Legio IV Scythica
Legio quarta Scythica was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded c. 42 BC by the general Mark Antony, for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence its other cognomen, Parthica. The legion was still active in Syria in the early 5th century. In its first years, the whereabouts of IV Scythica are uncertain, although it is probable that it took part in Antony's campaign against the Parthians; the name suggests. After the battle of Actium and Antony's suicide, Octavian transferred IV Scythica to the Danube province of Moesia; the legion is reported to have taken part in civilian tasks, such as the building and keeping of roads. In his youth, future emperor Vespasian served in this legion. King Vologases I of Parthia invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome, in 58. Nero ordered the new legate of Cappadocia, to manage the matter. Corbulo brought IIII Scythica from Moesia, with III Gallica and VI Ferrata defeated the Parthians, restoring Tigranes VI on Armenian throne. In 62, IIII Scythica and XII Fulminata, commanded by the new legate of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, were defeated by the Parthians at the Battle of Rhandeia and forced to surrender.
The legions were removed from the war theatre to Zeugma. This city would be the base camp of IIII Scythica for the next century. In 69, the legion, like the rest of the Eastern army, sided with Vespasian immediately. Despite the demonstrated loyalty, IV Scythica was not involved in actual fighting because it was not considered a high quality legion; this has to do with another defeat years earlier in the Jewish rebellion. It took part in the war against the Parthians between 161-166 Between AD181 and AD183 Septimius Severus acted as the commander of the Eastern legions, relied on the power of said legions to become emperor; the Legion's former commander, now Emperor, led another campaign against the Parthians. The legion disappears from the sources after AD219, when their commander, Gellius Maximus, rebelled against Emperor Elagabalus and proclaimed himself emperor, but was defeated by Elagabalus. However, according to Notitia Dignitatum, in the early 5th century, IIII Scythica was still in Syria, camped in Orese.
Quintus Varius Nepos was a military tribune for Legio IV Scythica at one point. - Caio Sempronio Marci filio Galeria Fido Calagorritano / tribuno militum legionis IIII Scythicae tribuno militum. Tarragona, Spain. CIL II 4427. - D M / Ael Verecundinus | leg IIII / Scy hastatus rior natus / in Dacia ad Vatabos mil ann XXI / primum exactus librarius / frum speculator evocatus | et | frum / vixit ann XXXVI Ael Rufinus lib ex bon/is eius fecit. Epigraphic Database Heidelberg HD053009; the legion's symbol was a capricorn. The Legion appeared in Harry Sidebottom's historical fiction series Warrior Of Rome. List of Roman legions Siege of Dura-Europos livius.org account of Legio IV Scythica
Legio VIII Augusta
Legio octava Augusta was one of the oldest legions of the Imperial Roman army founded by Pompey in 65 BC, along with the 6th, 7th and 9th, continuing in service to Rome for at least 400 years thereafter. They were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul around 58 BC by Julius Caesar, marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars, they stood with him at the Battle of Pharsalus. The legion was present in Egypt, when Caesar captured Egypt for Cleopatra. In 46 BC the legion took part in the Battle of Thapsus, shortly before their disbandment. In 44 BC, Augustus reconstituted the legion; this loyalty gave the legion the cognomen Augusta. Around 45 AD the VIII Augusta took part in the suppression of the Thracian uprising, founded its castrum at Novae where the Danube has its most southern bend and from where the legion controlled a long section of the Danube. In 69 AD, the Year of the Four Emperors, following the suicide of Nero, the legion took the side of Vespasian, the new emperor; the legion went with Vespasian to Mirebeau-sur-Bèze in Gaul in 70 AD to oppose the revolts of the Treveri and the Ubii and Lingons against Rome, where it built its new base.
