Oak Island Yard
Oak Island Yard is a freight rail yard located north of Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal and Newark International Airport in an industrial area of Ironbound, New Jersey, United States. The sprawling complex includes engine house, classification yard, auto unloading terminal, maintenance facilities, it has ten reception tracks, an automated hump, 30 short classification tracks, nine departure tracks. In 1999, it classified 800 to 1000 cars per day; the yard was built by the Lehigh Valley Railroad and opened 1903. After construction of the Upper Bay Bridge in 1929 vast amounts of landfill were used to raise the yard to accommodate the new grade, it become part of the Consolidated Rail Corporation in 1976, in 1981 Conrail expanded it. It is jointly owned as part of North Jersey Shared Assets Area by the Norfolk Southern Railway and CSX, which took over Conrail operations in 1999, it is a support yard for the Port of New Jersey ExpressRail system. Several lines converge at the yard; the Conrail Lehigh Line travels to the west passing over the Northeast Corridor to run parallel Raritan Valley Line just west of the Hunter Connection.
The Conrail Lehigh Line began operations in 1999 from the original Lehigh Line and took over Oak Island Yard access operations from the original Lehigh Line. The Passaic and Harsimus Line runs through the yard and heads north to cross the Passaic River and Hackensack River to Marion Junction; the Chemical Coast, known as the Garden State Secondary line heads south between the port and the airport. To the east lies the Lehigh Valley Railroad Bridge which spans Newark Bay to the National Docks Secondary to the Upper New York Bay; the yard is listed on the New Jersey Register of Historic Places. List of rail yards Crescent Corridor Lehigh Valley Terminal Railway Timeline of Jersey City area railroads List of bridges and cuts in Hudson County, New Jersey Cross harbor freight project Oak Island map
Union County, New Jersey
Union County is a county in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 563,892, making it the seventh-most populous of the state's 21 counties, an increase of 5.1% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 536,499, in turn an increase of 13,958 from the 522,541 enumerated in the 2000 Census. In 2010, Union County slipped to the seventh-most populous county in the state, having been surpassed by Ocean County. Union County is part of the New York metropolitan area, its county seat is Elizabeth. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $60,089, the seventh-highest in New Jersey and ranked 152nd of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 119th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States in 2009. A study by Forbes.com determined that Union County pays the second-highest property taxes of all U. S. counties, based on 2007 data.
With a population density of 4,955 people per square mile, Union County was the 15th-most densely populated county in the United States as of the 2010 Census, third-densest in New Jersey, behind Hudson County and Essex County. All of present-day Union County was part of the Elizabethtown Tract, purchased in 1664, by English colonists from the Lenape Native Americans that lived in the area of present-day Elizabeth, New Jersey. Union County was formed on March 1857, from portions of Essex County. Many historic places and structures are to be found in the county, including on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, New Jersey; every fall, Union County holds its annual "Four Centuries in a Weekend" festival for the public and touring historic buildings and sites in the county. In 1869, the Union County Historical Society of New Jersey was incorporated; the society meets at the Hanson House in Cranford. Berkeley Heights - The Berkeley Heights Historical Society. Clark - The Clark Historical Society was founded in 1970.
It operates the Dr. William Robinson Plantation House Museum, built in 1690 by a doctor from Scotland. Cranford - The Cranford Historic Preservation Advisory Board is an official township committee body, while the Cranford Historical Society itself is citizen-run, it is located in the Hanson House in Hanson Park on Springfield Avenue and maintains the Crane-Phillips House a couple of blocks south on North Union Avenue as a museum. Garwood - Garwood Historical Committee. Hillside - The Hillside Historical Society, founded in 1975, meets at the Woodruff House. Kenilworth - The Kenilworth Historical Society dates to 1974, it runs the Oswald J. Nitschke House. Linden - The Linden Society for Historical Preservation is an offshoot of an official cultural board in the city. Mountainside - The Mountainside Restoration Committee, Inc. is called the Mountainside Historic Committee, founded in 1984. Plainfield - The Historical Society of Plainfield is headquartered at the Nathaniel Drake House Museum, built in 1746 on the Old York Road.
