Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome. Various traditions attribute the establishment of many of Rome's oldest legal, political and social institutions to Romulus and his contemporaries. Although many of these traditions incorporate elements of folklore, it is not clear to what extent a historical figure underlies the mythical Romulus, the events and institutions ascribed to him were central to the myths surrounding Rome's origins and cultural traditions; the myths concerning Romulus involve several distinct episodes and figures: the miraculous birth and youth of Romulus and Remus, his twin brother. Romulus and Remus, his twin brother, were the sons of Rhea Silvia, herself the daughter of Numitor, the former king of Alba Longa. Through them, the twins are descended from the Trojan hero Aeneas and Latinus, the mythical founder of the kingdom of Latium. Before the twins' birth, Numitor had been usurped by Amulius. After seizing the throne, Amulius murdered Numitor's son, condemned Rhea to perpetual virginity by consecrating her a Vestal.
Rhea, became pregnant, ostensibly by the god Mars. Amulius had her imprisoned, upon the twins' birth, ordered that they be thrown into the rain-swollen Tiber. Instead of carrying out the king's orders, his servants left the twins along the riverbank at the foot of Palatine Hill. In the traditional telling of the legend, a she-wolf happened upon the twins, who were at the foot of a fig tree, she suckled and tended them by a cave until they were found by the herdsman Faustulus and his wife, Acca Larentia. The brothers grew to manhood among hill-folk. After becoming involved in a conflict between the followers of Amulius and those of their grandfather Numitor, they learned the truth of their origin, they restored Numitor to the throne. The princes set out to establish a city of their own, they returned to the hills overlooking the site where they had been exposed as infants. They could not agree on; when an omen to resolve the controversy failed to provide a clear indication, the conflict escalated and Remus was killed by his brother or by his brother's follower.
In a variant of the legend, the augurs favoured Romulus, who proceeded to plough a square furrow around the Palatine Hill to demarcate the walls of the future city. When Remus derisively leapt over the "walls" to show how inadequate they were against invaders, he was struck down by Romulus in anger. In another variant, Remus died during a melée, along with Faustulus; the founding of the city by Romulus was commemorated annually on April 21, with the festival of the Parilia. His first act was to fortify the Palatine, in the course, he laid out the city's boundaries with a furrow that he ploughed, performed another sacrifice, with his followers set to work building the city itself. Romulus sought the assent of the people to become their king. With Numitor's help, he received their approval. Romulus accepted the crown after he sacrificed and prayed to Jupiter, after receiving favourable omens. Romulus divided the populace into three tribes, known as the Ramnes and Luceres, for taxation and military purposes.
Each tribe was presided over by an official known as a tribune, was further divided into ten curia, or wards, each presided over by an official known as a curio. Romulus allotted a portion of land to each ward, for the benefit of the people. Nothing is known of the manner in which the tribes and curiae were taxed, but for the military levy, each curia was responsible for providing one hundred foot soldiers, a unit known as a century, ten cavalry; each Romulean tribe thus provided about one thousand infantry, one century of cavalry. Choosing one hundred men from the leading families, Romulus established the Roman senate; these men he called the city fathers. The other class, known as the "plebs" or "plebeians", consisted of the servants, fugitives who sought asylum at Rome, those captured in war, others who were granted Roman citizenship over time. To encourage the growth of the city, Romulus outlawed infanticide, established an asylum for fugitives on the Capitoline Hill, where freemen and slaves alike could claim protection and seek Roman citizenship.
The new city was filled with colonists, most of whom were unmarried men. With no intermarriage between Rome and neighboring communities, the new city would fail. Romulus sent envoys to neighboring towns, appealing to them to allow intermarriage with Roman citizens, but his overtures were rebuffed. Romulus formulated a plan to acquire women from other settlements, he announced a momentous festival and games, invited the people of the neighboring cities to attend. Many did, in particular the Sabines. At a prearranged signal, the Romans began to snatch and carry off the marriageable women among their guests; the aggrieved cities prepared for war with Rome, might have defeated Romulus had they been united. But impatient with the preparations of the Sabines, the Latin towns of Caenina and Antemnae took action without their allies. Caenina was the first to attack.
