Independent school (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Many of the older and more exclusive schools catering for the 13–18 age-range in England and Wales are known as public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, the term "public" being derived from the fact that they were open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to "prepare" them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools; some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-paying model following the 1965 Circular 10/65 which marked the end of their state funding. There are around 2,500 independent schools in the UK, which educate around 615,000 children, some 7 per cent of all British children and 18 per cent of pupils over the age of 16.
In addition to charging tuition fees, many benefit from gifts, charitable endowments and charitable status. Many of these schools are members of the Independent Schools Council. In 2017, the average cost for private schooling was £14,102 for day school and £32,259 for boarding school; some independent schools are old, such as The King's School, The King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School, Sherborne School, Warwick School, The King's School, Ely and St Albans School. These schools were under their complete dominion. However, it was during the late 14th & early 15th centuries that the first schools, independent of the church, were founded. Winchester & Oswestry were the first of their kind and paved the way for the establishment of the modern "Public school"; these were established for male scholars from poor or disadvantaged backgrounds. For instance, the Queen's Scholarships founded at Westminster in 1560, are for "the sons of decay'd gentlemen"; the transformation of free charitable foundations into institutions which sometimes charge fees came about readily: the foundation would only afford minimal facilities, so that further fees might be charged to lodge and otherwise maintain the scholars, to the private profit of the trustees or headmaster.
Facilities provided by the charitable foundation for a few scholars could profitably be extended to further paying pupils. After a time, such fees would eclipse the original charitable income, the original endowment would become a minor part of the capital benefactions enjoyed by the school. In 2009 senior boarding schools were charging fees of nearly £ 30,000 per annum. However, a majority of the independent schools today are still registered as a charity, bursary is available to students on a means test basis. Christ's Hospital in Horsham is an example. A large proportion of its students are funded by its charitable foundation or by various benefactors; the educational reforms of the 19th century were important under first Thomas Arnold at Rugby, Butler and Kennedy at Shrewsbury, the former emphasising team spirit and muscular Christianity and the latter the importance of scholarship and competitive examinations. Edward Thring of Uppingham School introduced major reforms, focusing on the importance of the individual and competition, as well as the need for a "total curriculum" with academia, music and drama being central to education.
Most public schools developed during the 18th and 19th centuries, came to play an important role in the development of the Victorian social elite. Under a number of forward-looking headmasters leading public schools created a curriculum based on classics and physical activity for boys and young men of the upper and upper middle classes, they were schools for the gentlemanly elite of Victorian politics, armed forces and colonial government. Successful businessmen would send their sons to a public school as a mark of participation in the elite. Much of the discipline was in the hands of senior pupils, not just a means to reduce staffing costs, but was seen as vital preparation for those pupils' roles in public or military service. More heads of public schools have been emphasising that senior pupils now play a much reduced role in disciplining. To an extent, the public school system influenced the school systems of the British Empire, recognisably "public" schools can be found in many Commonwealth countries.
Until 1975 there had been a group of 179 academically selective schools drawing on both private and state funding, the direct grant grammar schools. The Direct Grant Grammar Schools Regulations 1975 required these schools to choose between full state funding as comprehensive schools and full independence; as a result, 119 of these schools became independent. Pupil numbers at independent schools fell during the mid-1970s recession. At the same time participation at all secondary schools grew so that the share of the independent sector fell from a little under 8 per cent in 1964 to reach a low of 5.7 per cent in 1978. Both these trends were reversed during the 1980s, the share of the indepe
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh
Leicestershire is a landlocked county in the English Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to the north-east, Rutland to the east, Northamptonshire to the south-east, Warwickshire to the south-west, Staffordshire to the west, Derbyshire to the north-west; the border with most of Warwickshire is Watling Street. Leicestershire takes its name from the city of Leicester located at its centre and administered separately from the rest of the county; the ceremonial county has a total population of just over 1 million, more than half of which lives in'Greater Leicester'. Leicestershire was recorded in the Domesday Book in four wapentakes: Guthlaxton, Framland and Gartree; these became hundreds, with the division of Goscote into West Goscote and East Goscote, the addition of Sparkenhoe hundred. In 1087, the first recorded use of the name was as Laegrecastrescir. Leicestershire's external boundaries have changed little since the Domesday Survey; the Measham-Donisthorpe exclave of Derbyshire has been exchanged for the Netherseal area, the urban expansion of Market Harborough has caused Little Bowden in Northamptonshire to be annexed.
