Catch wrestling is a classical hybrid grappling style and combat sport developed in Britain circa 1870 by J. G Chambers, it was popularized by wrestlers of travelling funfairs who developed their own submission holds, or "hooks", into their wrestling to increase their effectiveness against their opponents. Catch wrestling derives from a number of different styles, the English styles of Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling and Devon wrestling, Lancashire wrestling, Irish collar-and-elbow wrestling; the training of some modern submission wrestlers, professional wrestlers and mixed martial artists is founded in catch wrestling. In 1871, John Graham Chambers, of aquatic and pedestrian celebrity, sometime editor of Land and Water, endeavored to introduce and promote a new system of wrestling at Little Bridge Grounds, West Brompton, which he denominated, "The Catch-as-catch-can Style." The new idea met with little support at the time, a few years afterward Chambers was induced to adopt the objectionable fashion of allowing the competitors to wrestle on all-fours on the ground.
This new departure was the forerunner of the total abolition of the sport at that athletic, within a short period the wrestling, as an item in the program. Various promoters of the exercise, notably J. Wannop, of New Cross, attempted to bring the new system prominently before the public, with the view of amalgamating the three English styles viz. the Cumberland and Westmorland and Devon, Lancashire. The sudden development of the Cumberland and Westmorland Amateur Wrestling Society, brought the new style prominently to the front, special prizes were given for competition in that class at the society's first annual midsummer gathering at the Paddington Recreation Ground, attended by Lord Mayor Whitehead and sheriffs in state. Wrestling on the "catch-as-catch-can" principle was new to many spectators, but it was approved of as a great step in advance of the loose-hold system, which includes struggling on the ground and sundry objectionable tactics, such as catching hold of the legs, twisting arms, dislocating fingers, other items of attack and defense peculiar to Lancashire wrestling.
When catch wrestling reached the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century it became popular with the wrestlers of the carnivals. The carnival's wrestlers challenged the locals as part of the carnival's "athletic show" and the locals had their chance to win a cash reward if they could defeat the carnival's strongman by a pin or a submission; the carnival's wrestlers began preparing for the worst kind of unarmed assault and aiming to end the wrestling match with any tough local and decisively via submission. A hook was a technical submission; as carnival wrestlers travelled, they met with a variety of people and using techniques from various other folk wrestling disciplines Irish Collar & Elbow, many of which were accessible due to a huge influx of immigrants in the United States during this era. Catch wrestling contests became immensely popular in Europe involving the likes of the Indian national wrestling champion Great Gama, Imam Baksh Pahalwan, Bulgarian world heavyweight champion Dan Kolov, Swiss champion John Lemm, Americans Frank Gotch, Tom Jenkins, Ralph Parcaut, Ad Santel, Ed Lewis, Lou Thesz and Benjamin Roller, Mitsuyo Maeda from Japan, Georg Hackenschmidt from Russia.
The British term "catch as catch can" is understood to mean "catch anywhere you can". As this implies, the rules of catch wrestling were more open than the earlier Folk styles it was based on and its French Greco-Roman counterpart which did not allow holds below the waist. Catch wrestlers can win a match by either submission or pin, most matches are contested as the best two of three falls, but not always, the chokehold was barred. Just as today "tapping out" signifies a concession as does shouting out "Uncle!", back in the heyday of catch wrestling rolling to one's back could signify defeat. Frank Gotch won many matches by forcing his opponent to roll over onto their back with the threat of his toe-hold; some matches however didn't include pins as a way to win but they were used for control and to get submissions However, in traditional catch wrestling, hooks are used rather than submissions. Hooks are a form of submission where the submission may be executed so fast that the loser has no time to tap out, hooks were derived from the Rough & Tumble mindset.
Therefore, another name for a catch wrestler is a "hooker." A "hook" can be defined as an undefined move that stretches, spreads or compresses any joint or limb. Catch wrestling techniques may include, but are not limited to: the arm bar, Japanese arm bar, straight arm bar, bar hammerlock, wrist lock, top wrist lock, double wrist lock, head scissors, body scissors, chest lock, abdominal lock, abdominal stretch, leg lock, knee bar, ankle lock, heel hook, toe hold, half Nelson, full Nelson and infinitely many others. Many of such novel techniques came from cross cultural exchanges with Jujutsu proponents. All moves have their own variations and different predicaments they can be pulled off in; the rules of catch wrestling would change from venue to venue. Matches contested with side-bets at the coal mines or logging camps favoured submission wins where there was no doubt as to who the winner was. Meanwhile, professionally booked matches and amateur contests favoured pins that catered to the broader and more gentle paying fan-base.
