Legio IV Scythica
Legio quarta Scythica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded c. 42 BC by the general Mark Antony, for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence its other cognomen, Parthica. The legion was still active in Syria in the early 5th century. In its first years, the whereabouts of IV Scythica are uncertain, although it is probable that it took part in Antony's campaign against the Parthians; the name suggests. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, Octavian transferred IV Scythica to the Danube province of Moesia; the legion is reported to have taken part in civilian tasks, such as the building and keeping of roads. In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion. King Vologases I of Parthia invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome, in 58. Nero ordered the new legate of Cappadocia, to manage the matter. Corbulo brought IIII Scythica from Moesia, with III Gallica and VI Ferrata defeated the Parthians, restoring Tigranes VI on Armenian throne. In 62, IIII Scythica and XII Fulminata, commanded by the new legate of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, were defeated by the Parthians at the Battle of Rhandeia and forced to surrender.
The legions were removed from the war theatre to Zeugma. This city would be the base camp of IIII Scythica for the next century. In 69, the legion, like the rest of the Eastern army, sided with Vespasian immediately. Despite the demonstrated loyalty, IV Scythica was not involved in actual fighting because it was not considered a high quality legion; this has to do with another defeat years earlier in the Jewish rebellion. It took part in the war against the Parthians between 161-166 Between AD181 and AD183 Septimius Severus acted as the commander of the Eastern legions, relied on the power of said legions to become emperor; the Legion's former commander, now Emperor, led another campaign against the Parthians. The legion disappears from the sources after AD219, when their commander, Gellius Maximus, rebelled against Emperor Elagabalus and proclaimed himself emperor, but was defeated by Elagabalus. However, according to Notitia Dignitatum, in the early 5th century, IIII Scythica was still in Syria, camped in Orese.
Quintus Varius Nepos was a military tribune for Legio IV Scythica at one point. - Caio Sempronio Marci filio Galeria Fido Calagorritano / tribuno militum legionis IIII Scythicae tribuno militum. Tarragona, Spain. CIL II 4427. - D M / Ael Verecundinus | leg IIII / Scy hastatus rior natus / in Dacia ad Vatabos mil ann XXI / primum exactus librarius / frum speculator evocatus | et | frum / vixit ann XXXVI Ael Rufinus lib ex bon/is eius fecit. Epigraphic Database Heidelberg HD053009; the legion's symbol was a capricorn. The Legion appeared in Harry Sidebottom's historical fiction series Warrior Of Rome. List of Roman legions Siege of Dura-Europos livius.org account of Legio IV Scythica
Battle of Actium
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the power of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt. Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over its dominions, he adopted the title of Princeps and some years was awarded the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate. This became the name by which he was known in times; as Augustus, he retained the trappings of a restored Republican leader, but historians view this consolidation of power and the adoption of these honorifics as the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. The alliance among Octavian, Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus known as the Second Triumvirate, was renewed for a five-year term in 38 BC.
However, the triumvirate broke down when Octavian saw Caesarion, the professed son of Julius Caesar and Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, as a major threat to his power. This occurred when Mark Antony, the other most influential member of the triumvirate, abandoned his wife, Octavian's sister Octavia Minor. Afterwards he moved to Egypt to start a long-term romance with Cleopatra, becoming the de facto stepfather to Caesarion; such an affair was doomed to become a political scandal. Antony was perceived by Octavian and the majority of the Roman Senate as the leader of a separatist movement that threatened to break the unity of the Roman Republic. Octavian's prestige and, more the loyalty of his legions had been boosted by Julius Caesar's legacy of 44 BC, by which 19-year-old Octavian was adopted as Caesar's only son and the sole legitimate heir of his enormous wealth. Antony had been the most important and most successful senior officer in Caesar's army and, thanks to his military record, claimed a substantial share of the political support of Caesar's soldiers and veterans.