A Coruña is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country; the city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean, it provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region. In English, use of the Spanish or Galician forms now predominates. However, the traditional English form Corunna can persist in reference to the Battle of Corunna in the Peninsular War. Archaically, English-speakers knew the city as "The Groyne" from French La Corogne. In Spain, the only official form of the name is now the Galician one: "A Coruña". Nonetheless, use of the Spanish form, La Coruña, remains widespread, it is the traditional name in Spanish recommended by the Real Academia Española for texts in Spanish.
Certain groups of people have advocated elevating the reintegrationist spelling "Corunha" to official status, pointing to the provisions of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and claiming that it is unconstitutional to stipulate use of the Real Academia Galega spelling, but they have not been successful as of 2018. There is no clear evidence as to, it seems to be from Crunia, of unknown meaning. At the time of Ferdinand II of León the name Crunia was documented for the first time; as usual in Galician-Portuguese, the cluster ni evolved into the sound, written n, nn or nh in old Galician orthography, nn in Spanish, nh in Portuguese and alternative Galician spelling. "A" is the Galician article equivalent to English the. One proposed etymology derives Crunia from the town in France. During its height the Cluniac religious movement became prominent in Europe. There is another town named Coruña in Burgos Province. Another possibility is that the name means "The Crown"; the Galician word for "crown" is coroa.
It is possible it came about through changes to the French La Couronne meaning "the Crown". It seems less that it traces back to the Galician clunia. A folk etymology incorrectly derives Tower of Hercules. A Coruña is located on a peninsula, its isthmus was at times formed only by a small strip of sand. Erosion and sea currents caused a progressive accumulation of sand, enlarging it to its present dimensions. A Coruña has five parishes or "parroquias": A Coruña Elviña Oza San Cristovo das Viñas Visma A Coruña has a warm-summer mediterranean climate in the Köppen climate classification moderated by the Atlantic Ocean. Autumn and winter are unsettled and unpredictable, with strong winds and abundant rainfall coming from Atlantic depressions, it is overcast; the ocean keeps temperatures mild, frost and snow are rare. Summers are sunny, with only occasional rainfall. Spring is cool and calm; the warmest month on record was subdued, being August 2003 with an average high temperature of 25 °C. Temperatures above 25 °C occur many days in the summer, while temperatures above 30 °C are infrequent.
A Coruña spread onto the mainland. The oldest part, known popularly in Galician as Cidade Vella, Cidade Alta or the Cidade, is built on an ancient Celtic castro, it was inhabited by the Brigantes and Artabrians, the Celtic tribes of the area. The Romans came to the region in the 2nd century BC, the colonisers made the most of the strategic position and soon the city became quite important in maritime trade. In 62 BC Julius Caesar came to the city in pursuit of the metal trade, establishing commerce with what are now France and Portugal; the town began growing during the 1st and 2nd centuries, but declined after the 4th century and with the incursions of the Normans, which forced the population to flee towards the interior of the Estuary of O Burgo. After the fall of the Roman Empire, A Coruña still had a commercial port connected to foreign countries, but contacts with the Mediterranean were replaced by a more Atlantic-oriented focus; the process of deurbanisation that followed the fall of the Roman Empire affected A Coruña.