In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 abolished the county borough status of Leicester city and the county status of neighbouring Rutland, converting both to administrative districts of Leicestershire. These actions were reversed on 1 April 1997, when Rutland and the City of Leicester became unitary authorities. Rutland became a distinct Ceremonial County once again, although it continues to be policed by Leicestershire Constabulary; the symbol of the county council, Leicestershire County Cricket Club and Leicester City FC, is the fox. Leicestershire is considered to be the birthplace of fox hunting. Hugo Meynell, who lived in Quorn, is known as the father of fox hunting. Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough have associations with fox hunting, as has neighbouring Rutland. Leicestershire and Herefordshire are the only three English counties lacking a registered flag. A design was proposed for Leicestershire in 2017 based on symbols associated with the county – a fox and a cinquefoil; the River Soar together with its tributaries and canalisations constitutes the principal river basin of the county, although the River Avon and River Welland through Harborough and along the county's southern boundaries are significant.
The Soar rises between Hinckley and Lutterworth, towards the south of the county near the Warwickshire border, flows northwards, bisecting the county along its north/south axis, through'Greater' Leicester and to the east of Loughborough where its course within the county comes to an end. It continues north marking the boundary with Nottinghamshire for some 10 kilometres before joining the River Trent at the point where Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire meet; the geographical centre of England is in Leicestershire, near Fenny Drayton in the southwest of the county. In 2013, the Ordnance Survey calculated. A large part of the north-west of the county, around Coalville, forms part of the new National Forest area extending into Derbyshire and Staffordshire; the highest point of the county is Bardon Hill at 278 metres, a Marilyn. 150–200 metres and above in nearby Charnwood Forest and to the east of the county around Launde Abbey. The lowest point, at an altitude of about 20 metres, is located at the county's northernmost tip close to Bottesford where the River Devon flowing through the Vale of Belvoir leaves Leicestershire and enters Nottinghamshire.
This results in an altitude differential of around 257.5 metres and a mean altitude of 148.75 metres. The population of Leicestershire is 609,578 people; the county covers an area of 2,084 km2. Its largest population centre is the city of Leicester, followed by the town of Loughborough. Other large towns include Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Hinckley, Market Harborough, Melton Mowbray, Oadby and Lutterworth; some of the larger of villages are:Burbage Birstall, Broughton Astley, Castle Donington, Kibworth Beauchamp, Great Glen, Ibstock and Kegworth. One of the most expanding villages is Anstey, which has seen a large number of development schemes; the United Kingdom Census 2001 showed a total resident population for Leicester of 279,921, a 0.5% decrease from the 1991 census. 62,000 were aged under 16, 199,000 were aged 16–74, 19,000 aged 75 and over. 76.9% of Leicester's population claim they have been born in the UK, according to the 2001 UK Census. Mid-year estimates for 2006 indicate that the population of the City of Leicester stood at 289,700 making Leicester the most populous city in East Midlands.
The population density is 3,814/km2 and for every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Leicester, 38.5% had no academic qualifications higher than 28.9% in all of England. 23.0% of Leicester's residents were born outside of the United Kingdom, more than double than the English average of 9.2%. Engineering has long been an important part of the economy of Leicestershire. John Taylor Bellfounders co
Leicester Tigers is an English professional rugby union club based in Leicester, England. They play in England's top division of rugby; the club was founded in 1880 and since 1892 plays its home matches at Welford Road Stadium in the south of the city. The club has been known by the nickname Tigers since at least 1885. In the 2017–18 Premiership Rugby season Tigers finished 5th, this entitled them to compete in the 2018-19 European Rugby Champions Cup; the current head coach is Geordan Murphy, appointed in September 2018. Leicester have won 20 major titles, they were European Champions twice, back-to-back in 2001 and 2002. Leicester last won the Premiership Rugby title in the 2013 and appeared in a record nine successive Premiership finals, from 2005 to 2013. Leicester have never finished a league season below sixth position, are one of only four teams never to have been relegated from the top division. Leicester have qualified to play in every season of European Rugby Champions Cup in which English teams have participated, the only English side to do so.