Rahway - The Rahway Historical Society is now called the Merchants' and Drovers' Tavern Museum Association. Scotch Plains and Fanwood - The Scotch Plains-Fanwood Historical Society runs the Osborn Cannonball House. Springfield - The Historic Cannon Ball House serves as the home of the Springfield Historical Society. Westfield - The Westfield Historical Society is in the Reeve History & Cultural Resource Center, a structure from the 1870s; the Society runs the Miller-Cory House Museum, in a home that dates back to the 1740s. Friends of Rahway River Parkway is dedicated to preserving Olmsted design principles and features of county parkland along the Rahway River as it flows to the Arthur Kill. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 105.40 square miles, including 102.86 square miles of land and 2.55 square miles of water. Much of Union County is flat and low-lying. Only in the northwestern corner does any significant relief appear as the Watchung Mountains cross the county.
It is there that highest elevations, two areas 560 feet above sea level, are found in Berkeley Heights. The lowest elevation is sea level along the eastern shore. Arthur Kill Rahway River Elizabeth River Nomahegan Brook Marshes Creek Morses Creek Peach Orchard Brook In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Elizabeth have ranged from a low of 24 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −14 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1993. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.99 inches in February to 4.76 inches in July. Union County adjoins the following counties: Essex County, New Jersey – north Hudson County, New Jersey – northeast Richmond County, New York – east Middlesex County, New Jersey – south Somerset County, New Jersey – west Morris County, New Jersey – northwest County parks are maintained and operated by the Union County Department of Parks and Recreation, successor agency to the Union County Park Commission.
The plan of any County Park System should be based on the principle that such system would benefit the whole population of the county, that it should be convenient and accessible to the large centers of population and that above all else, it should take over and preserve for park purposes land adoptable for parks before it is utilized for residences, factories or other purposes. Ash Brook Reservation Black Brook Park Briant Park Brookside Pa
Perth Amboy, New Jersey
Perth Amboy is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. The City of Perth Amboy is part of the New York metropolitan area; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 50,814, reflecting an increase of 3,511 from the 47,303 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,336 from the 41,967 counted in the 1990 Census. Perth Amboy has a Hispanic majority population. In the 2010 census, persons of "Hispanic, Latino or Spanish origin" made up 78.1% of the population, second to Union City at 84.7%. Perth Amboy is known as the "City by the Bay," referring to Raritan Bay. Perth Amboy was settled in 1683 by Scottish colonists, it was called "New Perth" after James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth, the Lenape Native Americans called the point on which the city lies "Ompoge". Perth Amboy was formed by Royal charter in 1718, the New Jersey Legislature reaffirmed its status in 1784, after independence; the city was a capital of the Province of New Jersey from 1686 to 1776.
During the mid-1800s, the Industrial Revolution and immigration grew the city, developing a variety of neighborhoods which residents from a diverse range of ethnicities lived in. The city developed into a resort town for the Raritan Bayshore near it, but the city has grown in other industries since its redevelopment starting from the 1990s. Perth Amboy borders the Arthur Kill, features a historic waterfront; the Perth Amboy Ferry Slip was once an important ferry slip in the area, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. The Raritan Yacht Club, one of the oldest yacht clubs in the United States, is located in the city. Perth Amboy is connected to the Staten Island borough of New York City via the Outerbridge Crossing; the Lenape Native Americans called the point on which the city is built "Ompoge" meaning "level ground" or "standing or upright". When settled in 1684 the new city was dubbed New Perth in honor of James Drummond, Earl of Perth, one of the associates of a company of Scottish proprietaries.
The Algonquian language name persisted, corrupted to Ambo, or Point Amboy, a combination of the native and colonial names emerged appearing in South Amboy. Perth Amboy was settled by Scottish colonists around 1683, recruited to inhabit the share of the East Jersey colony owned by Robert Barclay, a Quaker who would become the absentee governor of the province. Perth Amboy was formed by Royal charter on August 4, 1718, within various townships and again by New Jersey Legislature on December 21, 1784, within Perth Amboy Township and from part of Woodbridge Township. Perth Amboy Township was formed on October 31, 1693, was enlarged during the 1720s to encompass Perth Amboy city. Perth Amboy Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial 104 townships through the Township Act of 1798 on February 21, 1798; the township was replaced by Perth Amboy city on April 8, 1844. Perth Amboy served as a capital of the Province of New Jersey from 1686 until 1776. In 1684, Perth Amboy became the capital of East Jersey and remained the capital until the union of East and West Jersey in 1702, became an alternate colonial capital with Burlington until 1776.
