and housed the Legion VII and Legion IV. Emperor Hostilian was the son of the emperor Decius, who was killed in the ambush near the ancient city of Abrutus located in present-day Bulgaria. According to the old manuscript, emperor Hostilian and his came to Viminacium to supervise the organization of defense of northern borders
Gallienus was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire, while he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. The exact birth date of Gallienus is unknown, the Greek chronicler John Malalas and the Epitome de Caesaribus report that he was about 50 years old at the time of his death, meaning he was born around 218. He was the son of emperor Valerian and Mariniana, who may have been of senatorial rank, possibly the daughter of Egnatius Victor Marinianus, and his brother was Valerianus Minor. Inscriptions on coins connect him with Falerii in Etruria, which may have been his birthplace, it has yielded many inscriptions relating to his mothers family, Gallienus married Cornelia Salonina about ten years before his accession to the throne. When Valerian was proclaimed Emperor on 22 October 253, he asked the Senate to ratify the elevation of Gallienus to Caesar and he was designated Consul Ordinarius for 254.
As Marcus Aurelius and his adopted brother Lucius Verus had done an earlier, Gallienus. Valerian left for the East to stem the Persian threat, and Gallienus remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes on the Rhine and Danube. Gallienus spent most of his time in the provinces of the Rhine area, though he almost certainly visited the Danube area, according to numismatic evidence, he seems to have won many victories there, and a victory in Roman Dacia might be dated to that period. Even the hostile Latin tradition attributes success to him at this time, in 255 or 257, Gallienus was made Consul again, suggesting that he briefly visited Rome on those occasions, although no record survives. Valerian II had apparently died on the Danube, most likely in 258, Ingenuus may have been responsible for that calamity. Alternatively, the defeat and capture of Valerian at the battle of Edessa may have been the trigger for the subsequent revolts of Ingenuus, Regalianus, in any case, Gallienus reacted with great speed.
He left his son Saloninus as Caesar at Cologne, under the supervision of Albanus and he hastily crossed the Balkans, taking with him the new cavalry corps under the command of Aureolus and defeated Ingenuus at Mursa or Sirmium. The victory must be attributed mainly to the cavalry and its brilliant commander, Ingenuus was killed by his own guards or committed suicide by drowning himself after the fall of his capital, Sirmium. Franks broke through the lower Rhine, invading Gaul, some reaching as far as southern Spain, the Alamanni invaded, probably through Agri Decumates, likely followed by the Juthungi. After devastating Germania Superior and Raetia, they entered Italy, the first invasion of the Italian peninsula, aside from its most remote northern regions, since Hannibal 500 years before. When invaders reached the outskirts of Rome, they were repelled by an army assembled by the Senate, consisting of local troops. The battle of Mediolanum was decisive, and the Alamanni did not bother the empire for the ten years
Legio IX Hispana
Legio nona Hispana, Legio VIIII Hispana or Legio IX Hispana, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that existed from the 1st century BC until at least AD120. The legion fought in various provinces of the late Roman Republic, the legion disappears from surviving Roman records after c. AD120 and there is no extant account of what happened to it, the unknown fate of the legion has been the subject of considerable research and speculation. This view was popularized by the 1954 novel The Eagle of the Ninth in which the legion is said to have marched into Caledonia,120, than the legions supposed annihilation in Britain. The Nijmegen evidence has led to suggestions that IX Hispana was destroyed in conflicts of the 2nd century, suggestions include the Bar Kokhba revolt or Marcus Aurelius war against Parthia in Armenia. However, some scholars have ascribed the Nijmegen evidence to a detachment of IX Hispana. They continue to favor the British scenario, but concede that the disaster must have happened closer to 120 than 108.
