Pisa is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower, the city of over 91,104 residents contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics; the city is home of the University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and has the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, its offshoot, the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, as the best-sanctioned Superior Graduate Schools in Italy. The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery. While the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city. Archaeological remains from the fifth century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and Gauls.
The presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered during excavations in the Arena Garibaldi in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred to Pisa as an old city. Strabo referred Pisa's origins to king of Pylos, after the fall of Troy. Virgil, in his Aeneid, states that Pisa was a great center by the times described; the Virgilian commentator Servius wrote that the Teuti, or Pelops, the king of the Pisaeans, founded the town 13 centuries before the start of the common era. The maritime role of Pisa should have been prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the only port along the western coast between Ostia. Pisa served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against Ligurians and Carthaginians. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium. Emperor Augustus fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name as Colonia Iulia obsequens.
Pisa was founded on the shore, but due to the alluvial sediments from the Arno and the Serchio, whose mouth lies about 11 km north of the Arno's, the shore moved west. Strabo states, it is located 9.7 km from the coast. However, it was a maritime city, with ships sailing up the Arno. In the 90s AD, a baths complex was built in the city. During the last years of the Western Roman Empire, Pisa did not decline as much as the other cities of Italy due to the complexity of its river system and its consequent ease of defence. In the seventh century, Pisa helped Pope Gregory I by supplying numerous ships in his military expedition against the Byzantines of Ravenna: Pisa was the sole Byzantine centre of Tuscia to fall peacefully in Lombard hands, through assimilation with the neighbouring region where their trading interests were prevalent. Pisa began in this way its rise to the role of main port of the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea and became the main trading centre between Tuscany and Corsica and the southern coasts of France and Spain.
After Charlemagne had defeated the Lombards under the command of Desiderius in 774, Pisa went through a crisis, but soon recovered. Politically, it became part of the duchy of Lucca. In 860, Pisa was captured by vikings led by Björn Ironside. In 930, Pisa became the county centre within the mark of Tuscia. Lucca was the capital but Pisa was the most important city, as in the middle of 10th century Liutprand of Cremona, bishop of Cremona, called Pisa Tusciae provinciae caput, a century the marquis of Tuscia was referred to as "marquis of Pisa". In 1003, Pisa was the protagonist of the first communal war in Italy, against Lucca. From the naval point of view, since the 9th century, the emergence of the Saracen pirates urged the city to expand its fleet. In 828, Pisan ships assaulted the coast of North Africa. In 871, they took part in the defence of Salerno from the Saracens. In 970, they gave strong support to Otto I's expedition, defeating a Byzantine fleet in front of Calabrese coasts; the power of Pisa as a maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century, when it acquired traditional fame as one of the four main historical maritime republics of Italy.
At that time, the city was a important commercial centre and controlled a significant Mediterranean merchant fleet and navy. It expanded its powers in 1005 through the sack of Reggio Calabria in the south of Italy. Pisa was in continuous conflict with the Saracens, who had their bases in Corsica, for control of the Mediterranean. In 1017, Sardinian Giudicati were militarily supported by Pisa, in alliance with Genoa, to defeat the Saracen King Mugahid, who had settled a logistic base in the north of Sardinia the year before; this victory gave Pisa supremacy in the Tyrrhenian Sea. When the Pisans subsequently ousted the Genoese from Sardinia, a new conflict and rivalry was born between these mighty marine republics. Between 1030 and 1035, Pisa went on to defeat several rival towns in Sicily and conquer Carthage in North Africa. In 1051–1052, the admiral Jacopo Ciurini conquered Corsica, p
Arminius was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci tribe who commanded an alliance of Germanic tribes at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD, in which three Roman legions were destroyed. His victory at Teutoburg Forest would precipitate the Roman Empire's permanent strategic withdrawal from Magna Germania, made a major contribution to the eventual fall of the Western Roman Empire. Modern historians have regarded Arminius' victory as Rome's greatest defeat; as it prevented the Romanization of the Germanic peoples, Arminius' victory has been considered one of the most decisive battles in history, a turning point in world history. Born a prince of the Cherusci tribe, Arminius was made a hostage of the Roman Empire as a child. Raised in Rome, he was drafted into the Roman military at an early age, during which he was granted Roman citizenship and became a Roman knight. After serving with distinction in the Great Illyrian Revolt, he was sent to Germania to aid the local governor Publius Quinctilius Varus in completing the Roman conquest of the Germanic tribes.