The legion left at latest, to its next base at Argentoratum. The legion fought in Parthia with Septimius Severus and with his successors. Records indicate that they were still active during the first years of the 4th century at the Rhine frontier; this means that the history of the legion covers more than 400 years of continuous service. In 371 it was stationed in Germania Superior, according to an inscription; the Roman general Stilicho, was compelled to move the German legions back to Italy to defend it against the Visigothic invasion. According to Notitia Dignitatum, around 420 an Octaviani unit was under the Magister Peditum of Italia. - ri G̣allorum tribunus militum legionis VIII Augustae. Cohort of Gauls, military of the Eighth Legion Augusta. Brougham. CIL VII 300 = RIB 782. List of Roman legions and Roman legion livius.org account VEX LEG VIII AVG, German re-enactment society LEGION VIII AUGUSTA, French re-enactment society LEGIO VIII AUGUSTA, US re-enactment society LEGIO VIII AVGVSTA MGV, British re-enactment society Octaviani in Notitia Dignitatum
Gaius Julius Civilis
Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69 AD. His nomen shows that he was made a Roman citizen by either Caligula, he was twice imprisoned on a charge of rebellion, narrowly escaped execution. During the disturbances that followed the death of Nero, he took up arms under pretense of siding with Vespasian and induced the inhabitants of his native country to rebel; the Batavians, who had rendered valuable service under the early emperors, had been well treated in order to attach them to the cause of Rome. They were exempt from tribute, but were obliged to supply a large number of men for the army, the burden of conscription and the opressions of provincial governors were important incentives to revolt; the Batavians were joined by several neighboring Germanic tribes. The Roman garrisons near the Rhine were driven out, twenty-four ships captured. Two legions under Mummius Lupercus were surrounded. Eight cohorts of Batavian veterans joined their countrymen, the troops sent by Vespasian to the relief of Vetera threw in their lot with them.
The result of these accessions to the forces of Civilis was a rising in Gaul. Hordeonius Flaccus was murdered by his troops, the whole of the Roman forces were induced by two commanders of the Gallic auxiliaries —Julius Classicus and Julius Tutor— to revolt from Rome and join Civilis; the whole of Gaul thus declared itself independent, the foundation of a new kingdom of Gaul was contemplated. The prophetess Veleda predicted the fall of the Roman Empire, but disputes rendered co-operation impossible. The arrival of Quintus Petillius Cerialis with a strong force awed the Gauls and mutinous troops into submission, he came to an agreement with Cerialis whereby his countrymen obtained certain advantages, resumed amicable relations with Rome. From this time, Civilis disappears from history; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Civilis, Claudius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; the chief authority for the history of the insurrection is Tacitus, Histories, iv. v. whose account breaks off at the beginning of Civilis's speech to Cerialis.
Josephus, Bellum Judaicum, vii. 4. E. Meyer, Der Freiheitskrieg der Bataver unter Civilis Merivale, Hist. of the Romans under the Empire, ch. 58. H. Schiller, Geschichte der römischen Kaiserzeit, bk. ii. ch. 2, § 54. Jona Lendering, "The Batavian Revolt" "Civilis, Julius". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Otho was Roman emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors. A member of a noble Etruscan family, Otho was a friend and courtier of the young emperor Nero until he was banished to the governorship of the remote province of Lusitania in 58 following his wife Poppaea Sabina's affair with Nero. After a period of moderate rule in the province, he allied himself with Galba, the governor of neighbouring Hispania Tarraconensis, during the revolts of 68, he accompanied Galba on his march to Rome, but revolted and murdered Galba at the start of the next year. Inheriting the problem of the rebellion of Vitellius, commander of the army in Germania Inferior, Otho led a sizeable force which met Vitellius' army at the Battle of Bedriacum. After initial fighting resulted in 40,000 casualties, a retreat of his forces, Otho committed suicide rather than fight on and Vitellius was proclaimed emperor. Otho was born on 28 April 32, his grandfather had been a senator, Claudius granted Otho's father patrician status.
Greenhalgh writes that "he was addicted to luxury and pleasure to a degree remarkable in a Roman". An aged freedwoman brought him into the company of the emperor Nero. Otho married the emperor's mistress Poppaea Sabina, he exiled Otho to the province Lusitania in 58 or 59 by appointing him to be its governor, an office in which he proved to be capable. Yet, he never forgave Nero for marrying Poppaea, he allied himself with Galba, governor of neighboring Hispania Tarraconensis, in the latter's rebellion against Nero in 68. Nero committed suicide that year and Galba was proclaimed emperor by the Senate. Otho accompanied the new emperor to Rome in October 68. Before they entered the city, Galba's army fought against a legion. On 1 January 69, the day Galba took the office of consul alongside Titus Vinius, the fourth and twenty-second legions of Upper Germany refused to swear loyalty to the emperor, they demanded that a new emperor be chosen. On the following day, the soldiers of Lower Germany refused to swear their loyalty and proclaimed the governor of the province, Aulus Vitellius, as emperor.