The impact of catch wrestling on modern-day amateur wrestling is well established. In the film Catch: The Hold
"Combat Sports" redirects here, for The Vaccines' album, see Combat Sports. A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Common combat sports include mixed martial arts, wrestling, savate, Muay Thai, Tae Kwon Do, Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, HMB, Kyokushin, Kūdō, sometimes Ninjutsu. Tradition styles of wrestling exist in most cultures. Boxing contests date back to ancient Sumer in the 3rd millennium BCE and ancient Egypt circa 1350 BCE; the ancient Olympic Games included several combat-related sports: armored foot races, boxing and pankration, introduced in the Olympic Games of 648 BCE. In ancient China, combat sport appeared in the form of lei tai, it was a no-holds barred combat sport that combined wrestling. There is evidence of similar combat sports in ancient Egypt and Japan. Through the Middle ages and Renaissance, the tournament was popular.
Tournaments were competitions that featured several mock combat events, with jousting as a main event. While the tournament was popular among aristocrats, combat sports were practiced by all levels of society; the German school of late medieval martial arts distinguished sportive combat from serious combat. In the German Renaissance, sportive combat competitions were known as Fechtschulen, corresponding to the Prize Playing in Tudor England. Out of these Prize Playing events developed the English boxing of the 18th century, which evolved into modern boxing with the introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry rules in 1867. Amateur boxing has been part of the modern Olympic Games since their introduction in 1904. Professional boxing became popular in the United States in the 1920s and experienced a "golden age" after World War II; the creation of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is attributed to the Gracie family of Brazil in 1925 after Asian martial arts were introduced to Brazil. Vale-tudo, muay thai kickboxing and luta livre gained popularity.
Modern Muay Thai was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. Sambo was introduced in the Soviet Union. Modern Taekwondo emerged after the Japanese occupation of Korea and became an Olympic sport in 2000. Sanshou as part of modern wushu was developed in the People's Republic of China since the 1950s. Kickboxing and full contact karate were developed in the 1960s and became popular in Japan and the West during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern Mixed Martial Arts developed out of the interconnected subcultures of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and shoot wrestling, it was introduced in Japan in the form of Shooto in 1985, in the United States as Ultimate Fighting Championship in 1993. The Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts were introduced in 2000, the sport experienced peak popularity in the 2000s. During this period, multiple brands and promotions were established; the most well-known promotion for MMA is UFC. Combat sports are more popular among men, both as athletes and as spectators. For many years, participation in combat sports was exclusive to men.
A study conducted by Greenwell, Hancock and Thorn in 2015 revealed that combat sports had a male audience. Combat sport promotions such as UFC or Bellator MMA are advertised to men. Combat athletes fight one-on-one. Different sports moves. For example, boxing only allows punches, taekwondo involves kicks, both Muay Thai and Burmese boxing allow the use of elbows and knees. There are combat sports based on grappling, such as both freestyle and Collegiate wrestling. Modern MMA is similar to the ancient Greek Olympic sport of pankration; some combat sports involve the use of weapons and armor, such as fencing and the new sport SCA Heavy Combat. Boxing Historical Ancient Greek boxing Historical Russian Fist Fighting Historical English Bare-Knuckle Boxing Modern Amateur Boxing Modern Professional Boxing Kickboxing and analogous styles Musti-yuddha Savate Sanda Indochinese Kickboxing Muay Thai Muay Lao Lethwei Shoot boxing Japanese combat sport introduced in 1985. Karate Full Contact Karate Taekwondo Pinning and takedown oriented wrestling Ancient Greek wrestling Beach wrestling Belt wrestling Judo Freestyle wrestling Greco-Roman wrestling Scholastic wrestling Sport Sambo Sumo Submission grappling: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu luta livre FILA Grappling Folk wrestling shuai jiao Catch wrestling Hybrid martial arts, combining striking and grappling elements: Pankration.