Both Octavian and Antony had fought against their common enemies in the civil war that followed the assassination of Caesar. After years of loyal cooperation with Octavian, Antony started to act independently arousing his rival's suspicion that he was vying to become sole master of Rome; when he left Octavia Minor and moved to Alexandria to become Cleopatra's official partner, he led many Roman politicians to believe that he was trying to become the unchecked ruler of Egypt and other eastern kingdoms while still maintaining his command over the many Roman legions in the East. As a personal challenge to Octavian's prestige, Antony tried to get Caesarion accepted as a true heir of Caesar though the legacy did not mention him. Antony and Cleopatra formally elevated Caesarion 13, to power in 34 BC, giving him the vague but alarming title of "King of the Kings". Being a son of Caesar, such an entitlement was felt as a threat to Roman republican traditions, it was believed that Antony had once offered a diadem to Caesar.
Thereafter, Octavian started a propaganda war, denouncing Antony as an enemy of Rome, asserting that he was seeking to establish a personal monarchy over the entire Roman Empire on behalf of Caesarion, circumventing the Roman Senate. It was said that Antony intended to move the capital of the empire to Alexandria; as the Second Triumvirate formally expired on the last day of 33 BC, Antony wrote to the Senate that he did not wish to be reappointed. He hoped that he might be regarded by them as their champion against the ambition of Octavian, whom he presumed would not be willing to abandon his position in a similar manner; the causes of mutual dissatisfaction between the two had been accumulating. Antony complained that Octavian had exceeded his powers in deposing Lepidus, in taking over the countries held by Sextus Pompeius and in enlisting soldiers for himself without sending half to him. Octavian complained. During 32 BC one-third of the Senate and both consuls allied with Antony; the consuls had determined to conceal the extent of Antony's demands.
Gnaeus Ahenobarbus seems to have wished to keep quiet, but Gaius Sosius on 1 January made an elaborate speech in favor of Antony, would have proposed the confirmation of his act had it not been vetoed by a tribune. Octavian was not present, but at the next meeting made a reply of such a nature that both consuls left Rome to join Antony. After staying with his allies at Samos, Antony moved to Athens, his land forces, in Armenia, came down to the coast of Asia and embarked under L. Canidius Crassus. Octavian was not behind in his strategic preparations. Military operations began in 31 BC, when his general Agrippa captured Methone, a Greek town allied to Antony. However, by the publication of Antony's will, put into his hands by the traitor Plancus and by letting it be known in Rome what preparations were going on at Samos and how Antony was acting as the agent of Cleopatra, Octavian p
Legio VI Ferrata
Legio sexta ferrata was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It originated from the Republican general Pompey's 6th legion in Spain. In 30 BC it became part of the emperor Augustus's standing army, it continued in existence into the 4th century. A Legio VI fought in the Roman Republican civil wars of the 40s and 30s BC. Sent to garrison the province of Judaea, it remained there for the next two centuries; the Legion was known as Fidelis Constans, meaning "loyal and steadfast". It is unclear when this title was given, but several sources indicate that it may have been in the 1st century AD; the symbol for Legio VI Ferrata was the bull. It carried the symbolic she-wolf with Romulus and Remus. Raised in Cisalpine Gaul in 52 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar, the Sixth Legion served with him during his tenure as governor and fought at the Siege of Alesia, before being stationed at Cabillonum in 51 BC and suppressing a revolt of the Carnutes at Cenabum in 50 BC. In 49 BC it was transferred to Spain to fight in the civil wars, where it earned the title “Hispaniensis” after fighting at Ilerda.