Galba tried to ensure his authority as emperor was recognized by adopting the nobleman Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus as his successor, an action that gained resentment from Otho. Galba was killed by the Praetorians on 15 January, followed shortly by Piso, their heads were placed on poles and Otho was proclaimed emperor. He accepted, or appeared to accept, the cognomen of Nero conferred upon him by the shouts of the populace, whom his comparative youth and the effeminacy of his appearance reminded of their lost favourite. Nero's statues were again set up, his freedmen and household officers reinstalled, the intended completion of the Golden House announced. At the same time the fears of the more sober and respectable citizens were allayed by Otho's liberal professions of his intention to govern equitably, by his judicious clemency towards Aulus Marius Celsus, consul-designate, a devoted adherent of Galba. Otho soon realized that it was much easier to overthrow an emperor than rule as one: according to Suetonius Otho once remarked that "Playing the Long Pipes is hardly my trade".
Any further development of Otho's policy was checked once Otho had read through Galba's private correspondence and realized the extent of the revolution in Germany, where several legions had declared for Vitellius, the commander of the legions on the lower Rhine River, were advancing upon Italy. After a vain attempt to conciliate Vitellius by the offer of a share in the Empire, with unexpected vigor, prepared for war. From the much more remote provinces, which had acquiesced in his accession, little help was to be expected, but the legions of Dalmatia and Moesia were eager in his cause, the Praetorian cohorts were in themselves a formidable force and an efficient fleet gave him the mastery of the Italian seas; the fleet was at once dispatched to secure Liguria, on 14 March Otho, undismayed by omens and prophecies, started northwards at the head of his troops in the hopes of preventing the entry of Vitellius' troops into Italy. But for this he was too late, all that could be done was to throw troops into Placentia and hold the line of the Po.
Otho's advanced guard defended Placentia against Aulus Caecina Alienus, compelled that general to fall back on Cremona, but the arrival of Fabius Valens altered the aspect of affairs. Vitellius' commanders now resolved to bring on a decisive battle, the Battle of Bedriacum, their designs were assisted by the divided and irresolute counsels which prevailed in Otho's camp; the more experienced officers urged the importance of avoiding a battle until at least the legions from Dalmatia had arrived. However, the rashness of the emperor's brother Titianus and of Proculus, prefect of the Praetorian Guards, added to Otho's feverish impatience, overruled all opposition, an immediate advance was decided upon. Otho remained behind with a considerable reserve force at Brixellum on the southern bank of the Po; when this decision was taken, Otho's army had crossed the Po and were encamped at Bedriacum, a small village on the Via Postumia, on the route by which the legions from Dalmatia would arrive. Leaving a strong detachment to hold the camp at Bedriacum, the Othonian forces advanced along the Via Postumia in t
Servius Sulpicius Galba was Roman emperor from 68 to 69, the first emperor in the Year of the Four Emperors. He was known as Lucius Livius Galba Ocella prior to taking the throne as a result of his adoption by his stepmother, Livia Ocellina; the governor of Hispania at the time of the rebellion of Gaius Julius Vindex in Gaul, he seized the throne following Nero's suicide. Born into a wealthy family, Galba held at various times the offices of praetor and governor of the provinces Aquitania, Upper Germany, Africa during the first half of the first century AD, he retired during the latter part of Claudius' reign but Nero granted him the governorship of Hispania. Taking advantage of the defeat of Vindex's rebellion and Nero's suicide, he became emperor with the support of the Praetorian Guard, his physical weakness and general apathy led to his being dominated by favorites. Unable to gain popularity with the people or maintain the support of the Praetorian Guard, Galba was murdered by Otho, who became emperor.
Galba was not related to any of the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, but he was a member of a distinguished noble family. The origin of the cognomen Galba is uncertain. Suetonius offers a number of possible explanations. One of Galba's ancestors had been consul in 200 BC, another of his ancestors was consul in 144 BC. Galba's grandfather was a historian and his son was a barrister whose first marriage was to Mummia Achaica, granddaughter of Quintus Lutatius Catulus and great-granddaughter of Lucius Mummius Achaicus. According to Suetonius, he fabricated a genealogy of paternal descent from the god Jupiter and maternal descent from the legendary Pasiphaë, wife of Minos. Servius Sulpicius Galba was born near Terracina on 24 December 3 BC, his elder brother Gaius fled from Rome and committed suicide because the emperor Tiberius would not allow him to control a Roman province. Livia Ocellina became the second wife of Galba's father, whom she may have married because of his wealth. Ocellina adopted Galba, he took the name Lucius Livius Galba Ocella.