Modern Amateur Pankration Dambe traditional form of boxing, including kicking and wrestling elements, practiced by the Hausa people. Combat Sambo: Russian sport introduced in the 1920s. Kudo Vale Tudo, derived from Brazilian circus shows of the 1920s. Sanshou, institutionalized as part of modern Wushu since the 1950s. Shoot-style wrestling, since the 1980s. Shootfighting Shoot boxing Japanese combat sp
A compression lock, muscle lock, muscle slicer or muscle crusher, is a grappling hold that causes severe pain by pressing a muscle into a bone. A compression lock can cause a joint lock in a nearby joint when it is applied by squeezing a limb over a fulcrum. A forceful compression lock may damage muscles and tendons, if accompanied by a joint lock, may result in torn ligaments, dislocation or bone fractures. Compression locks can be used as pain compliance holds, are sometimes featured in combat sports as submission holds. An Achilles lock is a compression lock that involves pressing the Achilles tendon into the back of the ankle or lower leg, it is performed by wedging a forearm a bony part of it, into the Achilles tendon, while leveraging the foot and the leg over the forearm serving as a fulcrum. This causes severe pressure on the Achilles tendon, also results in an ankle lock, since the ankle is being used as a point of leverage; some ankle locks cause a compression lock on the Achilles tendon, hence the term "Achilles lock" is also used to describe such ankle locks.
A biceps slicer is a compression lock. An effective biceps slicer can be applied by putting an arm or leg as a fulcrum on the opponent's arm at the inside of the arm by the elbow, flexing the opponent's arm over the fulcrum; this will result in the biceps and forearm being pressed into the fulcrum. The biceps slicer becomes most effective as a compression lock when the bony parts of the limb such as the shin or any of the bones in the forearm are forced into the biceps of the opponent; the biceps slicer can become a potent armlock when it is applied in this manner, because the leverage causes an elongating and separating tension in the elbow joint, making this a legal technique in judo competition. In Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitions however, the biceps slicer is an illegal technique in lower level divisions of some major tournaments. In catch wrestling biceps slicer variation is called short-arm scissors. A leg slicer is a compression lock that involves pressing the calf and/or thigh muscle into one of the bones in the leg.
To the biceps slicer, a leg slicer can be applied by inserting an arm or leg in the backside of the knee, flexing the opponent's leg to apply pressure to the muscles surrounding the fulcrum. The direction of the shin in the leg acting as a fulcrum will determine where the larger part of the pressure will go; such leg slicers can be used as effective leglocks to the knee through a separating and elongating motion. To the biceps slicer, the calf slicer is listed as a banned technique in the lower levels of some major Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitions. Wrestler AJ Styles uses this as a submission finisher move, calling it the Calf Killer in NJPW and TNA and the Calf Crusher in WWE. Chokehold Joint lock Bison Grappling. Achilles squeeze. Bisons.net. URL last accessed August 18, 2006. Kesting, Stephan. Breaking down the Ankle Lock. www.grapplearts.com. URL last accessed August 18, 2006. Pearson, Charlie. Leg Slicer, Biceps Lock. www.lockflow.com. URL last accessed August 18, 2006. Judo Leg Locks. Leg locksBicep Slicer Videos Two versions of the technique are taught and performed
Submission wrestling or combat wrestling, is a form of competition and a general term for martial arts and combat sports that focus on clinch and ground fighting with the aim of obtaining a submission through the use of submission holds. The term "submission wrestling" refers only to the form of competition and training that does not use a gi, or "combat kimono", of the sort worn with belts that establish rank by color, though some may use the loose trousers of such a uniform, without the jacket; the sport of submission wrestling brings together techniques from catch wrestling, folk wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, freestyle wrestling, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Japanese jiu-jitsu, Brazilian Luta Livre and sambo. Submission fighting as an element of a larger sport setting is common in mixed martial arts, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, catch wrestling, others. Submission wrestlers or grapplers wear shorts, skin-sticky clothing such as rash guards and mixed short clothes so they do not rip off in combat, they are known for using submission techniques banned in other arts or competitions such as heel hooks, toe holds, wrist locks.