While in this capacity, Arminius secretly prepared a Germanic revolt against Roman rule, which culminated in the ambush and destruction of three Roman legions in the Teutoburg Forest. In the aftermath of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest Arminius fought off retaliatory invasions by the Roman general Germanicus in the battles of Pontes Longi and the Angrivarian Wall, deposed a rival, the Marcomanni king Maroboduus. Germanic nobles, afraid of Arminius' growing power, assassinated him in 21 AD, he was remembered in Germanic legends for generations afterwards. Roman historian Tacitus designated Arminius as the liberator of the Germanic tribes and commended him for having fought the Roman Empire to a standstill at the peak of its power. During the unification of Germany in the 19th century, Arminius was hailed by German nationalists as a symbol of German unity and freedom. Following World War II, Arminius was omitted from German textbooks due to his association with militaristic nationalism, many modern Germans are unaware of his story.
The 2000th anniversary of his victory was commemorated in Germany, which has replaced traditional nationalism with "an easy-going patriotism that manifests itself at sporting events." The etymology of the Latin name Arminius is unknown. Marcus Velleius Paterculus, in his Historiae, mentions him as "Arminius, the son of Sigimer, a prince of nation" and states he "attained the dignity of equestrian rank". Due to Roman naming conventions of the time, it is Arminius is an adopted name granted to him upon citizenship, or otherwise not his Cheruscan name; the origin of the use of the name Hermann dates from the 16th century first by Martin Luther. In German, Arminius is traditionally known as Hermann der Cheruskerfürst. Hermann etymologically means "Man of War", coming from the Old High German heri "war" and man "man". Arminius, born in 18 or 17 BC in Germania, was son of the Cheruscan chief Segimerus and trained as a Roman military commander alongside his younger brother Flavus, he had lived in Rome as a hostage in his youth, where he had served in the Roman army between 1 and 6 AD, had received a military education and obtained Roman citizenship as well as the status of equite before returning to Germania and driving the Romans out.
Around the year AD 4, Arminius assumed command of a Cheruscan detachment of Roman auxiliary forces while fighting in the Pannonian wars on the Balkan peninsula. He returned to northern Germania in AD 7 or 8, where the Roman Empire had established secure control of the territories just east of the Rhine, along the Lippe and Main rivers, was now seeking to extend its hegemony eastward to the Weser and Elbe rivers, under Publius Quinctilius Varus, a high-ranking administrative official appointed by Augustus as governor. Arminius began plotting to unite various Germanic tribes to thwart Roman efforts to incorporate their lands into the empire. Between 6 and 9 AD, the Romans were forced to move eight of eleven legions present in Germania east of the Rhine river to crush a rebellion in the Balkans, leaving Varus with only three legions to face the Germans. An additional two legions, under the command of Lucius Nonius Asprenas, were stationed in Moguntiacum; this represented the perfect opportunity for Arminius to defeat Varus.