Between the 7th and 8th centuries, the city was no more than a little village of labourers and sailors. The 11th-century Chronica iriense names Faro do Burgo as one of the dioceses that king Miro granted to the episcopate of Iria Flavia in the year 572: "Mirus Rex Sedi suae Hiriensi contulit Dioceses, scilicet Morratium, Bregantinos, Farum..."""The Muslim invasion of the Iberian peninsula left no archaeological evidence in the northwest, so it cannot be said whether or not the Muslim invaders reached the city. As Muslim rule in early 8th century Galicia consisted little more than a short-lived overlordship of th
Germania was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited by Germanic peoples. It extended from the Danube and Main in the south to the Baltic Sea, from the Rhine in the west to the Vistula; the Roman portions formed two provinces of the Empire, Germania Inferior to the north, Germania Superior to the south. Germania was inhabited by Germanic tribes, but Celts, Scythians and on Early Slavs; the population mix changed over time by assimilation, by migration. The ancient Greeks were the first to mention the tribes in the area. Julius Caesar wrote about warlike Germanic tribesmen and their threat to Roman Gaul, there were military clashes between the Romans and the indigenous tribes. Tacitus wrote the most complete account of Germania; the origin of the term "Germania" is uncertain, but was known by Caesar's time, may be Gaulish in origin. The ethnonym Germani is most Gallic in origin. Jacob Grimm derived it from a Celtic term for "shouting. Johann Kaspar Zeuss derived the name from the Celtic word for "neighbour".
Germani enters into Latin use following Julius Caesar. Caesar in De Bello Gallico reports hearing from his Remi allies that the term Germani was for a group that had come from across the Rhine, named Germani Cisrhenani. By extension, Germani was understood to include similar tribes still living beyond the Rhine. Tacitus, writing in AD 98, reports that the Tungri of his time, who lived in the area, home to the Germani Cisrhenani, had changed their name, but had once been the original Germani: For the rest, they affirm Germania to be a recent word bestowed. For those who first passed the Rhine and expulsed the Gauls, are now named Tungrians, were called Germani, and thus by degrees the name of a tribe prevailed, not that of the nation. Names of Germany in English and some other languages are derived from "Germania", but German speakers call it "Deutschland", Dutch speakers call it "Duitsland", both from *þeudō "people or nation". Several modern languages use the name "Germania", including Hebrew, Albanian, Maltese, Romanian, Russian and Georgian.
Germania extended from the Rhine eastward to the Vistula river, from the Danube and Main river northward to the Baltic Sea. The areas west of the Rhine were Celtic and became part of the Roman Empire in the first century BC; the Roman parts of Germania, "Lesser Germania" formed two provinces of the empire, Germania Inferior, "Lower Germania" and Germania Superior. Important cities in Lesser Germania included Besançon, Strasbourg and Mainz; the geography of Magna Germania was comprehensively described in Ptolemy's Geography of around 150 AD via geographical coordinates of the main cities. By means of a geodetic deformation analysis carried out by the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science at the Technical University of Berlin as part of a project of the German Research Association under the direction of Dieter Lelgemann in 2007–2010, many historical place names have been localized and associated with place names of the present day. Germania was inhabited by different tribes, most of them Germanic but some Celtic, proto-Slavic and Scythian peoples.
The tribal and ethnic makeup changed over the centuries as a result of assimilation and, most migrations. The Germanic people spoke several different dialects. Classical records show little about the people who inhabited the north of Europe before the 2nd century BC. In the 5th century BC, the Greeks were aware of a group. Herodotus mentioned the Scythians but no other tribes. At around 320 BC, Pytheas of Massalia sailed around Britain and along the northern coast of Europe, what he found on his journeys was so strange that writers refused to believe him, he may have been the first Mediterranean to distinguish the Germanic people from the Celts. Contact between German tribes and the Roman Empire did was not always hostile. Recent excavations of the Waldgirmes Forum show signs that a civilian Roman town was established there, interpreted to mean that Romans and Germanic tribesmen were living in peace, at least for a while. Caesar described the cultural differences between the Germanic tribesmen, the Romans, the Gauls in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, where he recalls his defeat of the Suebi tribes at the Battle of Vosges.
