Lee Hsien Loong
Lee Hsien Loong is a Singaporean politician. He is the current and third Prime Minister of Singapore since 2004, he took over the leadership of the People's Action Party when former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong stepped down from the position to become the new Senior Minister. Lee led his party to victory in the 2006, 2011 and 2015 general elections, he began his current term on 15 January 2016 following the opening of Singapore's 13th Parliament. Lee is the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew. Lee graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University, as Senior Wrangler in 1974 and earned a Master of Public Administration at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. From 1971 to 1984, he served in the Singapore Armed Forces where he rose to the rank of brigadier general, he won his first election for Member of Parliament in 1984, contesting as a member of the People's Action Party. Under Singapore's second prime minister, Goh Chok Tong, Lee served as the Minister for Trade and Industry, Minister for Finance and Deputy Prime Minister.
The eldest child of Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and his wife Kwa Geok Choo, Lee Hsien Loong was born in Singapore on 10 February 1952. His paternal grandmother, Chua Jim Neo, was a Hokkien Nyonya, his mother has ancestry from Tong'an District, Fujian, China. According to Lee Kuan Yew's biography, the younger Lee had learnt the Jawi script from the age of five, has always been interested in the affairs of Singapore following his father to the rally grounds since 1963. Lee studied at Nanyang Primary School and received his secondary education at Catholic High School, before going on to National Junior College. In 1971, he was awarded a President's Scholarship and Singapore Armed Forces Overseas Scholarship by the Public Service Commission to study mathematics at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, he was Senior Wrangler in 1973, graduated in 1974 with first-class honours on a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics and a Diploma in Computer Science with distinction. In 1980, he completed a Master of Public Administration at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Lee joined the Singapore Armed Forces in 1971, served as an officer from 1974 to 1984. In 1978, he attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, held various staff and command posts, including the Director of the Joint Operations and Plans Directorate, Chief of Staff of the General Staff. Lee rose through the ranks in the Singapore Army, becoming the youngest brigadier-general in Singaporean history after his promotion in July 1983. Notably, he was put in command of the rescue operations following the Sentosa Cable Car Disaster. Lee served as commanding officer of 23rd Singapore Artillery in the Singapore Army before he left the SAF in 1984 to pursue civilian politics. In the 1980s, Lee was regarded as the core member of the next batch of new leaders in the People's Action Party leadership transition, taking place in the mid-1980s, as Lee Kuan Yew had declared that he would step down as prime minister in 1984. Following the 1984 general election, all of the old Central Executive Committee members resigned on 1 January 1985, except for Lee Kuan Yew himself.
Lee was first elected Member of Parliament for the Teck Ghee Single Member Constituency in 1984, at the age of thirty-two. Following his first election, he was appointed as a Minister of State in the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Defence by his father Lee Kuan Yew, the prime minister at that time. In 1985, Lee chaired the government's economic committee, which recommended changes to established government policies to reduce business costs, foster longer-term growth and revive the Singapore economy, experiencing a recession at the time; the committee's recommendations included reductions in corporate and personal taxes and the introduction of a consumption tax. In 1986, Lee was appointed the acting minister for Industry. In 1987, he became a full member of the Cabinet as the minister for trade and Industry and second minister for defence. Lee was the chairman of the PAP Youth Committee, the predecessor to the Young PAP, when it was established in 1986. Lee said that the youth wing would be a channel to communicate dissent, in which otherwise they might be "tempted" to vote for the opposition political parties and bring the PAP government down.
On 28 November 1990, Goh Chok Tong took over from Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong was made one of two Deputy Prime Ministers. He continued to serve as the Minister for Trade and Industry until 1992. In 1992, Lee underwent a three-month period of chemotherapy; when his treatment began, he relinquished his position as the Minister for Trade and Industry, though he continued to be a Deputy Prime Minister. His chemotherapy was successful, his cancer has since gone into remission. Lee was appointed Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore in 1998, in 2001 he was made the Minister for Finance. To ease the growing budget deficit due to falling tax revenues from cuts in corporate and personal income taxes and other factors such as the Iraq War and SARS outbreak, Lee proposed on 29 August 2003 to raise the GST from three percent to five percent, a change which took place in January 2004. Lee initiated several amendments to render requirements for Singapore citizenship less r
Nominated Member of Parliament
A Nominated Member of Parliament is a Member of the Parliament of Singapore, appointed by the President. They do not represent any constituency. There are nine NMPs in Parliament; the introduction of NMPs in September 1990, effected to bring more independent voices into Parliament, was an important modification of the traditional Westminster parliamentary system that Singapore had. NMPs are appointed for a term of two and a half years on the recommendation of a Special Select Committee chaired by the Speaker of Parliament; the Committee may nominate persons who have rendered distinguished public service or who have brought honour to Singapore, invites proposals of candidates from community groups in the fields of arts and letters, the sciences, industry, the professions, social or community service, the labour movement. In 2009, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong proposed in Parliament that the Committee should invite nominations from the civil society such as candidates from the environmental movement, young activists, new citizens, community and grassroots leaders.