Mixed martial arts schools and fighters may use the term submission wrestling to refer to their grappling methods while avoiding association with any one art. The label is sometimes used to describe the tactic in mixed martial arts competition of relying upon submission wrestling skills to defeat an opponent. Catch wrestling: Also called "catch-as-catch-can", the style of grappling originating in Northern England has experienced a resurgence during recent years. Judo: A Japanese martial art focusing on high impact throws, joint-locks, chokes, it is an Olympic sport, practiced wearing the judogi, but has been adapted to submission wrestling purposes. Japanese jiu-jitsu or jujutsu: An ancient art of Japanese wrestling/grappling that places a heavy emphasis on joint-locks and throws. Uses a gi traditionally, but training without one is not uncommon. Sambo: The Russian style of grappling that uses a jacket, but without gi pants. Sambo utilizes leglocks. Brazilian jiu-jitsu: An popular style with great emphasis on ground grappling.
It involves training without a gi. Luta livre esportiva: A form of submission wrestling which derived from Catch wrestling, native to Brazil. Trained without the gi. Malla-yuddha: One of the oldest practiced forms of submission/combat wrestling, originating in pre-partition India, malla-yuddha is divided into four parent techniques, each named after particular Hindu gods and legendary fighters: Hanumanti concentrates on technical and positional superiority, Jambuvanti uses locks and holds to force the opponent into submission, Jarasandhi concentrates on breaking the limbs and joints and applying tracheal chokes while Bhimaseni focuses on sheer strength. Pankration: Originating from ancient Greece, it combines elements which today are found in the punches of boxing and in the kicking of many martial arts with moves from the Greece-originating wrestling and joint locks, thus creating a broad fighting sport similar to today's mixed martial arts. 10th Planet Jiu-Jitsu: An American hybrid of no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu founded by Eddie Bravo, influences from American folk wrestling and Jean Jacques Machado's style of BJJ.
More focus on no-gi half-guard and guard techniques that may be considered unorthodox in BJJ. Shoot wrestling: A Japanese martial art based on freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling and catch wrestling, which incorporated karate, Muay Thai, judo; the two major sub-disciplines of shoot wrestling are shootfighting. Shooto: A Japanese martial art consisting of catch wrestling, jujutsu and kickboxing. Combat Submission Wrestling: A modern form of wrestling, without the gi, that borrows elements and techniques from catch wrestling, freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, shoot wrestling and sambo; this style has a system of striking. Developed by Erik Paulson. Shootfighting: A Japanese martial art consisting of Muay Thai and catch wrestling. Submission Arts Wrestling: A Japanese version of Catch Wrestling borrowing principles from Judo and Sambo. Created by founder and former Sambo World Champion Hidetaka Aso, it is now practiced in Japan - Aso Sensei, Australia - Ito Sensei, Canada - Martelle Sensei and Puerto Rico - Ramos Sensei.
Hayastan freestyle fighting A submission grappling style developed by Gokor Chivichyan and Gene Lebell that blends elements of judo, catch wrestling, Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling. Shuai Jiao: A Chinese style of wrestling that incorporates throws and chin na. United World Wrestling British Grappling ADCC Submission Wrestling World Championship Mundials NAGA Grapplers Quest International Combat Wrestling Federation
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments. Ligaments join one bone to bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone for a proper functioning of the body. Histologically, tendons consist of dense regular connective tissue fascicles encased in dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. Normal healthy tendons are composed of parallel arrays of collagen fibers packed together, they are anchored to bone by Sharpey's fibres. The dry mass of normal tendons, which makes up about 30% of their total mass, is composed of about 86% collagen, 2% elastin, 1–5% proteoglycans, 0.2% inorganic components such as copper and calcium. The collagen portion is made up of 97–98% type I collagen, with small amounts of other types of collagen; these include type II collagen in the cartilaginous zones, type III collagen in the reticulin fibres of the vascular walls, type IX collagen, type IV collagen in the basement membranes of the capillaries, type V collagen in the vascular walls, type X collagen in the mineralized fibrocartilage near the interface with the bone.
Collagen fibres coalesce into macroaggregates. After secretion from the cell, the cleaved by procollagen N- and C-proteinases, the tropocollagen molecules spontaneously assemble into insoluble fibrils. A collagen molecule is about 300 nm long and 1–2 nm wide, the diameter of the fibrils that are formed can range from 50–500 nm. In tendons, the fibrils assemble further to form fascicles, which are about 10 mm in length with a diameter of 50–300 μm, into a tendon fibre with a diameter of 100–500 μm. Fascicles are bound by the endotendineum, a delicate loose connective tissue containing thin collagen fibrils. and elastic fibres. Groups of fascicles are bounded by the epitenon. Filling the interstitia within the fascia where the tendon is located is the paratenon a fatty areolar tissue; the collagen in tendons are held together with proteoglycan components including decorin and, in compressed regions of tendon, which are capable of binding to the collagen fibrils at specific locations. The proteoglycans are interwoven with the collagen fibrils – their glycosaminoglycan side chains have multiple interactions with the surface of the fibrils – showing that the proteoglycans are important structurally in the interconnection of the fibrils.