Leicester have appeared in five European finals, the second most overall, as well as the two victories they have lost finals three times, in 1997, 2007 and 2009. Three Leicester Tigers players were members of the 2003 Rugby World Cup Final winning England side including captain Martin Johnson. Leicester Football Club was formed on 3 August 1880 by the merger of three smaller teams: Leicester Societies AFC, Leicester Amateur FC and Leicester Alert; the club's first game was a scoreless draw on 23 October against Moseley at the Belgrave Road Cycle and Cricket Ground. On 10 September 1892 Leicester played their first game at Welford Road against a Leicestershire XV. Tom Crumbie was appointed secretary on a position he held for the next 33 years. Crumbie has been credited with dragging the club to national prominence, he disbanded reserve and third teams making the First XV an invitation side and introducing players from all over the country. Tigers first silverware was the Midlands Counties Cup won for the first time in 1898 against Moseley.
Having won the Midlands Counties Cup every year from 1898 to 1905, they dropped out "to give other teams a chance". On their return to the competition in 1909 Tigers won the cup again. In 1903 Jack Miles became. Leicester's status as a premier club was confirmed in 1905 when a crowd of 20,000 was on hand to see the club face The Original All Blacks, losing 28-0. December 1909 saw; the fixture became a vital feature in the club's calendar delivering large attendances until open professionalism and league rugby in the 1990s forced it to be abandoned due to fixture congestion. Tigers won the Midlands Counties Cup three more times in four years to cement their place as the midland's premier side before the outbreak of war in 1914; the visit of the Invincible All Blacks on 4 October 1924 saw a record attendance at Welford Road of 35,000 that stands to this day. Tigers were beaten 27-0 by the tourists. Club captain Doug Prentice captained the 1930 British Lions tour to New Australia; the first BBC radio broadcast of a Tigers game was against Waterloo on 29 November 1930.
Bernard Gadney became the club's first home produced England captain in 1934 and was captain when four Leicester players were part of the first England side to beat the All Blacks. Gadney became the club's second player to captain the British Lions on their tour to Argentina. 1936-37 was the worst season. Tigers first televised game by the BBC was on 3 February 1951 when they beat London Scottish 14-0 at the Richmond Athletic Ground; the club underwent a significant restructure in the 1956/57 season. The practice of being an "invitation" club featuring only a First XV stopped and Tigers adopted a more traditional membership club based approach with multiple sides; the "A XV" was to be re-introduced under the name "Extra First XV" with a third "Colts XV" formed. The 1963/64 season saw David Matthews set the record for most consecutive appearances for the club with 109. Matthews was to in 1966/67 lead the club to a record 33 wins. Chalkie White became coach in 1968. White was credited with revolutionising Leicester's player in response to rule changes which opened up the game.
1970/71 saw Peter Wheeler emerge as first choice hooker having made his debut the year before, he ended the season on England's tour to the Far East. Attendance for the annual Barbarians game hit a nadir with a crowd of only 2,518; the 1971/72 season saw changes which would radically change both the game. The RFU introduced a national Knockout Cup competition for clubs and on 16 November 1971 Tigers played their first competitive cup match since 1914, a 10-3 defeat to Nottingham at their Beeston ground. Introduced that season was Tigers' first "Youth" XV, based on a collection of the best 14 and 15 year olds in the county. Only six year Paul Dodge became the first graduate to win an international cap. Tigers were not lost in the 1st round of the 1975-76 Cup; this forced the club into the Midlands qualifiers for the only time. This era saw a huge increase in the popularity of the Barbarians annual fixture with crowds of 15,000 in 1973 & 1975, 17,000 in 1974 and 21,000 in 1976; this contrasted with usual crowds in the low hundreds.