Galba had a sexual appetite for males. He married a woman named Aemilia Lepida and had two sons. Aemilia and their sons died during the early years of the reign of Claudius. Galba would remain a widower for the rest of his life. Galba became praetor in about 30 governor of Aquitania for about a year consul in 33. In 39 the emperor Caligula learned of a plot against himself in which Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, the general of the Upper German legions, was an important figure; as commander of the legions of Upper Germany, Galba gained a reputation as a disciplinarian. Suetonius writes that Galba was advised to take the throne following the assassination of Caligula in 41, but loyally served Caligula's uncle and successor Claudius. Galba was appointed as governor of Africa in 44 or 45, he retired at an uncertain time during the reign of Claudius in 49. He was recalled in 60 by the emperor Nero to govern Hispania. A rebellion against Nero was orchestrated by Gaius Julius Vindex in Gaul on the anniversary of the death of Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger, in 68.
Shortly afterwards Galba, in rebellion against Nero, rejected the title "General of Caesar" in favor of "General of the Senate and People of Rome". He was supported by the imperial official Tigellinus. On 8 June 68 another imperial official, Nymphidius Sabinus, falsely announced to the Praetorian Guard that Nero had fled to Egypt, the Senate proclaimed Galba emperor. Nero committed assisted suicide with help from his secretary. Upon becoming emperor Galba was faced by the rebellion of Nymphidius, who had his own aspirations for the imperial throne. However, he was killed by the Praetorians. While Galba was arriving to Rome with the Lusitanian governor Marcus Salvius Otho, his army was attacked by a legion, organized by Nero. Galba, who suffered from chronic gout by the time he came to the throne, was advised by a corrupt group which included the Spanish general Titus Vinius, the praetorian prefect Cornelius Laco, Icelus, a freedman of Galba. Galba seized the property of Roman citizens, disbanded the German legions, did not pay the Praetorians and the soldiers who fought against Vindex.
These actions caused him to become unpopular. On 1 January 69, the day Galba and Vinius took the office of consul, the fourth and twenty-second legions of Upper Germany refused to swear loyalty to Galba, they toppled his statues. On the following day, the soldiers of Lower Germany refused to swear their loyalty and proclaimed the governor of the province, Aulus Vitellius, as emperor. Galba tried to ensure his authority as emperor was recognized by adopting the nobleman Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus as his successor. Galba was killed by the Praetorians on 15 January, followed shortly by Vinius and Piso, their heads were placed on poles and Otho was acclaimed as emperor. Sulpicia Galba Donahue, Jo
Legio II Adiutrix
Legio secunda adiutrix, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 70 by the emperor Vespasian composed of Roman navy marines of the classis Ravennatis. There are still records of II Adiutrix in the Rhine border in the beginning of the 4th century; the legion's symbols were a Pegasus. The first assignment of II Adiutrix was in Germania Inferior, where the Batavian rebellion was at its peak. After the defeat of the rebels, II Adiutrix followed general Quintus Petillius Cerialis to Britain to deal with another rebellion led by Venutius. During the next years, the legion was to stay in the British Islands to subdue the rebel tribes of Scotland and Wales, with base camp at Chester. In 87, the legion was recalled to the continent to participate in the Dacian wars of emperor Domitian. Between 94 and 95, still in Dacia emperor Hadrian served as military tribune in the II Adiutrix. In the summer of 106 the legion took part to the siege of the Dacian Capital Sarmisegetusa. After Trajan's Dacian Wars of 101-106, the legion was located in Aquincum, which would be its base camp for the years to come.
Despite this, the legion or subunits of it took part in: Lucius Verus's campaign against the Parthian Empire Marcus Aurelius' campaign against the Marcomanni and the Quadi Marcus Aurelius' campaign against the Quadi. The Legion was commanded by Marcus Valerius Maximianus in Laugaricio. Caracalla's campaign against the Alemanni Gordian's campaign against the Sassanid Empire In 193, II Adiutrix supported emperor Septimius Severus during his struggle for the purple. - Gaio Valerio Crispo veterano ex legione II Adiutrice Pia Fideli. Chester, U. K. RIB 478. - Lucius Terentius Claudia tribu Fuscus Apro miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis. Chester, U. K. RIB 477. - Lucius Valerius Luci filius Claudia tribu Seneca Savaria / miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis. Chester, U. K. RIB 480. - Gaius Calventius Gai filius Claudia tribu Celer Apro miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Vibi Clementis. Chester, U. K. RIB 475. - Gaius Iuventius Gai filius Claudia tribu Capito Apro / miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Iuli Clementis annorum XL stipendiorum XVII.