A few of the buildings from this early period can still be seen today. Most notably, the Proprietary House, the home of William Franklin, the last Royal Governor of New Jersey and estranged son of Benjamin Franklin, still stands in the waterfront area of the city. St. Peter's Church was founded in 1718 by the first Episcopal congregation in the state, its current building, dating from 1875, is surrounded by a graveyard of early inhabitants and displays a collection of stained-glass windows with religious scenes as well as early depictions of New Jersey receiving her charter and a meeting between William Franklin and his father, Ben. Perth Amboy City Hall, first built as a courthouse in 1714, survived major fires in 1731 and 1764 and is the oldest city hall in continuous use in the United States; the Kearny Cottage, moved from its original location, is a remaining example of 18th Century vernacular architecture. During the colonial period and for a significant time thereafter, Perth Amboy was an important way-station for travelers between New York City and Philadelphia, as it was the site of a ferry that crossed the Arthur Kill to Tottenville, Staten Island.
Regular service began in 1709. This ferry became less important when the Outerbridge Crossing opened in 1928, but continued to operate until 1963. In 1998, the Perth Amboy Ferry Slip was restored to its 1904 appearance. A replica of the ticket office is used as a small museum. By the middle of the 19th century and industrialization transformed Perth Amboy. Factories such as A. Hall and Sons Terra Cotta and Sons and the Copper Works Smelting Company fueled a thriving downtown and employed many area residents. Growth was further stimulated by becoming the tidewater terminal for the Lehigh Valley Railroad and a coal shipping point. Perth Amboy developed knit and insular ethnic neighborhoods such as Budapest and Chickentown. Immigrants from Denmark, Hungary, Italy and Austria dominated the factory jobs. In 1903, the Perth Amboy Public Library, one of the first Carnegie libraries in the state, made possible through grants from Andrew Carnegie, donations of local philanthropists, opened to the public.
In 1914, Perth Amboy had a baseball team called the Pacers. In late August 1923, an estimated 6,000 persons rioted, breaking through police lines after the Ku Klux Klan attempted to organize a meeting in the city; the city was a resort town in the 19th century and early 20th century, locate
Lehigh Line (Norfolk Southern)
The Lehigh Line is a railroad line in central New Jersey and northeastern Pennsylvania. It is operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway; the line runs west from the vicinity of the Port of New York and New Jersey (via Conrail's Lehigh Line to the Susquehanna River valley at the south end of the Wyoming Valley Coal Region. Administratively it is part of Norfolk Southern's Harrisburg Division and is part of the Crescent Corridor; as of 2016 the line is freight-only, although there are perennial proposals to restore passenger service over all or part of the line. The Lehigh Line hosts twenty-five trains per day; the line runs from Port Reading Junction in Manville, New Jersey to Penn Haven Junction in Lehigh Township, Carbon County, Pennsylvania. At Port Reading Junction it meets the Trenton Subdivision, it crosses the Delaware River at New Jersey. Most of the traffic along the line consists of intermodal and general merchandise trains going to yards such as Oak Island Yard in Newark and Croxton Yard in Jersey City.
The line makes notable connections with other Norfolk Southern lines such as the Reading Line, the Washington Secondary, the Cement Secondary, the Ashmore Secondary, the Portland Secondary and the Stroudsburg Secondary. It connects with regional and short line railroads such as the Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad, the Black River and Western Railroad and the Belvidere and Delaware River Railway; the majority of the line was once the main line of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The first segment, between Easton and Allentown, opened in September 1855. Extensions and corporate acquisitions would carry to the Lehigh Valley main line to Buffalo, New York to the west and Perth Amboy, New Jersey to the east; some portions of the line were constructed by the Susquehanna Railroad. Conceived as a competitor to the Lehigh Valley, the L&S constructed a parallel line on the north side of the Lehigh River; the line was soon leased by the Central Railroad of New Jersey. Passenger service ended on the Lehigh Valley in 1961.