The origin of the legion is uncertain, but a 9th legion seems to have participated in the siege of Asculum during the Social War in 90 BC. According to Stephen Dando-Collins the legion was raised, along with the 6th, 7th and 8th, when he became governor of Cisalpine Gaul in 58 BC, Julius Caesar inherited four legions, numbered VII to X, that were already based there. The Ninth may have been quartered in Aquileia to guard against attacks from the Illyrians, Caesar created two more legions, using all six for his attack on the Helvetii initiating the Gallic wars. The Caesarian Ninth Legion fought in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus, after his final victory, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled the veterans in the area of Picenum. Following Caesars assassination, Caesars ally Ventidius Bassus made attempts to recreate the 7th, 8th and 9th legions, Octavian recalled the veterans of the Ninth to fight against the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. After defeating Sextus, they were sent to the province of Macedonia, the Ninth remained with Octavian in his war of 31 BC against Mark Antony and fought by his side in the battle of Actium.
With Octavian, whom the Senate titled Augustus, established as ruler of the Roman world. The nickname Hispana is first found during the reign of Augustus, after this, the legion was probably part of the imperial army in the Rhine borderlands that was campaigning against the Germanic tribes. Following the abandonment of the Eastern Rhine area, the Ninth was relocated in Pannonia, in AD43 the legion most likely participated in the Roman invasion of Britain led by emperor Claudius and general Aulus Plautius, because they soon appear amongst the provincial garrison. In AD50, the Ninth was one of two legions that defeated the forces of Caratacus at Caer Caradoc, around the same year, the legion constructed a fort, Lindum Colonia, at Lincoln. Under the command of Caesius Nasica they put down the first revolt of Venutius between 52 and 57, the legion was reinforced with legionaries from the Germania provinces
The Gallo-Roman city of Lutetia was the predecessor of present-day Paris. The city was referred to as Λουκοτοκία by Strabon, Λευκοτεκία by Ptolemeus, the origin of this name is uncertain. The name may contain the Celtic root *luco-t-, which means mouse and -ekia, meaning the mice and which can be today in the Breton word logod, the Welsh llygod. Alternatively, it may derive from another Celtic root, luto- or luteuo-, which means marsh or swamp and which survives today in the Gaelic loth, as such, it would be related to other place names in Europe including Lutudarum, Lodève and Ludesse, and Lutitia. The oppidum of the Gallic tribe of the Parisii was originally believed to be on the Ile de la Cité from Caesars Gallic Wars. In 52 BC, a year or so before the end of the Gallic Wars, however the garrison led by Vercingetorixs lieutenant Camulogenus, whose army camped on the Mons Lutetius, fell to the Roman military forces led by Titus Labienus, one of Julius Caesars lieutenants. The Romans crushed the Gauls at nearby Melun and took control of Lutetia, the Gallo-Roman city was developed mainly on the hill on the south bank of the river where, starting in the 2nd century AD, public works and monuments were constructed.
The northern low-lying plain was easily flooded, under Roman rule, Lutetia was thoroughly Romanised with a population estimated at around 8,000. It did not have a deal of political importance - the capital of its province. The regular grid-plan of Lutetia marked it as a Roman city, the north-south axis was dictated by the need to cross the marshy riverbanks in the shortest possible distance, several routes converged at the bridgehead. On the Left Bank, the Rue St-Jacques and on the Right Bank, an aqueduct 26 km in length, with a flow rate estimated at 2000 cubic metres a day, provided the city with spring water collected from several points. To bridge the Bièvre valley at Arcueil-Cachan, a bridge was required, whose piers and ruined arches, still discernible and it was Christianised in the 3rd century, traditionally when St Denis became the citys first bishop. After a barbarian attack in 275 a surrounding wall was built on the Ile de la Cité with a fortified keep, Lutetia was renamed Paris in 360 AD, taking its name from the Gallic Parisii tribe name.