He describes them at length at the beginning of Book IV and the middle of Book VI. He states that the Gauls, although warlike, had a functional society and could be civilized, but that the Germanic tribesmen were far more savage and were a threat to Roman Gaul and Rome itself. Caesar said the Germanic tribes were nomadic, with a primitive culture, he used this as one of his justifications for. Hi
Zamora is a city in Castile and León, the capital of the province of Zamora. It lies on a rocky hill in the northwest, near the frontier with Portugal and crossed by the Duero river, some 50 kilometres downstream as it reaches the Portuguese border. With its 24 characteristic Romanesque style churches of the 12th and 13th centuries it has been called a "museum of Romanesque art". Zamora is the city with the most Romanesque churches in all of Europe; the most important celebration in Zamora is the Holy Week. After the Roman victory over the Lusitanian hero Viriathus the settlement was named by the Romans, Occelum Durii or Ocellodurum. During Roman rule it was in the hands of the Vaccaei, was incorporated into the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis, it was on the road from Emerita to Asturica Augusta.. Two coins from the reign of the Visigothic king Sisebuto, show that it was known at the time as "Semure". During the period of Moorish rule the settlement became known by the names of "Semurah" or "Azemur".
After the establishment of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias, the settlement became a strategic frontier post and was the scene of many fierce military engagements between the Muslims and Christians. Control of the town shifted between the two sides a number of times from the early 8th century to the late 10th century. During this period it became fortified; the most notable historic episode in Zamora was the assassination outside the city walls of the king Sancho II of Castile in 1072. Some decades before, king Ferdinand I of León had divided his kingdoms between his three sons. To his daughter, Doña Urraca, he had bequeathed the "well fortified city of Zamora". All three sons warred among themselves, till the ultimate winner, was left victorious. Zamora, under his sister, allied with Leonese nobles, resisted. Sancho II of Castile, assisted by El Cid, lay siege to Zamora. King Sancho II was murdered by a duplicitous noble of Zamora, Bellido Dolfos, who tricked the king into a private meeting. After the death of Sancho, Castile reverted to his deposed brother Alfonso VI of León.
The event was commemorated by the Portillo de la Traición. Zamora was the scene of fierce fighting in the 15th century, during the conflict between the supporters of Isabella the Catholic and Juana la Beltraneja; the Spanish proverb, No se ganó Zamora en una hora Zamora wasn't won in an hour, is a reference to these battles. It is the Spanish equivalent of the English proverb "Rome wasn't built in a day." During the 12th century, the city was extraordinarily important for its strategic position in the wars between the Kingdom of León and the Almoravids and Almohads. As a result, the city preserves many buildings from that time. In the 1140s and 1150s it was ruled by Prince Ponce Giraldo de Cabrera, who has a street named after him in the city today. In the next centuries, the city lost its political and economic relevance and suffered emigration to South America. Henry IV granted Zamora the epithet of "most noble and most loyal city". During the Spanish Civil War, Zamora was from the start of the military rebellion a nationalist held city.
The savagery of the repression against leftists and liberals is captured in Ramón Sender Barayón's'A Death in Zamora', which tells of the extrajudicial murder of his mother, Amparo Barayon, the wife of the famous novelist Ramon Sender. Main sights of Zamora include: Cathedral, in Romanesque style, dating to the 12th century, taking only 23 years to build. Medieval Castle of Zamora. Palacio de los Condes de Alba y Aliste, built in 1459 by the first Count of Alva y Aliste, it boasts a staircase decorated with carvings by artists from Lombardy. Calle Balborraz. Church of San Pedro y San Ildefonso, built from the 11th century over a Visigothic temple, it was reformed in Romanesque style in the 12th–13th centuries, but was much renovated in the 15th and 18th centuries. It has presently a single nave with cross vaults Church of Santa María Magdalena; the southern façade is in Romanesque style. Church of San Isidoro, it has one nave, having a square major chapel. The exterior features two ogival arcades with archivolts.
