A Moveable Feast
A Moveable Feast is a memoir by American author Ernest Hemingway about his years as a struggling young migrant journalist and writer in Paris in the 1920s. The book, first published in 1964, describes the author's apprenticeship as a young writer while he was married to his first wife, Hadley Richardson; the memoir consists of various personal accounts and stories by Hemingway. He provides specific addresses of apartments, bars and hotels — many of which can still be found in Paris today. Among other notable persons, people featured in the book include: Sylvia Beach, Hilaire Belloc, Aleister Crowley, John Dos Passos, F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald, Ford Madox Ford, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, Ezra Pound, Evan Shipman, Gertrude Stein, Alice B. Toklas and Hermann von Wedderkop; the memoir was published posthumously based on Hemingway's manuscripts and notes by his fourth wife and widow, Mary Hemingway, in 1964, three years after Hemingway's death. An edition altered and revised by his grandson, Seán Hemingway, was published in 2009.
In November 1956, Hemingway recovered two small steamer trunks that he had stored in March 1928 in the basement of the Hôtel Ritz Paris. The trunks contained notebooks. Hemingway's friend and biographer A. E. Hotchner, with him in Paris in 1956 recounted the occasion of Hemingway's recovery of the trunks and notebooks: Having recovered his trunks, Hemingway had the notebooks transcribed, began working them up into the memoir that would become A Moveable Feast. After Hemingway's death in 1961, his widow Mary Hemingway, in her capacity as his literary executor, made final copy-edits to the manuscript prior to its publication in 1964. In a "Note" with which she prefaced the posthumously published 1964 edition of the work, she wrote: Gerry Brenner, a literary scholar at the University of Montana, other researchers have examined Hemingway's notes and the initial drafts of A Moveable Feast, which are in the collection of Ernest Hemingway's personal papers opened to the public in 1979, following the completion of the John F. Kennedy Library, where they are held in Boston.
In a paper titled "Are We Going to Hemingway's Feast?", Brenner undertook to document Mary Hemingway's editing process and questioned its validity. He concluded that some of her changes were misguided, others derived from questionable motives, he suggested that the changes appeared to contradict Mary's stated policy for her role as executor, to maintain a "hands off" approach. Brenner states that Mary changed the order of the chapters in Hemingway's final draft to "preserve chronology"; this change interrupted the series of juxtaposed character sketches of such individuals as Sylvia Beach, owner of the bookstore Shakespeare & Company, Gertrude Stein. The chapter titled "Birth of a New School", which Hemingway had dropped from his draft, was reinserted by Mary. Brenner alleges the most serious change was the deletion of Hemingway's lengthy apology to his first wife, Hadley; this apology appeared in various forms in every draft of the book. Brenner suggests. In contrast, Hotchner has said that he received a near final draft of A Moveable Feast in 1959, that the version Mary Hemingway published is the draft he had read then.
In his view, the original 1964 publication is the version that Hemingway intended, Mary Hemingway did not revise or add chapters on her own initiative, but carried out Ernest's intentions. Hotchner describes Hemingway's memoir as "a serious work", that Hemingway "certainly intended it for publication", contends: "Because Mary was busy with matters relating to Ernest’s estate, she had little involvement with the book.... What I read on the plane coming back from Cuba was what was published. There was no extra chapter created by Mary; the title of A Moveable Feast was suggested by Hemingway's friend and biographer A. E. Hotchner, who remembered Hemingway using the term in 1950. Hotchner's recollection of what Hemingway had said became the source of the epigraph on the title page for the posthumously published work in 1964; the term had been used earlier out of its traditional religious context by Albert Camus in his novel, The Stranger: "Masson remarked that we'd had a early lunch, but lunch was a movable feast, one had it when one felt like it."
The 1964 edition of Hemingway's Paris memoir consists of a "Preface" by Hemingway, a "Note" by his widow, 20 chapters, or individual parts or sections. Each of the chapters can be read as a stand-alone piece or entity, not dependent upon the context of the whole work, nor arranged in any chronological order—with titles descriptive of the subject matter of each, as follows: "A Good Café on the Place St.-Michel" "Miss Stein Instructs" "Une Génération Perdue" "Shakespeare and Company" "People of the Seine" "A False Spring" "The End of an Avocation" "Hunger Was Good Discipline" "Ford Madox Ford and the Devil's Disciple" "Birth of a New School" "With Pascin at the Domé" "Ezra Pound and His Bel Esprit" "A Strange Enough Ending" "The Man Who Was Marked for Death" "Evan Shipman at the Lilas" "An Agent of Evil" "Scott Fitzgerald" "Hawks Do Not Share" "A Matter of Measurements" "There Is Never Any End to Paris" The first published edition was edited from Hemingway's manuscripts and notes by his fourth wife and widow, Mary Hemingway, published posthumously in 1964, three years after Hemingway's death.
In 2009 a new edition, titled the "Restored Edition", was published by Seán Hemingway, assistant curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and grandson
"Indian Camp" is a short story written by Ernest Hemingway. The story was first published in 1924 in Ford Madox Ford's literary magazine Transatlantic Review in Paris and republished by Boni & Liveright in Hemingway's first American volume of short stories In Our Time in 1925. Hemingway's semi-autobiographical character Nick Adams—a child in this story—makes his first appearance in Indian Camp, told from his point of view. In the story Nick Adams' father, a country doctor, has been summoned to a Native American or "Indian" camp to deliver a pregnant woman of her baby. At the camp, the father is forced to perform an emergency caesarean section using a jack-knife, with Nick as his assistant. Afterward, the woman's husband is discovered having slit his throat during the operation; the story shows the emergence of his use of counterpoint. An initiation story, "Indian Camp" includes themes such as childbirth and fear of death which permeate much of Hemingway's subsequent work; when the story was published, the quality of writing was noted and praised, scholars consider "Indian Camp" an important story in the Hemingway canon.