In the autumn of AD 9, the 25-year-old Arminius brought to Varus a fake report of rebellion in northern Germany. He persuaded Varus to divert the three legions under his command from the march to winter quarters to suppress the rebellion. Varus and his legions marched right into the trap that Arminius had set for them near Kalkriese, the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Arminius's tribe, the Cherusci, their allies the Marsi, Bructeri and Sicambri ambushed and annihilated Varus's entire army, totaling over 20,000 men. Recent archaeological finds show the long-debated location of the three-day battle was certainly near Kalkriese Hill, about 20 km north of Osnabrück; when defeat was certain, Varus committed suicide by falling on his sword. Arminius's success in destroying three entire legions and driving the Romans out of Germany was one of the most devastating defeats Rome suffered in its history, a high point of Germanic power for centuries. Roman attempts to reconquer. After the battle, the Germans annihilated
Legio III Augusta
Legio tertia Augusta was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. Its origin may have been the Republican 3rd Legion which served the general Pompey during his civil war against Gaius Julius Caesar, it supported the general Octavian in his civil war against Mark Antony. It was refounded in 30 BC, when Octavian achieved sole mastery of the Roman empire. In that year, it was deployed in the Roman province of Africa, where it remained until at least the late 4th century AD; the Third Augustan Legion was not only a source of protection for the Roman Empire, but it was largely responsible for the urbanization of the North African provinces. The Legion was stationed in Ammaedara where they built their first military camp. From there they invested part of their time in the construction of roads; these new connections led to the development of new towns and cities for civilians, camps for the military and colonies for the veterans. These were distinct from each other, but as time progressed they began to merge.
The Legion did not always build up the entire town. The most common projects for soldiers were aqueducts and amphitheaters, their work was for more "monumental projects" rather than "pure architecture." The legion was not therefore a military force but undertook engineering and surveying functions requiring an advanced mix of skills. The first instance of military roads was in 14 AD; the Legion built a road from their base through Thelepte, to the Oasis of Gafsa. Further expansion occurred under the rule of Tiberius with a road from the Oasis of Gafsa to the Oasis of Gabes. Between these two cities the Legion created five stations; the Legion sometimes followed the old dirt tracks from the previous Punic towns, but they created new roads. Their construction followed a distinct system. Since these roads were built for the use of military movement, the roads needed to be kept as simple as possible. Therefore, the roads tended to be on higher grounds, avoided valleys and remained as straight as possible.
The soldiers were able to construct the roads to drain water. It is calculated that the total length of roads in North Africa reached about 19300 kilometresOther important roads for the Legion included the road from Tebessa to the port of Hippo Regius, its construction was imperative for more efficient delivery of supplies to town. Another was the road from Tebessa to Carthage. Both roads were built during Vespasian's reign. A road built under Trajan ran south across the mountains of Gulf Syrte; this was important. Some Emperors encouraged the building of roads. One in particular was Hadrian, he was involved with the work of the Third Augustan Legion and sought to make sure they were engaged in building projects. It was beneficial to stimulate the construction of these roads because they happened to create positive externalities. For example, the long roads built in Leptis helped open up the interior lands. Farmers seized this opportunity to plant more olive groves and therefore more oil was able to be exported to Rome.
Once the birth of towns occurred in the locations near the military camps, marks of separation were needed. Arches were used to mark this distinction on the roads that connected the town and camp. One famous road that used this tactic was the Via Septimiana—a road built under the reign of Septimius Severus in the town of Lambaesis. On the road the Triple Arch was built and it created a boundary for where the Third Augustan Legion could march; the members of the Third Augustan Legion did not consist of military men. The Emperors made an effort to recruit some men that were experts in surveying and the mathematics of construction. There is good evidence of this from emperors like Augustus and Trajan, who all held engineers responsible for both construction and the military. There were not always many of these talented men in Northern Africa so it was important to train other men for the job, thus over time the army became a place to learn the technical skills of surveying. These men would become involved in the construction of the big duties like aqueducts.