Church of San Claudio de Olivares, known from the 12th century. Of small size, it has a single nave with a semicircular apse; the columns of the nave have carvings. Church of San Juan de Puerta Nueva. Church of Santa María la Nueva. Church of Santiago de los Caballeros, located outside the city walls. El Cid was created knight here. Church of Santiago El Burgo City walls: three walled enclosures dating back to the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. Museo de Semana Santa de Zamora: Opposite the Church of Santa María la Nueva, dedicated to Semana Santa de Zamora the processions during which are celebrated with particular ceremony in Zamora; the museum holds a large collection of pasos, the figures which are carried in procession through the streets by various'cofradías' or brotherhoods. See Holy Week in Zamora Arcenillas church Hiniesta church The Church of San Pedro de la Nave, was founded in the 7th century, rebuilt in the 12th century, is one of the three best-preserved Visigothic churches in all of Spain.
It was moved stone by stone and re-erected, owing to the const
The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period; the Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups who had invaded the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient; the Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410. After the Visigoths sacked Rome, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD; the Visigoths first settled in southern Gaul as foederati to the Romans – a relationship established in 418. However, they soon fell out with their Roman hosts and established their own kingdom with its capital at Toulouse.
They next extended their authority into Hispania at the expense of the Vandals. In 507, their rule in Gaul was ended by the Franks under Clovis I, who defeated them in the Battle of Vouillé. After that, the Visigoth kingdom was limited to Hispania, they never again held territory north of the Pyrenees other than Septimania. A small, elite group of Visigoths came to dominate the governance of that region at the expense of those who had ruled there in the Byzantine province of Spania and the Kingdom of the Suebi. In or around 589, the Visigoths under Reccared I converted from Arianism to Nicene Christianity adopting the culture of their Hispano-Roman subjects, their legal code, the Visigothic Code abolished the longstanding practice of applying different laws for Romans and Visigoths. Once legal distinctions were no longer being made between Romani and Gothi, they became known collectively as Hispani. In the century that followed, the region was dominated by the Councils of the episcopacy. In 711 or 712, an invading force of Arabs and Berbers defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete.
Their king and many members of their governing elite were killed, their kingdom collapsed. During their governance of Hispania, the Visigoths built several churches, they left many artifacts, which have been discovered in increasing numbers by archaeologists in recent times. The Treasure of Guarrazar of votive crowns and crosses is the most spectacular, they founded the only new cities in western Europe from the fall of the Western half of the Roman Empire until the rise of the Carolingian dynasty. Many Visigothic names are still in use in modern Portuguese, their most notable legacy, was the Visigothic Code, which served, among other things, as the basis for court procedure in most of Christian Iberia until the Late Middle Ages, centuries after the demise of the kingdom. Contemporaneous references to the Gothic tribes use the terms "Vesi", "Ostrogothi", "Thervingi", "Greuthungi". Most scholars have concluded that the terms "Vesi" and "Tervingi" were both used to refer to one particular tribe, while the terms "Ostrogothi" and "Greuthungi" were used to refer to another.
Herwig Wolfram points out that while primary sources list all four names, whenever they mention two different tribes, they always refer either to "the Vesi and the Ostrogothi" or to "the Tervingi and the Greuthungi", they never pair them up in any other combination. This conclusion is supported by Jordanes, who identified the Visigoth kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the heirs of the 4th century Tervingian king Athanaric, the Ostrogoth kings from Theoderic the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungi king Ermanaric. In addition, the Notitia Dignitatum equates the Vesi with the Tervingi in a reference to the years 388–391; the earliest sources for each of the four names are contemporaneous. The first recorded reference to "the Tervingi" is in a eulogy of the emperor Maximian, delivered in or shortly after 291 and traditionally ascribed to Claudius Mamertinus, it says that the "Tervingi, another division of the Goths", joined with the Taifali to attack the Vandals and Gepidae. The first recorded reference to "the Greuthungi" is by Ammianus Marcellinus, writing no earlier than 392 and later than 395, recounting the words of a Tervingian chieftain, attested as early as 376.