In addition, the Committee must have regard to the need for NMPs to reflect as wide a range of independent and nonpartisan views as possible. In Parliament, NMPs can participate in debates and vote on all issues except amendments to the Constitution, motions relating to public funds, votes of no confidence in the Government, removing the President from office; the NMP scheme has been criticized on the grounds that it is undemocratic, that unelected NMPs have no incentive to express the electorate's views in Parliament. It has been claimed that the scheme reinforces the ruling People's Action Party's technocratic and elitist view of politics. On the other hand, it is said that NMPs have placed pressure on PAP MPs to be more competent in Parliament. NMPs have made contributions to Singapore's political landscape. In 1996, the Maintenance of Parents Act became the first public Act originating from a private member's bill initiated by an NMP, Walter Woon. During parliamentary debates, NMPs have offered critical views on Government policies.
The scheme was declared a success by the Prime Minister in 2009, NMPs were made a permanent feature of Parliament – before this change, Parliament had to resolve within six months of every election whether NMPs should be appointed. A Nominated Member of Parliament is a member of the Parliament of Singapore, not elected, but chosen by a committee of MPs. Introducing the NMP scheme was a progression of the plan by the Government, the first step of, the introduction of the Non-constituency Member of Parliament scheme, to increase the number of non-government MPs to enable "alternative views to be expressed and dissenting voices to be heard". During a debate in Parliament on 29 and 30 November 1989, the First Deputy Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong set out the Government's reasons for implementing the scheme; the NMP scheme was a move to provide more opportunities for Singaporeans to participate in politics. It was a "privilege" extended to Singaporeans who could make valuable contributions to public policy but for good reasons did not desire to enter politics and look after constituencies.
Women were mentioned as an example of people who might be more willing to become NMPs, as many have to handle their families and careers and therefore do not have much spare time. The aim of the scheme was to create a more "consensual style of government where alternative views are heard and constructive dissent accommodated". NMPs could play a constructive role in contributing to good governance that the Opposition and MPs of the ruling People's Action Party could not provide. While PAP MPs had been encouraged to air opposing views, they were after all Government MPs and were not allowed to vote against the Government unless the Whip was lifted. Moreover, there were few Opposition MPs. According to Goh, the Opposition had not been constructive as their objective was to discredit the Government so that they could win office. In contrast, NMPs would not belong to any political party, could therefore represent the views of people who did not identify themselves with the PAP or the Opposition. Thus, NMPs would be able to concentrate on the "substance of the debate rather than form and rhetoric", provide dissenting and constructive views that would contribute to good government.
Furthermore, with NMPs Parliament would be able to better represent the views of the people. While the ruling party attempted to represent the mainstream political opinion in Singapore and fielded as representative a range of candidates as possible during general elections, it would not be able to succeed in representing every viewpoint. On the other hand, the Opposition MPs and NCMPs represented anti-establishment voters. Goh expressed the view that people who stood as Opposition candidates believed that having the PAP government was bad for Singapore and wished to oust the PAP. Therefore, the range of people to be elected to Parliament as Opposition MPs was limited. NMPs could represent the people who disagreed with the PAP but did not wish to oust them from government. Goh pointed out that at least 20 other countries had nominated Members in their Houses of Representatives, while noting that each variant of the NMP system had to be tailored to the country in which it was implemented; the bill for amending the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to implement the NMP scheme was introduced in Parliament and underwent its First Reading on 6 October 1989.