The name had already used for centuries as an adjective. The legend of the Breton city of Ys suggests a different, if less likely, the classical theatre began to be dismantled during the 4th century. For the history of the city after its renaming, see the article on Paris, remains of the ancient city are mainly buried below ground although many of these are gradually being discovered. In a small park on high ground in the Latin Quarter of the Left Bank, tucked behind apartment blocks, the amphitheatre, built into the slope of the hillside outside the city itself, is commonly referred to as Les Arènes de Lutèce. It was one of the largest such structures in Gaul, there are the remains of public baths at the Musée de Cluny and the Early Christian archeological crypt under the Notre Dame forecourt, now Place of Pope John-Paul II
Tiberius Claudius Maximus
Tiberius Claudius Maximus was a cavalryman in the Imperial Roman army who served in the Roman legions and Auxilia under the emperors Domitian and Trajan in the period AD 85-117. He is noted for presenting Trajan with the head of Dacian king Decebalus, Tiberius Claudius Maximus, arranged this memorial while he was alive. He received his discharge as a voluntarius from the consular commander Terentius Scaurianus. He was a Roman citizen at birth, as evidenced by his name and initial enlistment in a Roman legion and it is thus possible that Maximus was a descendant of an Italian veteran settled at Philippi by Augustus. Maximus was probably born around AD65, Maximus joined the army not than AD85. He served as an eques in the contingent of the legion VII Claudia. He claims to have held three positions in the contingent, although it is unclear whether all of these were formal military ranks or simply roles that Maximus had performed. Quaestor equitum, probably meaning treasurer of the cavalry contingent and this post is only attested in this inscription.
There is an attested fisci curator in the Praetorian cavalry, singularis legati legionis, presumably a select detail, probably one of the 4 turmae in the contingent. It is unclear whether a particular turma performed this role, or whether the turmae simply took turns to guard the general, in the latter case, it was not a rank. This is the one of the three positions which was certainly a military rank, a junior officer. In terms of pay, a legionary infantry vexillarius was probably a sesquiplicarius, Maximus fought in the Dacian War of emperor Domitian. It is thus probable that he was present at the First Battle of Tapae and he was decorated for bravery by the Emperor Domitian. Maximus served in the emperor Trajans Dacian Wars, Maximus was gazetted as a duplicarius, a junior officer in the regiment Ala II Pannoniorum. This move probably resulted in a significant pay-rise for Maximus and it appears that Maximus and his men cornered Decebalus in a mountainous location. However, before Maximus could reach him, Decebalus committed suicide by cutting his own throat, Maximus severed Decebalus head and presented it to the emperor Trajan at his campaign-base at Ranisstorum.
As reward, Trajan decorated Maximus and promoted him to the rank of decurion, Maximus served in Trajans Parthian War, and was again decorated for valour by the emperor. Maximus describes himself as a voluntarius in this war, probably because his term of service had previously expired
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility, Pompeys immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a commander in Sullas Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the nickname Magnus. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs, after the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar contended for the leadership of the Roman state, when Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Romes subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire, Pompeys family first gained the position of Consul in 141 BC.
Pompeys father, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was an equestrian from Picenum. He fought the Social War against Romes Italian allies and he supported Sulla, who belonged to the optimates, the pro-aristocracy faction, against Marius, who belonged to the populares, in Sullas first civil war. He died during the siege of Rome by the Marians in 87 BC, either as a casualty of an epidemic and his twenty-year-old son Pompey inherited his estates, and the loyalty of his legions. Pompey had served two years under his fathers command, and had participated in the part of the Social War. When his father died, Pompey was put on due to accusations that his father stole public property. As his father’s heir Pompey could be held to account and he discovered that this was committed by one of his fathers freedmen. Following his preliminary bouts with his accuser, the took a liking to Pompey and offered his daughter. Another civil war broke out between the Marians and Sulla, Cassius Dio added that Pompey had sent a detachment to pursue him, but he outstripped them by crossing the River Phasis.
He reached the Maeotis and stayed in the Cimmerian Bosporus and he had his son Machares, who ruled it and gone over to the Romans and recovered that country. Meanwhile, Pompey set up a colony for his soldiers at Nicopolitans in Cappadocia, in Plutarchs account Pompey was invited to invade Armenia by Tigranes’ son, who rebelled against his father. The two men received the submission of several towns, when they got close Artaxata Tigranes, knowing Pompey’s leniency and allowed a Roman garrison in his palace. Pompey offered the restitution of the Armenian territories in Syria, Cilicia, Galatia and he demanded an indemnity and ruled that the son should be king of Sophene
A Roman legion was the largest unit of the Roman army involving from 3000 men in early times to over 5200 men in imperial times, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century,10 cohorts made up a Roman Legion and this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size and one cohort, the first cohort, of double strength. In the early Roman Kingdom the legion may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few, Legions included a small ala or cavalry unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have even smaller. The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted mostly of auxiliaries rather than legions, because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, and were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified, toward the end of the 2nd Century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army.