The first known use of the term "Ostrogoths" is in a document dated September 392 from Milan. Wolfram notes that "Vesi" and "Ostrogothi" were terms each tribe used to boastfully describe itself and argues that "Tervingi" and "Greuthungi" were geographical identifiers each tribe used to describe the other; this would explain why the latter terms dropped out of use shortly after 400, when the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions. As an example of this geographical naming practice, Wolfram cites an account by Zosimus of a group of people living north of the Danube who called themselves "the Scythians" but were called "the Greutungi" by members of a different tribe living
Chaves is a city and a municipality in the north of Portugal. It is 22 km south of Verín; the population in 2011 was 41,243, in an area of 591.23 km2. The municipality is the second most populous of the district of Vila Real. With origins in the Roman civitas Aquæ Flaviæ, Chaves has developed into a regional center; the urban area has 17,535 residents. Artefacts discovered in the region of Chaves identify the earliest settlement of humans dating back to the Paleolithic. Remnants discovered in Mairos, Pastoria and São Lourenço, those associated with transient proto-historic settlements and castros, show a human presence in the Alto Tâmega dating to the Chalcolithic; the region has seen persistent human settlement since Roman legions conquered and occupied the fertile valley of the Tâmega River, constructing a nascent outpost and taking over the existing castros in the area. The settlement was located at the convergence of three important Roman roads: the Bracara Augusta and Lamecum that crossed the Roman Province of Gallaecia, linking Rome to the region's natural resources.
It was a military centre known for its baths. This civilization constructed protective walls to protect the local population, its importance led to the urban nucleus being elevated to the status ofmunicipality in 79 AD, during the reign of the first Flavian Caesar, Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus. Its benefactor influenced its toponymy, becoming known as Aquae Flaviae. Artefacts from the area around the Matriz church indicate that Aquae Flaviae's centre was located in this place, in addition to an ancient headstone showing gladiatorial combat. Rome's hegemony lasted until the 3rd century, successively, the proto-Germanic tribes of the Suebi and Alani colonized the imperial settlements of Chaves. Wars between Remismund and Frumar followed over their claims to the throne, which completely destroyed the village; the Romans were complicit in Aquae Flaviae's near destruction. Barbarian dominion lasted until the Moors invaded from North Africa, defeating the Visigoth King Roderic at the beginning of the 8th century.
In course, the name of Aquae Flaviae began to disappear, being supplanted by the more Hispanic-sounding Aquae Calidae. Arab rule of the Iberian peninsula forced many Christians to escape from Chaves into the mountains in the northwest. Battles between the Christians and Muslim forces continued until the 11th century, when Alfonso V of León reconquered the territory. After defeating the last vestiges of Moorish influence, he reconstructed and encircled the settlement of Chaves with walls, in addition to establishing a Jewish quarter in the community, it was in the reign of Afonso I of Portugal that it was taken from León and integrated into the Kingdom of Portugal domain. Owing to its geographic location, King Denis, ordered the construction of a castle to protect the kingdom's border. During the reign of Afonso II, when the king continued to provoke the ire of the Papacy, Portuguese knights attacked the Galician tenancy of his half-brother Martin Sanches since the Bishop of Braga had estates in that region.
Provoking Sanches to invade northern Portugal. The Leonese fought battles in Barcelos and Guimarães, where they defeated Portuguese forces, before retiring to Galicia with their spoils. At the same time, Alfonso IX of León seized Chaves, which remained in Leonese hands until the reign of King Sancho II, when he and Ferdinand III met in 1230/1231; this was a self-serving decision on Fernando's part, as he was fearful that Leonese barons would support Sancho against him. Alfonso IX continued to occupy Chaves as a method of ensuring his wife, would be able to enjoy her properties in Portugal. During the Portuguese Interregnum, the nobility of Chaves supported Beatrice of Portugal, as she was heir presumptive to King Ferdinand I, since he left no male heirs; the potential loss of independence of Portugal, through her marriage to John I of Castile resulted in the rebellion by the Master of the Order of Aviz, who would garner the support of the Portuguese Cortes, thus laying the seeds for his triumph at the Battle of Aljubarrota.