Seeing action at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, Julius Caesar took the 6th to Alexandria to settle the dispute in Egypt with Cleopatra. Alexandria was besieged, the 6th suffered many casualties, losing two-thirds of its strength. Caesar triumphed when reinforcements under Mithridates of Pergamum arrived. Caesar took his "Veteran Sixth Legion" with him to Pontus. "When Caesar reached Pontus he gathered all his forces together in one spot. They were modest in number and experience of war, with the exception of the veteran Sixth Legion, which he had brought with him from Alexandria; this culminated in the battle of Zela where victory was won by Legio VI. "The origin of our victory lay in the bitter and intense hand-to-hand battle joined on the right wing, where the veteran Sixth Legion was stationed"."Caesar was quite overjoyed at such a victory, although he had been victorious in many battles. He had brought a major war to an astonishingly rapid end... He ordered the Sixth Legion back to Italy to receive their rewards and honors..."During Caesar's African war against Scipio in 46 BC, the Sixth Legion deserted en masse from Scipio to reinforce Caesar and fought under him.
The legion was disbanded in 45 BC after the battle of Munda, establishing a colony at Arelate, but was re-formed by Lepidus the following year and was handed over to Mark Antony the year after. Following the defeat of the republican generals Cassius and Brutus in successive battles at Philippi in 42 BC and the subsequent division of control between Mark Antony and Caesar's nephew and heir Octavian, a colony was again formed from retired veterans at Beneventum in 41 BC, the remainder of Legio VI Ferrata was taken by Mark Antony to the East where it garrisoned Judea. Another Sixth Legion, Legio VI Victrix, evidently saw action at Perusia in 41 BC, which presents us with a problem because the official Legio VI Ferrata was at that moment with Mark Antony in the East; the latter had serving with him Legio VI Ferrata and Legio X Equestris. Soon we find Octavian's army boasting of a Legio V, Legio VI and Legio X. Of these, Legio V and Legio X, less Legio VI, bore under the empire a bull-emblem which would indicate a foundation by Caesar.
Legio VI Ferrata fought in Antony's Parthian War in 36 BC. During the war between Antony and Octavian the Legio VI's Ferrata and Victrix found themselves on opposing sides at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Legio VI Ferrata was mauled by Octavian's forces. Following the battle, another colony of veterans seems to have been created at Byllis in Illyricum together with soldiers from other legions, the remainder of VI Ferrata was moved to Syria/Judea where it was to remain, while Legio VI Victrix was sent to Spain. From 54 AD to 68 AD the Sixth Legion Ferrata served under Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo at Artaxata and Tigranocerta against the Parthians. In 69 AD the Sixth Legion fought in the Jewish War; as the War wound down, the Legion was responsible for Mucianus' victory over the forces of Vitellius during the brief Civil War following the death of Nero. In 106 AD a vexillatio of the legion participated at the final decisive battle against Dacia; the core of the legion can be placed at Bostra in Nabatea under Aulus Cornelius Palma Frontonianus.
In 138 AD, after the Bar Kokhba revolt, the Legion was stationed in a camp known as Legio, near ancient Caparcotna and modern Lajjun, in Syria Palaestina - a strategic point on Palestine's Via Maris. It was sent to Africa during the reign of Antoninus Pius. In 150 AD the Legion was once again in Syria Palaestina, an inscription found dedicated to Legio VI Ferrata places them still there in 215 AD. Coins of Philip the Arab, found in Caesarea Maritima, indicate the Legion was still present ca 244 AD. Under Diocletian, it might have moved to the base of Adrou, on the s
Legio III Cyrenaica
Legio tertia Cyrenaica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. The origins of the legion remain unknown. One source believes the legion was founded by Mark Antony around 36 BC, when he was governor of Cyrenaica; the legion's origins may come from the fact it was commanded by Lucius Pinaris Scarpus, an ally of Mark Antony whom Antony appointed to be governor of Cyrenaica in eastern Libya. There are still records of the legion in Syria in the beginning of the 5th century; the legion symbol is unknown. Legion III Cyrenaica was one of the longest-living Roman legions; the origin of the title/name Cyrenaica is not known - it may have been given to the Legion to signify its origin in Cyrene, or to signify a major victory or for notable action in that province. Difficulties tracing the history of any Roman legion, including III Cyrenaica, are multiple. Firstly, contemporary historians agree. Secondly, when discussing Roman legions, there is confusion—especially after Augustus became Caesar until the end of the empire some 500 years later—caused by the Roman habit of numbering several legions over successive centuries as "III Legion".