In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions, a legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. The recruitment of non-citizens was rare but appears to have occurred in times of great need, For example, Caesar appears to have recruited the Legio V Alaudae mostly from non-citizen Gauls. In the period before the raising of the legio and the years of the Roman Kingdom. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them, the roles of century leader, second in command and standard bearer are referenced in this early period. Much Roman history of the era is shrouded in legend, but it is believed that during the reign of Servius Tullius, the census was introduced. Joining the army was both a duty and a mark of Roman citizenship, during the entire pre-Marian period the wealthiest land owners performed the most years of military service.
These individuals would have had the most to lose should the state have fallen. The first and wealthiest common class was armed in the fashion of the hoplite with spear, helmet, breast plate and round shield, there were 82 centuries of these, Roman soldiers had to purchase their own equipment. The second and third class acted as spearmen but were heavily armoured and carried a larger oval or rectangular shield. The fourth class could afford no armour, perhaps bearing a shield and armed with spear. All three of the latter made up about 26 centuries
Legio II Adiutrix
Legio secunda adiutrix, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD70 by the emperor Vespasian, originally composed of Roman navy marines of the classis Ravennatis. There are still records of II Adiutrix in the Rhine border in the beginning of the 4th century, the legions symbols were a Capricorn and Pegasus. The first assignment of II Adiutrix was in Germania Inferior, where the Batavian rebellion was at its peak, after the defeat of the rebels, II Adiutrix followed general Quintus Petillius Cerialis to Britain to deal with another rebellion led by Venutius. During the next years, the legion was to stay in the British Islands to subdue the tribes of Scotland and Wales. In 87, the legion was recalled to the continent to participate in the Dacian wars of emperor Domitian, between 94 and 95, still in Dacia, emperor Hadrian served as military tribune in the II Adiutrix. In the summer of 106 the legion took part to the siege of the Dacian Capital Sarmisegetusa, after Trajans Dacian Wars of 101-106, the legion was located in Aquincum, which would be its base camp for the years to come.
The Legion was commanded by Marcus Valerius Maximianus in Laugaricio, caracallas campaign against the Alemanni Gordians campaign against the Sassanid Empire In 193, II Adiutrix supported emperor Septimius Severus during his struggle for the purple. - Gaio Valerio Crispo veterano ex legione II Adiutrice Pia Fideli, - Lucius Terentius Claudia tribu Fuscus Apro miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis. - Lucius Valerius Luci filius Claudia tribu Seneca Savaria / miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis, - Gaius Calventius Gai filius Claudia tribu Celer Apro miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Vibi Clementis. - Gaius Iuventius Gai filius Claudia tribu Capito Apro / miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Iuli Clementis annorum XL stipendiorum XVII, - Quintus Valerius Quinti filius Claudia tribu Fronto Celea / miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis annorum L stipendiorum XXṾ. - Voltimesis P̣udens Gai filius Sergia tribu Augusta eques legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis annorum XXXII stipendiorum XIII hic situs est, - Gaius Murrius Gai filius Arniensis Foro Iuli Modestus miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Iuli Secundi annorum) XXV stipendiorum / hic situs est.
- Titus Valerius Titi filius Claudia tribu Pudens Savaria miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Dossenni Proculi annorum XXX aera VI heres de suo posuit hic situs est, - legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Ponti Proculi Lucius Licinius Luci filius Galeria tribu Saliga Lugdunonnorum XX stipendiorum II. - Quintus Cumelius / Quinti filius / Fabia Celer Bracarensis / veteranus legionis II Adiutricis hic situs annorum LXXV, - Fortunae Balneari sacrum / Valerius Bucco miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / decuria Aemili. - VICTORIAE AVGVSTORV EXERCITUS QVI LAV GARICIONE SEDIT MIL L II DCCCLV MAXIMIANUS LEG LEG II AD CVR F. Laugaricio, list of Roman legions Roman legion --> livius. org account of Legio II Adiutrix Familia Gladiatoria - Hungary, Hungarian reenactment group