Leicester City Centre
Leicester City Centre is Leicester's historical commercial and transport hub and is home to its central business district. Its inner core is delineated by the A594, Leicester's inner ring road, although the various central campuses of the University of Leicester, De Monfort University and Leicester College are adjacent to the inner ring road and could be considered to be a continuation of the City centre. In a similar way, the Leicester Royal Infirmary precinct, the New Walk business district, the Welford Road Stadium of Leicester Tigers' RUFC and the King Power Stadium of Premier League Leicester City to the south, the Golden Mile to the north could be deemed to be extensions to the central core; the city centre incorporates most of Leicester's shopping, with the Highcross and the Haymarket Shopping Centre as well as the'Old Town' around Leicester Cathedral, Leicester Market and the Magazine Gateway. Politically, the city centre is split between the Leicester City Council wards of Castle.
A£19 million regeneration project transformed Leicester's city centre. The work won three awards: The Urbis Urban Regeneration Award in 2007 for Gallowtree Gate, The BCSC Town Centre "Gold" Best in Britain award in June 2009 and the Transport Times Walking & Public Realm award in July 2009; the historic city of Leicester was founded by the Romans as Ratae Corieltauvorum - after the Corieltauvi, the local tribe of Britons whose tribal lands these were - at the crossing of the River Soar by the Fosse Way, between the current path of the river and the modern Gallowtree Gate. It is thought that the medieval walls and gates were in the same positions as the Roman ones, with the forum being where the modern inner ring road meets St Nicholas Circle; the Roman baths are preserved at Jewry Wall. The east gate was at the eastern end of High Street, the north gate was at the northern end of Highcross Street, the west gate was on the town side of West Bridge, the south gate was in the modern Friar Lane area – the city walls ran along the current Millstone Lane, Horsefair Street, Gallowtree Gate, Church Gate, Sanvey Gate and Soar Lane, with the western wall running along the river Soar.
The city centre was the High Cross, at the junction of the current High Highcross Street. Leicester Cathedral and the Guildhall occupy this old area of town. Leicester Castle lay on the south-western corner of the walls, the Newarke was a separate walled area nearby; the Newarke Gateway is the only medieval gateway remaining. A small section of the town wall can be seen in the churchyard of St Mary de Castro; the town's main gates were sold and demolished in the late 18th century, being an impediment to the flow of traffic. With increasing development in the 19th century, the focal point moved eastwards, with the Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower roundabout seeing the five-way junction of the London to Manchester, Birmingham to Yarmouth and Fosse Way roads; this was influenced by the replacement of the Welford Road by the Market Harborough road, as the main route to London, because the Welford Road terminated in the tiny streets of the old town, was therefore a hindrance for vehicles, while the London Road went past the East Gates of the city.
Meanwhile, the civic centre moved southwards, with the Corporation of Leicester moving to a new town hall building in 1876 in the Market Street area, facing onto a new Town Hall Square, just outside the walled town. Between these areas is the modern market, based to the south-west of the Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower area, which features the permanent outdoor covered Leicester Market, alongside an indoor market building selling fish, dairy produce, etc. and the old Cornmarket building. Much of this old area of town is now in various conservation areas. Outside of the ringroad, but close by, are the main campus of De Montfort University, Leicester Royal Infirmary, the Leicester City Football Club's King Power Stadium, the Leicester Tigers' Welford Road stadium and the prison. Leicester railway station is just on the outer side of the ringroad, on the A6; the University of Leicester is further away to the south-east, linked by the pedestrian-only path New Walk. When this was laid out in 1785, on the route of an ancient footpath, it passed through open land, becoming the route to the Leicester Racecourse which became Victoria Park but it soon saw development of large private houses on both sides of it.
It is now offices, although the New Walk Museum makes a strong impact. The area inside the ringroad has two large shopping malls – Highcross Leicester, the Haymarket Shopping Centre, both facing onto the Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower area. On the opposite side of Humberstone Gate to the Haymarket is a new building, with no communal space, occupied by a variety of retailers, that incorporates the famous Lewis's tower from the previous department store on the site. Major chain stores can be found on the pedestrianised Gallowtree Gate, running south-east from the clock tower, which continues to the railway station as Granby Street
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l