Distinguishing between the legions is only done via regional title such as III Cyrenaica etc. To illustrate the confusion this causes, authoritative sources list that in AD 20, just in the southern and eastern Mediterranean, there is a Legio III Augusta stationed in Africa, a Legio III Cyrenaica in Egypt and a Legio III Gallica in Syria. Legio III Cyrenaica may have been stationed in Alexandria, sharing a'double-fortress' with Legio XXII Deiotariana, where it may have stayed for about one hundred years before re-locating to Bostra, Syria. However, the Roman habit of sending vexillations from parent legions to be assigned to campaigns, these assignments lasting several years complicates making absolute statements regarding which legions fought in any specific location. Furthermore, in the case of the list below, just how long III Cyrenaica may have served with XXII Deiotariana as the garrison of Egypt is unclear. In the Parthian campaigns, which of those legions bearing the designation III served in Parthia is difficult to ascertain (sources credit at least three.
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, is known to have received vexillations from the Egypt garrison, but the identity of the legions supplying the vexillations is unclear. In AD 215, during the reign of the emperor Caracalla, Legio III Parthica is listed as assigned to Mesopotamia, Legio III Gallica as garrisoning Syria, Legio III Augusta as assigned to North Africa, whilst Legio III Cyrenaica is listed as assigned to Arabia Petraea. Emperor Septimius Severus in AD 197 is known to have raised three legions–I, II and III Parthica—for service in the east, leaving Legio II Parthica in Rome, but taking the other two legions with him on his Parthian campaign. From c. AD 140 to AD 395, Legio III Cyrenaica is known to have been garrisoned at Bosra in southern modern-day Syria, east of the Sea of Galilee; the following is a list of campaigns and actions thought to have been seen by Legion III Cyrenaica during much of its existence: 35 BC - Leg. III is formed by Mark Antony or Lepidus in Cyrene. At this time, Legions still hold to the Republic tradition of being numbered in order of their creation, so this may have been the third Legion that had established and had under his direct command and loyalty.
31 BC - - Either before or after Anthony and Cleopatra are defeated by Octavian, it is thought soldiers of Leg. III Cyrenaica defect from Anthony and claim allegiance to Octavian - who spares the Legion from being disbanded. 26 - 25 BC - Action in Arabia Felix, commanded by Aelius Gallus, Prefect of Egypt. 23 BC - Action against Nubian invaders, Elements of III stationed in Thebes, Egypt. 23 BC - Roman military presence in Egypt is reduced to 2 Legions: III Cyrenaica and XXII Deiotariana. Which other Legions, or how many there were, is not known. AD 7 - 11 - Suggested time period that the double-fortress at Nikopolis is established. AD 11 - Elements of Leg III under command of Publius Juventius Rufus, stationed in Berenike. AD 39 / 40 - A detachment of Leg III was sent up to the northern coast of Gaul to assist Emperor Caligula's legions with his rather unimpressive invasion of Britain. III was used as a logistics and supplies organizer for the invasion / landing force. AD 58 - 63 - Under the command of Gn.