The Lehigh Valley assumed the lease of the L&S from the CNJ in 1972 when the latter abandoned operations in Pennsylvania. Both the Lehigh Valley and CNJ were merged into Conrail in 1976. Conrail named it the Lehigh Line. Conrail combined the Bethlehem–Allentown portion of the Lehigh Valley main line with the ex-Reading Company Reading Line. In the 1980s Conrail abandoned the ex-Lehigh Valley bridge over the Delaware River at Phillipsburg in favor of the L&S/CNJ bridge. With the line integrating former Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad owned CNJ Pennsylvania leased main line trackage into both its original route and into its route between Allentown and Lehighton, Conrail integrated other CNJ trackage around Phillipsburg into the line and have both the line's LV trackage in Phillipsburg and the line's new CNJ trackage in Phillipsburg be part of the line at the same time; the Norfolk Southern acquired the Lehigh Line in 1999 in the Conrail split with CSX Transportation. The section from Manville, New Jersey to Newark, New Jersey was spun off into Conrail Shared Assets Operations Lehigh Line, allowing for equal competition between Norfolk Southern and CSX.
The Delaware, Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad Company incorporated on April 21, 1846. Funding problems delayed the company's growth, it was not until late 1852 that the company, under newly appointed chief engineer Robert H. Sayre, surveyed the route between Mauch Chunk and Easton; the company changed its name to the Lehigh Valley Railroad on January 7, 1853. The line opened between Easton and Allentown, Pennsylvania on June 11, 1855, west to Mauch Chunk on September 12. At Easton, the Lehigh Valley constructed an unusual double-decker bridge across the Delaware River to Phillipsburg, New Jersey; the upper level proceeded straight across for a connection with the Central Railroad of New Jersey and Morris Canal, while the lower level curved south to meet the Belvidere Delaware Railroad. This bridge enabled the Lehigh Valley to interchange coal for both the New York City and Philadelphia markets, respectively; the upper level opened on September 7. The length of the line from Mauch Chunk to Easton which included the line's original route was 46 miles of single track.
The line was laid with a rail weighing 56 pounds per yard supported: upon cross ties 6 x 7 inches and 7-1/2 feet long placed 2 feet apart and about a quarter of it was ballasted with stone or gravel. The line had a descending or level grade from Mauch Chunk to Easton and with the exception of the curve at Mauch Chunk had no curve of less than 700 feet radius; the 1860s saw an expansion of the LV and the line with an expansion northward to the Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania area and up the Susquehanna River to the New York state line. In 1864, the LV began merging them with its system; the first acquisitions were the Beaver Meadow Railroad and Coal Company which included a few hundred acres of coal land and the Penn Haven and White Haven Railroad. The purchase of the Penn Haven and White Haven was the first step in expanding to Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. To reach Wilkes-Barre, the LV began constructing an extension from White Haven, Pennsylvani
South Plainfield, New Jersey
South Plainfield is a borough in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 23,385, reflecting an increase of 1,575 from the 21,810 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,321 from the 20,489 counted in the 1990 Census. South Plainfield was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 12, 1926, from portions of Piscataway Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on April 6, 1926; the borough's name derives from Plainfield, which derived its name from a local estate or from its scenic location. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 8.361 square miles, including 8.327 square miles of land and 0.034 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Avon Park, Hadley Airport, Holly Park and Samptown; the borough is bordered by Piscataway Township on the south and west, Edison Township on the east, both in Middlesex County, Plainfield on the north and Scotch Plains both in Union County.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,385 people, 7,876 households, 6,174.784 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,808.5 per square mile. There were 8,093 housing units at an average density of 971.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 66.74% White, 10.10% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 14.68% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.79% from other races, 3.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.24% of the population. There were 7,876 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.1% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.6% were non-families. 18.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.34. In the borough, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 29.2% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40.2 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 92.1 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $92,263 and the median family income was $98,913. Males had a median income of $61,480 versus $48,639 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $33,495. About 2.7% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 2.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 21,810 people, 7,151 households, 5,856 families residing in the borough; the population density was 2,609.8 people per square mile. There were 7,307 housing units at an average density of 874.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 77.74% White, 8.56% African American, 0.22% Native American, 7.57% Asian, 3.48% from other races, 2.42% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.66% of the population.