On 30 November 1989, the bill was read a second time, referred to a select committee. The report of the select committee was presented to Parl
Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore
The Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the deputy head of the government of the Republic of Singapore. The role of Deputy Prime Minister is the second highest post and senior Cabinet Minister in Singapore; the holder will sometimes assume the role of Acting Prime Minister when the PM is temporarily absent from Singapore. Since the mid-1980s, Singapore has had two Deputy Prime Ministers at a time. Only Ong Teng Cheong and Tony Tan served under more than one Prime Minister during their time as Deputy Prime Minister; the office of Deputy Prime Minister dates back to 1959 and was appointed at first by the Governor of Singapore the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, when Singapore achieved self-governance as the State of Singapore within the British Empire. The title of Deputy Prime Minister remained unchanged after the merger with the Federation of Malaya and North Borneo, while Singapore was a state in the Federation of Malaysia from 1963 to 1965, after independence in 1965. Toh Chin Chye was the first deputy prime minister of Singapore from 1959 to 1968 and retired on 2 August 1968.
Prime Minister of Singapore Prime Minister's Office Cabinet of Singapore Prime Minister's Office
Constitution of Singapore
The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore is the supreme law of Singapore. A written constitution, the text which took effect on 9 August 1965 is derived from the Constitution of the State of Singapore 1963, provisions of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia made applicable to Singapore by the Republic of Singapore Independence Act 1965, the Republic of Singapore Independence Act itself; the text of the Constitution is one of the binding sources of constitutional law in Singapore, the others being judicial interpretations of the Constitution, certain other statutes. Non-binding sources are influences on constitutional law such as soft law, constitutional conventions, public international law. In the exercise of its original jurisdiction – that is, its power to hear cases for the first time – the High Court carries out two types of judicial review: judicial review of legislation, judicial review of administrative acts. Although in a 1980 case the Privy Council held that the fundamental liberties in Part IV of the Constitution should be interpreted generously, Singapore courts adopt a philosophy of deference to Parliament and a strong presumption of constitutional validity, which has led to fundamental liberties being construed narrowly in certain cases.
The courts generally adopt a purposive approach, favouring interpretations that promote the purpose or object underlying constitutional provisions. Article 4 of the Constitution expressly declares; the Constitution appears to satisfy Albert Venn Dicey's three criteria for supremacy: codification and the existence of judicial review by the courts. However, the view has been taken that it may not be supreme in practice and that Singapore's legal system is de facto characterized by parliamentary sovereignty. There are two ways to amend the Constitution, depending on the nature of the provision being amended. Most of the Constitution's Articles can be amended with the support of more than two-thirds of all the Members of Parliament during the Second and Third Readings of each constitutional amendment bill. However, provisions protecting Singapore's sovereignty can only be amended if supported at a national referendum by at least two-thirds of the total number of votes cast; this requirement applies to Articles 5 and 5A, though these provisions are not yet operational.
Article 5 protects certain core constitutional provisions such as the fundamental liberties in Part IV of the Constitution, Articles relating to the President's election, maintenance, immunity from suit, removal from office. These provisions are not yet in force as the Government views the Elected Presidency as an evolving institution in need of further refinements; the Malaysian courts have distinguished between the exercise of "constituent power" and "legislative power" by Parliament. When Parliament amends the Constitution by exercising constituent power, the amendment Act cannot be challenged as inconsistent with the Constitution's existing provisions; the Singapore position is unclear. However, it is arguable that they are to apply the Malaysian position as the relevant provisions of the Constitution of Malaysia and the Singapore Constitution are in pari materia with each other. In addition, the High Court has rejected the basic structure or basic features doctrine developed by the Supreme Court of India, which means that Parliament is not precluded from amending or repealing any provisions of the Constitution those considered as basic.
Constitutionalism has been described as being "concerned with curbing oppressive government and preserving individual freedom while retaining a realm for the exercise of legitimate governmental power". A constitution can therefore be described as "he fundamental and organic law of a nation or state, establishing the conception and organization of its government, as well as prescribing the extent of its sovereign power and the manner of its exercise", or a specific statute containing provisions that serve those purposes. In this article, the term constitution refers to the body of legal rules having constitutional effect in Singapore, while Constitution refers to the main statute containing constitutional rules. In Singapore, the sources of constitutional law may be grouped into two categories: those that are binding and those that are not. Binding sources include the text of the Constitution, judicial interpretations of the Constitution, other statutes. Non-binding sources are influences on constitutional law such as soft law, constitutional conventions, public international law.