Chester, U. K. RIB 476. - Quintus Valerius Quinti filius Claudia tribu Fronto Celea / miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis annorum L stipendiorum XXṾ. Chester, U. K. RIB 479. - Voltimesis P̣udens Gai filius Sergia tribu Augusta eques legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis annorum XXXII stipendiorum XIII hic situs est. Chester, U. K. RIB 482. - Gaius Murrius Gai filius Arniensis Foro Iuli Modestus miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Iuli Secundi annorum) XXV stipendiorum / hic situs est. Bath, U. K.. RIB 157 = CIL VII 48. - Titus Valerius Titi filius Claudia tribu Pudens Savaria miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Dossenni Proculi annorum XXX aera VI heres de suo posuit hic situs est. Lincoln, U. K. RIB 258 = CIL VII 185. - legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / Ponti Proculi Lucius Licinius Luci filius Galeria tribu Saliga Lugdunonnorum XX stipendiorum II. Lincoln, U. K. RIB 253 = CIL VII 186. - Quintus Cumelius / Quinti filius / Fabia Celer Bracarensis / veteranus legionis II Adiutricis hic situs annorum LXXV.
Astorga, Spain. CIL II 2639. - Fortunae Balneari sacrum / Valerius Bucco miles legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis / decuria Aemili. Segovia, Spain. CIL II 2763. - VICTORIAE AVGVSTORV EXERCITUS QVI LAV GARICIONE SEDIT MIL L II DCCCLV MAXIMIANUS LEG LEG II AD CVR F. Laugaricio, Slovakia. List of Roman legions Roman legion --> livius.org account of Legio II Adiutrix Familia Gladiatoria - Hungary, Hungarian reenactment group
A Roman legion was a large unit of the Roman army. In the early Roman Kingdom "legion" may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few and unreliable; the subsequent organization of legions varied over time but legions were composed of around five thousand soldiers. During much of the republican era, a legion was divided into three lines of ten maniples. In the late republic and much of the imperial period, a legion was divided into ten cohorts, each of six centuries. Legions included a small ala, or cavalry, unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. For most of the Roman Imperial period, the legions formed the Roman army's elite heavy infantry, recruited from Roman citizens, while the remainder of the army consisted of auxiliaries, who provided additional infantry and the vast majority of the Roman army's cavalry.
The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted of auxiliaries rather than legions. Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, notably Legio V Macedonica, founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt; because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified; the republican legions were composed of levied men that paid for their own equipment and thus the structure of the Roman army at this time reflected the society, at any time there would be four consular legions and in time of war extra legions could be levied. Toward the end of the 2nd century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army; this prompted consul Gaius Marius to remove property qualifications and decree that all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for service in the Roman army with equipment and rewards for fulfilling years of service provided by the state.
The Roman army became a volunteer and standing army which extended service beyond Roman citizens but to non-citizens that could sign on as auxillia and were rewarded Roman citizenship upon completion of service and all the rights and privileges that entailed. In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions and this remained the figure for most of the empire's history; the legion evolved from 3,000 men in the Roman Republic to over 5,200 men in the Roman Empire, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century, ten cohorts made up a Roman legion; this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size with the first cohort being of double strength. By the fourth century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them; this had come about as the large formation legion and auxiliary unit, 10,000 men, was broken down into smaller units - temporary detachments - to cover more territory.
In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the Republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. A legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries, it was always accompanied by one or more attached units of auxiliaries, who were not Roman citizens and provided cavalry, ranged troops and skirmishers to complement the legion's heavy infantry. The recruitment of non-citizens appears to have occurred in times of great need. A Legion consisted of a Contubernium, consisted of 8 Legionaries; these Legionaries Were accompanied by 2 slaves. The Legionaries would select a man amongst their ranks to become a Decanus this was more of an election than a decision by one person; the size of a typical legion varied throughout the history of ancient Rome, with complements of 4,200 legionaries and 300 equites in the republican period of Rome, to 5,200 men plus 120 auxiliaries in the imperial period.
In the period before the raising of the legio and the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Republic, forces are described as being organized into centuries of one hundred men. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them; such independent organization persisted until the 2nd century BC amongst light infantry and cavalry, but was discarded in periods with the supporting role taken instead by allied troops. The roles of century leader, secon