There were 7,151 households out of which 37.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.8% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.1% were non-families. 15.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.35. In the borough, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $67,466, the median income for a family was $72,745. Males had a median income of $47,465 versus $34,329 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $25,270. About 2.3% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.7% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over.
Tumi Inc. is a manufacturer of suitcases and bags for travel, founded in 1975 by Charlie Clifford after serving in Peru with the Peace Corps. PTC Therapeutics is a pharmaceutical company focused on the development of small molecule, orally administered treatments for orphan diseases. Jem Records was a record label that existed from 1970 to 1988, at the time principally known as the parent company of Passport Records; the Plainfield Curling Club is a curling club that owns and operates the only dedicated curling facility in New Jersey. Established in 1963, the club's two-sheet structure was completed in 1967. South Plainfield is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government; the governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office; the Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle.
The Borough form of government used by Sou
Manville, New Jersey
Manville is a borough in Somerset County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 10,344, reflecting an increase of one person from the 10,343 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 224 from the 10,567 counted in the 1990 Census. Manville was named after the Johns-Manville Corporation, which maintained a large manufacturing facility in the borough for decades. Many of Manville's residents are of Slavic — eastern Polish and western Ukrainian descent — with many businesses and restaurants geared towards the Polish-American community located along Main Street. Manville was formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 1, 1929, subject to the results of a referendum held on April 18, 1929. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.449 square miles, including 2.361 square miles of land and 0.088 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the borough include Millsboro.
The borough borders Franklin Township and Hillsborough Township. Much of Manville is in a low-lying flood plain and is surrounded by rivers and streams on all but the western side which borders neighboring Hillsborough Township by land; the Raritan River forms the northern boundary of the borough and is met by the Millstone River which forms the eastern boundary of the borough, where a weir exists at the confluence of the rivers, used for water intake purposes by New Jersey American Water. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,344 people, 4,016 households, 2,662.608 families residing in the borough. The population density was 4,382.0 per square mile. There were 4,277 housing units at an average density of 1,811.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 86.35% White, 2.72% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 1.99% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 6.50% from other races, 2.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.98% of the population.
There were 4,016 households out of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.12. In the borough, the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 28.0% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females there were 100.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 99.3 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $55,601 and the median family income was $63,864. Males had a median income of $48,356 versus $40,954 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $26,636. About 1.9% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.4% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 10,343 people, 4,115 households, 2,757 families residing in the borough. The population density was 4,167.5 people per square mile. There were 4,296 housing units at an average density of 1,731.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 95.99% White, 0.45% African American, 0.07% Native American, 1.31% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.14% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.40% of the population.23.1% of Manville's residents identified themselves as being of Polish ancestry, the second-highest in New Jersey, for all places with 1,000 people listing their ancestry. There were 4,115 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.05. In the borough the population was spread out with 20.7% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.0 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $51,258, the median income for a family was $61,151. Males had a median income of $40,902 versus $32,030 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $23,293. About 2.1% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.8% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over. Manville is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government; the governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election.
A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. Th
The Lehigh Valley, known by the United States Census Bureau and the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Allentown–Bethlehem–Easton, PA–NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area and referred to colloquially as The Valley, is a metropolitan region consisting of Carbon and Northampton counties in eastern Pennsylvania and Warren county on the western edge of New Jersey, in the Eastern United States. The Lehigh Valley's largest city, with a population of 120,443, is Allentown; the region is a part of the larger New York City metropolitan area, but borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area. All of the region, except Warren County, New Jersey, is part of Philadelphia's designated media market; the Lehigh Valley is the third most populous Metropolitan Statistical Area in the state of Pennsylvania with a population of 821,173 residents as of the 2010 U. S. Census; the region is eclipsed in total population in Pennsylvania only by the metropolitan areas of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh metropolitan areas.