The major GAG components of the tendon are dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which associate with collagen and are involved in the fibril assembly process during tendon development. Dermatan sulfate is thought to be responsible for forming associations between fibrils, while chondroitin sulfate is thought to be more involved with occupying volume between the fibrils to keep them separated and help withstand deformation; the dermatan sulfate side chains of decorin aggregate in solution, this behavior can assist with the assembly of the collagen fibrils. When decorin molecules are bound to a collagen fibril, their dermatan sulfate chains may extend and associate with other dermatan sulfate chains on decorin, bound to separate fibrils, therefore creating interfibrillar bridges and causing parallel alignment of the fibrils; the tenocytes produce the collagen molecules, which aggregate end-to-end and side-to-side to produce collagen fibrils. Fibril bundles are organized to form fibres with the elongated tenocytes packed between them.
There is a three-dimensional network of cell processes associated with collagen in the tendon. The cells communicate with each other through gap junctions, this signalling gives them the ability to detect and respond to mechanical loading. Blood vessels may be visualized within the endotendon running parallel to collagen fibres, with occasional branching transverse anastomoses; the internal tendon bulk is thought to contain no nerve fibres, but the epitenon and paratenon contain nerve endings, while Golgi tendon organs are present at the junction between tendon and muscle. Tendon length varies from person to person. Tendon length is, in practice, the deciding factor regarding potential muscle size. For example, all other relevant biological factors being equal, a man with a shorter tendons and a longer biceps muscle will have greater potential for muscle mass than a man with a longer tendon and a shorter muscle. Successful bodybuilders will have shorter tendons. Conversely, in sports requiring athletes to excel in actions such as running or jumping, it is beneficial to have longer than average Achilles tendon and a shorter calf muscle.
Tendon length is determined by genetic predisposition, has not been shown to either increase or decrease in response to environment, unlike muscles, which can be shortened by trauma, use imbalances and a lack of recovery and stretching. Traditionally, tendons have been considered to be a mechanism by which muscles connect to bone as well as muscles itself, functioning to transmit forces; this connection allows tendons to passively modulate forces during locomotion, providing additional stability with no active work. However, over the past two decades, much research focused on the elastic properties of some tendons and their ability to function as springs. Not all tendons are required to perform the same functional role, with some predominantly positioning limbs, such as the fingers when writing and others acting as springs to make locomotion more efficient. Energy storing tendons can recover energy at high efficiency. For example, during a human stride, the Achilles tendon stretches as the ankle joint dorsiflexes.
During the last portion of the stride, as the foot plantar-flexes (pointing the
The calf is the back portion of the lower leg in human anatomy. The muscles within the calf correspond to the posterior compartment of the leg; the two largest muscles within this compartment are known together as the calf muscle and attach to the heel via the Achilles tendon. Several other, smaller muscles attach to the knee, the ankle, via long tendons to the toes; the calf is composed of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg: The gastrocnemius and soleus and the tibialis posterior. The sural nerve provides innervation. Medical conditions that result in calf swelling among other symptoms include deep vein thrombosis compartment syndrome, Achilles tendon rupture, varicose veins. Idiopathic leg cramps are common and affect the calf muscles at night. Edema is common and in many cases idiopathic. In a small study of factory workers in good health, wearing compression garments helped to reduce edema and the pain associated with edema. A small study of runners found that wearing knee-high compression stockings while running improved performance.