Yet, many nobles refused to break their oaths of fielty to Beatrice, necessitating John's travel to Porto in force and scaring the nobles of Chaves and Bragança into capitulating. The remnants of the Roman baths, the houses used to assist the invalid, were demolished by the Count of Mesquitella at the end of the 17th century, in order to reinforce the defense of Chaves. French forces attacked in 1807, during the Siege of Chaves, part of the Peninsular Wars. On 7 March 1808, Soult's forces invaded northern Portugal to remove British forces from Iberia. Brigadier Francisco Silveira was charged with the defense of Chaves, but his 6000 men were unable to support its defense, abandoned the castle. An attempt to defend Chaves by Francisco Pizarro was futile, the city surrendered to French forces shortly after the engagement. With too many troops to imprison Soult released many under oath, in order to continue the attack on the main forces who had retreated to the south, but Francisco Silveira did not quit, as the main
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located over the territory of the present-day western Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Croatia, north-western Serbia, northern Slovenia, western Slovakia and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Julius Pokorny believed the name Pannonia is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, wet". Others believe that the name is related to the god of the nature and shepherds Pan and/or pan, the Proto-Slavic/Proto-Indo-European word for lord/master, which could mean Pan's Land or Land of the Master, more probable due the fact the Ionian fleet supplied Pannonia via the Black Sea and Danube, Panionium festivities were well known in the region to its Celtic, Adriatic Veneti and Scythian inhabitants. Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum, the "Hercynian mountain chain", in Pannonia and Dacia.
He gives us some dramaticised description of its composition, in which the close proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them. He mentions its gigantic oaks, but he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest. He mentions unusual birds, which have feathers that "shine like fires at night". Medieval bestiaries named these birds the Ercinee; the impenetrable nature of the Hercynian Silva hindered the last concerted Roman foray into the forest, by Drusus, during 12–9 BC: Florus asserts that Drusus invisum atque inaccessum in id tempus Hercynium saltum patefecit. The first inhabitants of this area known to history were the Pannonii, a group of Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians. From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celtic tribes. Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia; the country was not, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of, thus extended as far as the Danube.
In AD 6, the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt, were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign, which lasted for three years. After the rebellion was crushed in AD 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south; the date of the division is unknown, most after AD 20 but before AD 50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes necessitated the presence of a large number of troops, numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube; some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior, Pannonia Inferior. According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south; the whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias. Pannonia Superior was under the consular legate, who had administered the single province, had three legions under his control.
Pannonia Inferior was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison. The frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian. Under Diocletian, a fourfold division of the country was made: Pannonia Prima in the northwest, with its capital in Savaria / Sabaria, it included Upper Pannonia and the major part of Central Pannonia between the Raba and Drava, Pannonia Valeria in the northeast, with its capital in Sopianae, it comprised the remainder of Central Pannonia between the Raba and Danube, Pannonia Savia in the southwest, with its capital in Siscia, Pannonia Secunda in the southeast, with its capital in SirmiumDiocletian moved parts of today's Slovenia out of Pannonia and incorporated them in Noricum. In 324 AD, Constantine I enlarged the borders of Roman Pannonia to the east, annexing the plains of what is now eastern Hungary, northern Serbia and western Romania up to the limes that he created: the Devil's Dykes.
In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of Dalmatia, Noricum Mediterraneum and Noricum Ripense. During the Migrations Period in the 5th century, some parts of Pannonia was ceded to the Huns in 433 by Flavius Aetius, the magister militum of the Western Roman Empire. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Marcian in the province as foederati; the Eastern Roman Empire controlled it for a time in the 6th century, a Byzantine province of Pannonia with its capital at Sirmium was temporarily restored, but it included only a small southeastern part of historical Pannonia. Afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, the Slavs, who first settled c. 480s but became independent only from the 7th century, the Franks, who named a frontier march the March of Pannonia in the late 8th century.
The term Pannonia wa