It is the 64th most populated metropolitan area in the United States. Lehigh County, the Valley's largest county in terms of overall population, is among the fastest growing in the state and, as of 2010–2012, ranks in the 79th percentile for population growth nationally; the core population centers are located in southern and central Lehigh and Northampton counties along U. S. Route 22 and Interstate 78; the Lehigh Valley is proximate to two of the nation's largest cities: New York City, about 75 miles to its east, Philadelphia, 50 miles to its southeast. In March 2014, the Lehigh Valley was recognized by Site Selection Magazine as the second-best performing region of its size for economic development in the United States, it was ranked by Fortune in May 2015 as being among the top 10 best places in the U. S. to locate corporate finance and information technology operations for companies, such as call centers and IT support. Allentown, the region's largest city, was cited as a "national success story" in April 2016 by the Urban Land Institute for its downtown redevelopment and transformation, one of only six communities nationwide to achieve this distinction.
The Lehigh Valley is named for the Lehigh River, which runs through it, owes much of its development and history to the anthracite supplies and ores which poured down the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company's Lehigh Canal and railroads LC&N built or encouraged parallel to it. The lower Lehigh Valley is geologically part of the Great Appalachian Valley and is bordered on the north by the mineral-rich Ridge and Valley Appalachians, which define its rugged upper parts from White Haven and west of the Poconos, south through the Lehigh Gorge to the Lehigh Gap near Palmerton; the upper drainage basin contains or shares nearly half the southeastern Coal Region, which have the richest anthracite deposits in the world, while the lower valley holds valuable limestone and clay deposits. In the charter of March 20, 1818 for the Lehigh Navigation Company, the legislature gave virtual total control to the Canal Company which it retained until 1964; these transportation improvements overcame the country's first energy crises due to deforestation in the early 19th century.
The Canal operated into the Great Depression, feeding ports up and down the Delaware River, the Delaware Canal, transoceanic demand, was integral to the regional industrial revolution in the greater Philadelphia-Trenton-Wilmington region. The Morris Canal and the 22–23 miles coal feeder of the Delaware and Raritan Canal and locks at New Hope on the Delaware Canal were built to fuel the anthracite needs of Newark, Jersey City and New York City. Culturally and the Valley runs from the drainage divide in the Solomon Gap just north of Mountain Top where coal flowed up the Ashley Planes from the Wyoming Valley coal beds in Luzerne County and across the divide downhill to the White Haven down through the Lehigh Gorge, past the historic Jim Thorpe terminus of the Summit Hill & Mauch Chunk Railroad through historic locks and dams below Jim Thorpe or alongside the canal which fueled the American Industrial Revolution and operated into the Great Depression; the American Canal age had its epicenter at the confluence of the Lehigh and Delaware rivers where five major canals met major rivers and coastal waterways, all gave the people and industries of the Lehigh Valley access to minerals and markets via Easton from Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania.
The Lehigh Valley's principal cities are Allentown and Easton, making up the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton metropolitan area. The traditional bounds of the region are The Poconos to the north, the Delaware River to the east, the boundaries of Berks County and Montgomery County to the southwest, the boundary with Bucks County to the south. More however, the area around Phillipsburg, New Jersey west of Pohatcong Mountain, parts of upper Bucks County around Quakertown, portions of northeastern Berks County and southern Carbon and Schuylkill counties in Pennsylvania are considered outer parts of the Valley; the Lehigh Valley is located 60 mi north of Philadelphia, 80 mi northeast of Harrisburg, 90 mi west of New York City, the country's largest city. The area is home to more than 820,000 people as of the 2010 U. S. Census. Recent census studies show it to be the fastest growing region in Pennsylvania, due in part to its growing popularity as a bedroom community for the populated neighboring regions of Philadelphia, New Jersey and New York City as well as its favorable business climate and much lower cost of living in comparison to surrounding areas.
The Lehigh Valley is geologically and geo