The circumference of the calf has been used to estimate selected health risks. In Spain, a study of 22,000 persons 65 or older found that a smaller calf circumference was associated with a higher risk of undernutrition. In France, a study of 6265 persons 65 or older found an inverse correlation between calf circumference and carotid plaques. Calf augmentation and restoration is available, using a range of prosthesis devices and surgical techniques. Calf raises are a method of exercising the gastrocnemius, tibialis posterior and soleus muscles of the lower leg; the movement performed is plantar flexion, a.k.a. ankle extension. Calf and calf of the leg are documented in use in Middle English circa 1350 and 1425; the absence of calf, meaning a lower leg without a prominent calf muscle, was regarded by some authors as a sign of inferiority: it is well known that monkeys have no calves, still less do they exist among the lower orders of mammals. Calf Calf raises Shin Sciatica
Self-defense is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm. The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times of danger is available in many jurisdictions. Physical self-defense is the use of physical force to counter an immediate threat of violence; such force can be either unarmed. In either case, the chances of success depend on a large number of parameters, related to the severity of the threat on one hand, but on the mental and physical preparedness of the defender. Many styles of martial arts include self-defense techniques; some styles train for self-defense, while other martial or combat sports can be applied for self-defense. Some martial arts train how to escape from a knife or gun situation, or how to break away from a punch, while others train how to attack. To provide more practical self-defense, many modern martial arts schools now use a combination of martial arts styles and techniques, will customize self-defense training to suit individual participants.
A wide variety of weapons can be used for self-defense. The most suitable depends on the threat presented, the victim or victims, the experience of the defender. Legal restrictions greatly influence self-defence options. In many cases there are legal restrictions. While in some jurisdictions firearms may be carried or concealed expressly for this purpose, many jurisdictions have tight restrictions on who can own firearms, what types they can own. Knives those categorized as switchblades may be controlled, as may batons, pepper spray and personal stun guns and Tasers - although some may be legal to carry with a license or for certain professions. Non-injurious water-based self-defense indelible dye-marker sprays, or ID-marker or DNA-marker sprays linking a suspect to a crime scene, would in most places be legal to own and carry. Everyday objects, such as flashlights, baseball bats, keyrings with keys, kitchen utensils and other tools, hair spray aerosol cans in combination with a lighter, can be used as improvised weapons for self-defense.
Tie-wraps double as an effective restraint. Weapons such as the Kubotan have been built for ease of to resemble everyday objects. Ballpoint pen knives, cane guns and modified umbrellas are similar categories of concealed self-defense weapons that serve a dual purpose. Being aware of and avoiding dangerous situations is one useful technique of self-defense. Attackers will select victims they feel they have an advantage against, such as greater physical size, numerical superiority or sobriety versus intoxication. Additionally, any ambush situation inherently puts the defender at a large initiative disadvantage; these factors make fighting to defeat an attacker unlikely to succeed. When avoidance is impossible, one has a better chance at fighting to escape, such methods have been referred to as'break away' techniques. Understanding the'mindset' of a potential attacker is essential if we are to avoid or escape a life-threatening situation. Verbal Self Defense known as Verbal Judo or Verbal Aikido, is defined as using one's words to prevent, de-escalate, or end an attempted assault.
This kind of'conflict management' is the use of voice and body language to calm a violent situation before violence ensues. This involves techniques such as deflecting the conversation to individuals who are less passionately involved, or entering into a protected empathetic position to understand the attacker better. Lowering an attacker's defense and raising their ego is one way to de-escalate a violent situation. Personal alarms are a way to practice passive self-defense. A personal alarm is a small, hand-held device that emits strong, high-pitched sounds to deter attackers because the noise will sometimes draw the attention of passersby. Child alarms can function as locators or device alarms such as for triggering an alert when a swimming pool is in use to help prevent dangerous situations in addition to being a deterrent against would-be aggressors. Self-defense techniques and recommended behavior under the threat of violence is systematically taught in self-defense classes. Commercial self-defense education is part of the martial arts industry in the wider sense, many martial arts instructors give self-defense classes.
While all martial arts training can be argued to have some self-defense applications, self-defense courses are marketed explicitly as being oriented towards effectiveness and optimized towards situations as they occur in the real world. There are a large number of systems taught commercially, many tailored to the needs of specific target audiences. Notable systems taught commercially include: civilian versions of modern military combatives, such as Krav-Maga, Defendo and Systema Jujutsu and arts derived from it, such as Aikijujutsu, Bartitsu, German ju-jutsu, Kodokan Goshin Jutsu. Model Mugging Traditional unarmed fighting styles like Karate, Kung fu, Pencak Silat, etc; these styles can include competing. Traditional armed fighting styles like Kali Eskrima and Arnis; these include competing, as well as unarmed combat. Street Fighting oriented, unarmed systems, such as. A course in self defense will compr