The construction of aqueducts was not an easy job. It was difficult to make sure all the pipes were level and that the pressure was correct at both ends; the surveyor was responsible for calculating all these measurements beforehand and leaving the directions with the procurator. They would most be handed off to an officer known as the mensor, whose position was comparable to that of a contractor, he was in charge of overseeing the production, his main purpose was to assist in the layout of Roman camps and towns, he directed the use of measuring instruments. One of the most used devices was a groma which helped with the measurement of right angles. However, the mensor and the legionaries were not always experts so the accuracy of the groma only helped to a certain extent; when this happened, surveyors had to be recalled for recalculations. There is a well-preserved inscription depicting this situation in Africa; the surveyor, Nonius Datus, wrote about his encounters with the Third Augustan Legion and how he had surveyed, taken the measures of all the mountains and mapped out the axis for which the tunnel would need to be excavated.
This he gave to the procurator. He gave the information to the contractor just to be sure everything was done correctly; as Datus' skills were so needed, he had to leav
Legio I Isaura Sagittaria
Legio I Isaura Sagitaria was a pseudocomitatensis Roman legion, levied no than under Diocletian, already present under Probus. As its name suggests, its legionaries could be used as archers, an uncommon feature for Roman legions. According to Notitia Dignitatum, in the beginning of the 5th century the I Isaura was under the command of the Magister Militum per Orientem, but it is possible that in the beginning it was used to defend the Isauria region, together with the II and III Isaura. List of Roman legions Ritterling's "Legio", through romanarmy.com livius.org account
Legio I Italica
Legio Prima Italica: the epithet Italica is a reference to the Italian origin of its first recruits) was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded by emperor Nero on September 22, 66. There are still records of the I Italica on the Danube border at the beginning of the 5th century; the emblem of the legion was a boar. In the aftermath of the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63, Emperor Nero levied the I Italica with the name phalanx Alexandri Magni, for a campaign in Armenia, ad portas Caspias - to the pass of Chawar; the sources mention the peculiar fact that the original legionaries were Italics, all over six feet tall. However, since the Jewish Revolt broke out a few weeks the projected Armenian campaign never took place; the governor of Gaul, Gaius Julius Vindex, rose in revolt in early 68 and I Italica was redirected there, arriving just in time to see the end of the revolt. In the Year of the Four Emperors, after the death of Nero, the legion received the name I Italica and fought for Vitellius at the second Battle of Bedriacum, where the Vitellians were defeated by forces supporting Vespasian.
The new emperor sent I Italica to the province of Moesia in 70. They encamped at Novae; the legion served on campaign during the Dacian wars of Trajan. The legion was responsible for bridge construction over the Danube. Building activities seem to have been an area of expertise for the legion. On 3 December 1969 a Roman votive altar was found at Old Kilpatrick on the Antonine Wall dating from around 140 A. D, it has been scanned and a video produced. The inscription mentions the First Cohort of Baetasians known to have been at Bar Hill, Julius Candidus, a centurion from I Italica. During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Legio I Italica was involved in the wars against the Germanic tribes that threatened to cross the Danube. After a long war, the Romans had conquered much territory on the left side of the Danube. There Marcus Aurelius had intended to form a new province under governor Aulus Julius Pompilius Piso, commander of I Italica and IV Flavia Felix, but the revolt of Avidius Cassius in the East prevented the formation of the new province.
In 193, the Governor of Pannonia Superior, Septimius Severus moved to Italia. I Italica did not move to Italy; the legion fought against Severus' rival, Pescennius Niger, besieging Byzantium together with XI Claudia, fighting at Issus. The First took part in the Parthian campaign of Severus. In the 3rd century, during the rule of Caracalla, the legion participated in the construction of the Limes Transalutanus, a defensive wall along the Danube, which began near Novae. Under Alexander Severus, some vexillationes of the I Italica moved to Salonae, guarding the Dalmatian coast. Capidava List of Roman legions livius.org account of Legio I Italica Legio I Italica - reenactment group
In ancient Rome, the Roman government used the term Cura Annonae, in honour of their goddess Annona, to describe the import and distribution of grain to the residents of the city of Rome. Rome imported most of the grain consumed by its population, estimated to number one million people by the second century AD. Most of the grain was distributed through commercial or non-subsidized channels, but a dole of subsidized or free grain, bread, was provided by the government to about 200,000 of the poorer residents of the city of Rome. A regular and predictable supply of grain and the grain dole were part of the Roman leadership's strategy of maintaining tranquility among a restive urban population by providing them with what the poet Juvenal sarcastically called "bread and circuses." In 22 AD, the emperor Tiberius said that the Cura Annonae if neglected would be'the utter ruin of the state."The most important sources of the grain durum wheat, were Egypt, North Africa, Sicily. The logistics of moving the grain by sea from those places to Rome required many hundreds of ships, some large, an extensive system for collecting the grain and distributing it inside Rome itself.