Singapore has a written constitution. The text of the Singapore Constitution which took effect from 9 August 1965 was a patchwork of provisions drawn from three statutes: the Constitution of the State of Singapore 1963, the Federal Constitution of Malaysia made applicable to Singapore by the Republic of Singapore Independence Act 1965, the Republic of Singapore Independence Act itself; these provided the newly independent nation with a working constitution at short notice. Since Singapore was founded as a factory or trading post of the East India Company in 1819, a number of laws having constitutional status have applied to it. Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements in 1867, which were granted a colonial constitution by way of letters patent dated 4 February 1867 that established the Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements. Further letters patent dated 17 November 1877 set up an executive co
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
General elections in Singapore
General elections in Singapore must be held within three months after five years have elapsed from the date of the first sitting of a particular Parliament of Singapore. However, in most cases Parliament is dissolved and a general election called at the behest of the Prime Minister before the five-year period elapses; the number of constituencies or electoral divisions is not permanently fixed by law, but is declared by the Prime Minister prior to each general election pursuant to the Parliamentary Elections Act, which governs the conduct of elections to Parliament, taking into account recommendations of the Electoral Boundaries Review Committee. For the 2015 general election, there were 89 seats in Parliament organised into 13 Single Member Constituencies and 16 Group Representation Constituencies; each SMC returns one Member of Parliament while each GRC returns between three and six MPs, at least one of whom must be from the Malay, Indian or other minority communities. A group of persons wishing to stand for election in a GRC must all be members of the same political party, or a group of independent candidates.
The voting age in Singapore is 21 years. The election process begins when the President, acting on Cabinet's advice, issues a writ of election addressed to the returning officer. On nomination day, the returning officer and his or her representatives will be present at designated nomination centres between 11:00 am and 12:00 noon to receive prospective candidates' nomination papers, political donation certificates certifying that they have complied with the requirements of the Political Donations Act. A person intending to contest in a GRC as a minority candidate must submit a certificate confirming that he or she is a person belonging to the Malay, Indian or some other minority community. In addition, between the date of the writ of election and 12:00 noon on nomination day, candidates must lodge with the returning officer a deposit equal to 8% of the total allowances payable to an MP in the preceding calendar year, rounded to the nearest $500. For the 2015 general election, the amount of the deposit was $14,500.
At the close of the nomination period, where there is only one candidate in an SMC or one group of candidates in a GRC standing nominated, the election is uncontested and the returning officer will declare that the candidate has or the group of candidates have been elected. Where there is more than one candidate in an SMC or more than one group of candidates in a GRC, the election is adjourned for a poll to be taken; the returning officer issues a notice of contested election. Candidates can only mount election campaigns from after the close of nomination up to the day before the eve of polling day. No campaigning is permitted on the eve of polling day itself, known as "cooling-off day". Candidates can advertise on the Internet, conduct house-to-house visits, distribute pamphlets, put up banners and posters, hold election rallies. Political parties fielding at least six candidates are allocated airtime for two pre-recorded party political broadcasts on radio and television, one on the day following nomination day and the other on cooling-off day.
The amount of airtime granted depends on the number of candidates. The maximum amount which a candidate or his or her election agent can pay or incur for an election campaign is $3.50 for each elector in an SMC, or $3.50 for each elector divided by the number of candidates in the group standing for election in a GRC. Polling day at a general election is a public holiday, voting is compulsory. Unless the returning officer decides otherwise, polling stations are open from 8:00 am to 8:00 pm Voters must go to the polling stations assigned to them. After the poll closes, the presiding officer of each polling station seals the ballot boxes without opening them. Candidates or their polling agents may affix their own seals to the ballot boxes; the ballot boxes are taken to counting centres to be opened and the ballots counted. A candidate or his counting agent may ask the returning officer for a recount of votes if the difference between the number of votes for the candidate or group of candidates with the most votes and the number of votes of any other candidate or group of candidate is 2% or less, excluding rejected and tendered votes.
After all counts, recounts if any, have been completed, the returning officer ascertains whether the total number of electors registered to vote overseas is less than the difference between the number of votes for the two candidates with the highest number of votes. If so, the returning officer declares the candidate with the highest number of votes to be elected as President. If not, the returning officer states the number of votes cast for each candidate and the date and location where the overseas votes will be counted; the most recent general election was held in 2015. The People's Action Party was returned to power to form the Government with 83 seats, while the Workers' Party of Singapore secured six seats by winning in Aljunied GRC and Hougang SMC; the Parliament of Singapore is unicameral and consists of three types of Members of Parliament: elected Members of Parliament, Non-constituency Members of Parliament, Nominated Members of Parliament. Of these, MPs are chosen by universal suffrage or popular election under a "first-past-the-post" system, while NCMPs are chosen from among the candidates of political parties not forming the Government.