Domitius Corbulo, elements of III saw action in the Parthian frontier. AD 66 - 70 - The First Jewish–Roman War. An uprising of Jews starts in Alexandria, spreads to Judea. Elements of III and XXII fought their way to Jerusalem, with the assistance of several other legion and allied forces surrounded and besieged the city, led by Vespasian, Proconsul of Africa. AD 69 - "Year of the Four Emperors". Factions led by Galba and Vitellius all tried to seize control of Rome after the death of Nero; these factions, who had no aristocratic claim to the throne, all tried to take control one after
Legio I Minervia
Legio I Minervia was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 82 by emperor Domitian, for his campaign against the Germanic tribe of the Chatti. Its cognomen refers to the legion's protector. There are still records of the I Minervia in the Rhine border region in the middle of the 4th century; the legion's emblem is an image of goddess Minerva. Legio I Minervia first, main, camp was in the city of Bonna, in the province of Germania Inferior. In 89, they suppressed a revolt of the governor of Germania Superior. Due to this, Domitian gave them the cognomen Pia Fidelis Domitiana. Between 101 and 106, the legion fought the Dacian Wars of emperor Trajan, commanded by Hadrian, the future emperor; the emblem with Minerva figure appears on the column of Trajan in Rome, along with symbols of other legions. After this war, I Minervia returned to its home city of Bonna. Together with XXX Ulpia Victrix, stationed close by in Castra Vetera II, they worked in numerous military and building activities extracting stone from quarries.
Although it belonged to the Germanic army and Bonn was its camp, vexillationes of the legion were allocated in different parts of the Empire: 162–166 war against the Parthian Empire, commanded by emperor Lucius Verus 166–175 and 178–180 war against the Marcomanni, commanded by emperor Marcus Aurelius 173 campaign against the Chauci of Gallia Belgica, commanded by governor Didius Julianus 198–211 garrison of the city of Lugdunum, capital of GalliaDuring the civil wars of the late 2nd and 3rd century, I Minervia supported the following emperors: Septimius Severus Elagabalus Alexander Severus the Gallic Empire, that existed between 260 and 274Around 353, Bonna was destroyed by the Franks, I Minervia disappears from the sources. However, there is no reference to its destruction. List of Roman legions Roman legion livius.org account for Legio I Minervia Legio I Minervia Pia Fidelis, German re-enactment group, German re-enactment group, reenacting not only the Legio I Minervia
Legio II Adiutrix
Legio secunda adiutrix, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 70 by the emperor Vespasian composed of Roman navy marines of the classis Ravennatis. There are still records of II Adiutrix in the Rhine border in the beginning of the 4th century; the legion's symbols were a Pegasus. The first assignment of II Adiutrix was in Germania Inferior, where the Batavian rebellion was at its peak. After the defeat of the rebels, II Adiutrix followed general Quintus Petillius Cerialis to Britain to deal with another rebellion led by Venutius. During the next years, the legion was to stay in the British Islands to subdue the rebel tribes of Scotland and Wales, with base camp at Chester. In 87, the legion was recalled to the continent to participate in the Dacian wars of emperor Domitian. Between 94 and 95, still in Dacia emperor Hadrian served as military tribune in the II Adiutrix. In the summer of 106 the legion took part to the siege of the Dacian Capital Sarmisegetusa. After Trajan's Dacian Wars of 101-106, the legion was located in Aquincum, which would be its base camp for the years to come.
Despite this, the legion or subunits of it took part in: Lucius Verus's campaign against the Parthian Empire Marcus Aurelius' campaign against the Marcomanni and the Quadi Marcus Aurelius' campaign against the Quadi. The Legion was commanded by Marcus Valerius Maximianus in Laugaricio. Caracalla's campaign against the Alemanni Gordian's campaign against the Sassanid Empire In 193, II Adiutrix supported emperor Septimius Severus during his struggle for the purple. - Gaio Valerio Crispo veterano ex legione II Adiutrice Pia Fideli. Chester, U. K. RIB 478. - Lucius Terentius Claudia tribu Fuscus Apro miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis. Chester, U. K. RIB 477. - Lucius Valerius Luci filius Claudia tribu Seneca Savaria / miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis. Chester, U. K. RIB 480. - Gaius Calventius Gai filius Claudia tribu Celer Apro miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Vibi Clementis. Chester, U. K. RIB 475. - Gaius Iuventius Gai filius Claudia tribu Capito Apro / miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Iuli Clementis annorum XL stipendiorum XVII.