The archaeological records of the grain trade are sparse, due to the perishability of grain which has made its detection difficult for archaeologists. The population of the city of Rome declined precipitously during the 5th, the last century of the Western Roman Empire, 6th centuries AD, it is unknown. It may have persisted into the 6th century; the city of Rome grew in the centuries of the Roman Republic and Empire, reaching a population approaching one million in the second century AD. The population of the city grew beyond the capacity of the nearby rural areas to meet the food needs of the city. In addition to the need for commercial imports of grain to Rome, free or subsidized grain was distributed to a large percentage of the Roman population. In the early centuries of the Republic, the Roman government intervened sporadically to distribute free or subsidized grain to its population. Regular distribution began in 123 BC with a grain law proposed by Gaius Gracchus and approved by the Roman popular assembly.
Adult male citizens of Rome were entitled to buy at a below-market price five modii, about 33 kilograms, of grain monthly. 40,000 adult males were eligible for the grain. In 62 and 58 BC the number of Romans eligible for grain was expanded and grain became free to its recipients; the numbers of those receiving free or subsidized grain expanded to an estimated 320,000 before being reduced to 150,000 by Julius Caesar and set at 200,000 by Augustus Caesar, a number that remained more or less stable until near the end of the Western Roman Empire. In the 3rd century AD, the dole of grain was replaced by bread during the reign of Septimius Severus. Severus began providing olive oil to residents of Rome, the emperor Aurelian ordered the distribution of wine and pork; the doles of bread, olive oil and pork continued until near the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, although the decline in the population of the city of Rome reduced the quantities of food required. The dole in the early Roman Empire is estimated to account for 15 to 33 percent of the total grain imported and consumed in Rome.
By the late 200s BCE, grain was being shipped to the city of Rome from Sardinia. In the first century BCE, the three major sources of wheat were Sardinia and North Africa, i.e. the region centered on the ancient city of Carthage, present day Tunisia. With the incorporation of Egypt into the Roman empire and the rule of the emperor Augustus, Egypt became the main source of supply of grain for Rome. By the 70s CE, the historian Josephus was claiming that Africa fed Rome for eight months of the year and Egypt only four. Although that statement may ignore grain from Sicily, overestimate the importance of Africa, there is little doubt among historians that Africa and Egypt were the most important sources of grain for Rome. To help assure that the grain supply would be adequate for Rome, in the second century BCE, Gracchus settled 6,000 colonists near Carthage, giving them about 25 hectares each to grow grain. Grain made into bread was, by far, the most important element in the Roman diet. Several scholars have attempted to compute the total amount of grain need to supply the city of Rome.
Rickman estimated. Erdkamp estimated that the amount needed would be at least 150,000 tonnes, calculating that each resident of the city consumed 200 kilograms of grain per year; the total population of Rome assumed in calculating these estimates was between 750,000 and one million people. David Mattingly and Gregory Aldrete estimated the amount of imported grain at 237,000 tonnes for 1 million inhabitants; the shipping lanes that connected Rome with its centers of grain supply had strategic importance. Whoever controlled. Rome was dependent upon the prompt arrival of imported grain; the provision of grain to Rome was a major shipping and administrative task for the Romans. It was not feasible to supply Rome's needs by land transport, it was "cheaper to ship grain from one end of the Mediterranean to the other" by sea than "to cart it by land