The maximum duration of each Parliament is five years from the date
Parliament of Singapore
The Parliament of the Republic of Singapore and the President jointly make up the legislature of Singapore, based on the Westminster system. Parliament is unicameral and is made up of Members of Parliament who are elected, as well as Non-constituency Members of Parliament and Nominated Members of Parliament who are appointed. Following the 2015 general election, 89 MPs and three NCMPs were elected to the 13th Parliament. Nine NMPs were appointed during the first session of this Parliament; the first sitting of the 13th Parliament took place on 15 January 2016. Between 1819, when modern Singapore was founded, 1867, the lawmaking authorities were the British government in India and the Parliament of the United Kingdom. After the Straits Settlements became a Crown colony, this function was taken over by the Settlements' Legislative Council, an unelected body. Following World War II the Straits Settlements were dissolved and Singapore became a colony in its own right with its own Legislative Council.
In 1948 the Constitution was amended to allow for six seats in the council to be elected. A further amendment in 1955 increased the number of elected seats to 25, in the general elections that followed, the Labour Front won the majority of the seats in the Legislative Assembly of Singapore and its leader, David Saul Marshall, became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. Self-government was negotiated with the Colonial Office in London in 1956–1957, became a reality in 1959. In the 1959 general elections, the People's Action Party swept to power, its leader Lee Kuan Yew was appointed Prime Minister of Singapore. Singapore gained independence from Britain by joining Malaysia in 1963, but became a independent republic on 9 August 1965, its Legislative Assembly was renamed the Parliament of Singapore. The Speaker of Parliament has overall charge of the administration of Parliament and its secretariat, presides over parliamentary sittings; the Leader of the House is an MP appointed by the Prime Minister to arrange government business and the legislative programme of Parliament, while the unofficial Leader of the Opposition is the MP who leads the largest opposition party able and prepared to assume office if the Government resigns.
However, in September 2011, Low Thia Khiang, the secretary-general of the Workers' Party of Singapore, which holds the most opposition seats in Parliament, said that he would not be accepting the title. Some of Parliament's work is carried out by select committees made up of small numbers of MPs. Standing select committees are permanently constituted to fulfil certain duties, ad hoc select committees are established from time to time to deal with matters such studying the details of bills. In addition, selected PAP backbenchers sit on Government Parliamentary Committees that examine the policies and proposed legislation of government ministries; the main functions of Parliament are lawmaking, controlling the nation's finances, ensuring ministerial accountability. Parliament convenes; the first session of a particular Parliament commences when Parliament meets after being formed following a general election. A session ends when Parliament is dissolved; the maximum term of each Parliament is five years.
A general election must be held within three months. The quorum for a Parliamentary sitting is one quarter of the total number of MPs, not including the Speaker. An MP begins a debate by moving a motion and delivering an opening speech explaining the reasons for the motion; the Speaker puts the motion in the form of a question, following which other MPs may debate the motion. After that, the mover may exercise a right of reply; when the debate is closed, the Speaker puts the question on the motion to the House and calls for a vote. Voting is done verbally, whether the motion is carried depends on the Speaker's personal assessment of whether more MPs have voted for than against the motion. MPs' votes are only formally counted. Parliament regulates its own privileges and powers. For instance, the freedom of speech and debate and proceedings in Parliament may not be impeached or questioned in any court or other place out of Parliament. Parliament may punish an MP for acting dishonourably, abusing a privilege or behaving contemptuously.
Parliament convened at the Old Parliament House between 1955 and 1999, before moving into a newly constructed Parliament House on 6 September 1999. The term Parliament is used in a number of different senses. First, it refers to the institution made up of a group of people who are elected to discuss matters of state. Secondly, it can mean each group of MPs voted into office following a general election. In this sense, the First Parliament of the independent Republic of Singapore sat from 8 December 1965 to 8 February 1968; the current Parliament, which started on 15 January 2016, is the thirteenth. Parliament is sometimes used loosely to refer to Parliament House, the seat of the Parliament of Singapore. On 6 February 1819, Sultan Hussein Shah and the Temenggung of Johor, Abdul Rahman Sri Maharajah, entered into an agreement with Sir Stamford Raffles for the British East India Company to establish a "factory" or trading post on the island of Singapore. Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen, placed Singapore under Bencoolen's jurisdiction.
As Bencoolen was itself a factory subordinate to the Bengal Presidency in British India, only the Governor-General in Council in Benga