Chester, U. K. RIB 476. - Quintus Valerius Quinti filius Claudia tribu Fronto Celea / miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis annorum L stipendiorum XXṾ. Chester, U. K. RIB 479. - Voltimesis P̣udens Gai filius Sergia tribu Augusta eques legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis annorum XXXII stipendiorum XIII hic situs est. Chester, U. K. RIB 482. - Gaius Murrius Gai filius Arniensis Foro Iuli Modestus miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Iuli Secundi annorum) XXV stipendiorum / hic situs est. Bath, U. K.. RIB 157 = CIL VII 48. - Titus Valerius Titi filius Claudia tribu Pudens Savaria miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Dossenni Proculi annorum XXX aera VI heres de suo posuit hic situs est. Lincoln, U. K. RIB 258 = CIL VII 185. - legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Ponti Proculi Lucius Licinius Luci filius Galeria tribu Saliga Lugdunonnorum XX stipendiorum II. Lincoln, U. K. RIB 253 = CIL VII 186. - Quintus Cumelius / Quinti filius / Fabia Celer Bracarensis / veteranus legionis II Adiutricis hic situs annorum LXXV.
Astorga, Spain. CIL II 2639. - Fortunae Balneari sacrum / Valerius Bucco miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / decuria Aemili. Segovia, Spain. CIL II 2763. - VICTORIAE AVGVSTORV EXERCITUS QVI LAV GARICIONE SEDIT MIL L II DCCCLV MAXIMIANUS LEG LEG II AD CVR F. Laugaricio, Slovakia. List of Roman legions Roman legion --> livius.org account of Legio II Adiutrix Familia Gladiatoria - Hungary, Hungarian reenactment group
Legio VIII Augusta
Legio octava Augusta was one of the oldest legions of the Imperial Roman army founded by Pompey in 65 BC, along with the 6th, 7th and 9th, continuing in service to Rome for at least 400 years thereafter. They were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul around 58 BC by Julius Caesar, marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars, they stood with him at the Battle of Pharsalus. The legion was present in Egypt, when Caesar captured Egypt for Cleopatra. In 46 BC the legion took part in the Battle of Thapsus, shortly before their disbandment. In 44 BC, Augustus reconstituted the legion; this loyalty gave the legion the cognomen Augusta. Around 45 AD the VIII Augusta took part in the suppression of the Thracian uprising, founded its castrum at Novae where the Danube has its most southern bend and from where the legion controlled a long section of the Danube. In 69 AD, the Year of the Four Emperors, following the suicide of Nero, the legion took the side of Vespasian, the new emperor; the legion went with Vespasian to Mirebeau-sur-Bèze in Gaul in 70 AD to oppose the revolts of the Treveri and the Ubii and Lingons against Rome, where it built its new base.
The legion left at latest, to its next base at Argentoratum. The legion fought in Parthia with Septimius Severus and with his successors. Records indicate that they were still active during the first years of the 4th century at the Rhine frontier; this means that the history of the legion covers more than 400 years of continuous service. In 371 it was stationed in Germania Superior, according to an inscription; the Roman general Stilicho, was compelled to move the German legions back to Italy to defend it against the Visigothic invasion. According to Notitia Dignitatum, around 420 an Octaviani unit was under the Magister Peditum of Italia. - ri G̣allorum tribunus militum legionis VIII Augustae. Cohort of Gauls, military of the Eighth Legion Augusta. Brougham. CIL VII 300 = RIB 782. List of Roman legions and Roman legion livius.org account VEX LEG VIII AVG, German re-enactment society LEGION VIII AUGUSTA, French re-enactment society LEGIO VIII AUGUSTA, US re-enactment society LEGIO VIII AVGVSTA MGV, British re-enactment society Octaviani in Notitia Dignitatum