The story begins in the pre-dawn hours as the young Nick Adams, his father, his uncle and their Indian guides row across a lake to a nearby Indian camp. Nick's father, a doctor, has been called out to deliver a baby for a woman, in labor for days. At the camp, they find the woman in a cabin lying on a bottom bunkbed. Nick's father is forced to perform a caesarian operation on the woman with a jack-knife because the baby is in the breech position; the woman screams throughout the operation, when Nick's uncle tries to hold her down, she bites him. After the baby is delivered, Nick's father turns to the woman's husband on the top bunk and finds that he fatally slit his throat with a straight razor from ear to ear during the operation. Nick is sent out of the cabin, his uncle leaves with two Natives, not to return; the story ends with his father on the lake, rowing away from the camp. Nick asks his father questions about birth and death, thinks to himself that he will never die, as he watches his father row.
In the early 1920s, Hemingway and his wife Hadley lived in Paris where he was foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star. When Hadley became pregnant they returned to Toronto. Hemingway biographer Kenneth Lynn suggests that Hadley's childbirth became the inspiration for the story, she went into labor. Lynn believes Hemingway was terrified Hadley would not survive the birth, he became "beside himself with fear... about the extent of her suffering and swamped by a sense of helplessness at the realization that he would arrive too late to be of assistance to her". Hemingway wrote "Indian Camp" a few months after John Hemingway was born in Toronto on October 10, 1923. While they were in Toronto, Hemingway's first book, Three Stories and Ten Poems, was published in Paris, followed months by a second volume, in our time, which included 18 short vignettes presented as untitled chapters. Hemingway and their son returned to Paris in January 1924, moving into a new apartment on the Rue Notre Dame des Champs.
With Ezra Pound, Hemingway helped Ford Madox Ford edit his newly launched literary magazine, Transatlantic Review, which published pieces by modernists such as Pound, John Dos Passos, James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, as well as Hemingway."Indian Camp" began as a 29-page untitled manuscript that Hemingway cut to seven pages. In 1924, the seven-page story titled "Indian Camp" was published by the Transatlantic Review in the "Works in Progress" section, along with a piece from James Joyce's manuscript Finnegans Wake. A year on October 5, 1925, "Indian Camp" was republished by Boni & Liveright in New York, in an expanded American edition of Hemingway's first collection of short stories titled In Our Time, with a print-run of 1335 copies."Indian Camp" was included in Hemingway's collection The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories published in October 1938. Two collections of short stories published after Hemingway's death included "Indian Camp": The Nick Adams Stories and The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The Finca Vigía Edition.
The Nick Adams Stories, edited by Philip Young, included the story fragment titled "Three Shots" that Hemingway cut from "Indian Camp". "Indian Camp" is an initiation story. Nick's father exposes his young son to childbirth and, unintentionally, to violent death—an experience that causes Nick to equate childbirth with death. Hemingway critic Wendolyn Tetlow maintains that in "Indian Camp", sexuality culminates in "butchery-style" birth and bloody death, that Nick's anxiety is obvious when he turns away from the butchery; the story reaches a climax when Nick's "heightened awareness" of evil causes him to turn away from the experience. Although Nick may not want to watch the caesarian, his father insists he watch - he does not want his son to be initiated into an adult world without toughness, writes Thomas Strychacz. Hemingway biographer Philip Young writes that Hemingway's emphasis in "Indian Camp" was not on the woman who gives birth or the father who kills himself, but on young Nick Adams, who witnesses these events and becomes a "badly scarred and nervous young man".
In "Indian Camp", Hemingway begins the events. Young considers this single Hemingway story to hold the "master key" to "what its author was up to for some thirty-five years of his writing career". Critic Howa
Oak Park, Illinois
Oak Park is a village adjacent to the West Side of Chicago, Illinois. It is the 29th largest municipality in Illinois as measured by population in the 2010 U. S. census. As of the 2010 United States Census the village had a population of 51,878. Oak Park was settled beginning in the 1830s, with rapid growth in the 19th century and early 20th century, it incorporated in 1902. Development was spurred by railroads and street cars connecting the village to jobs in Chicago. Architect Frank Lloyd Wright and his wife settled here in 1889. Population peaked at 66,015 in 1940. Smaller families led to falling population in the same number of apartments. In the 1960s, Oak Park faced the challenge of racial integration, devising many strategies to integrate rather than resegregate the village. Oak Park includes three historic districts for the historic homes: Ridgeland, Frank Lloyd Wright and Seward Gunderson, reflecting the focus on historic preservation. In 1835, Joseph Kettlestrings, an immigrant from England, purchased 172 acres of land just west of Chicago for a farm and their home.
Once their children were born, they moved to Chicago for the schools in 1843, moved back again in 1855 to build a more substantial home a bit east on their quarter section of land. More farmers and settlers had entered the area, their land was called by several names locally, including Oak Ridge. When the first post office was set up, it could not use the name Oak Ridge as another post office was using that name in Illinois, so the post office chose Oak Park, that name became the name for the settlement as it grew, for the town when it incorporated in 1902. By 1850, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was constructed as far as Elgin and passed through the settlement area. In the 1850s the land on which Oak Park sits was part of the town of Cicero; the population of the area boomed during the 1870s, with Chicago residents resettling in Cicero following the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and the expansion of railroads and street cars to the area. "In 1872, when Oak Park received its own railroad depot on the Chicago and Northwestern Railway, its rapid emergence as a residential suburb of Chicago began.
In 1877, the railroad was running thirty-nine trains daily between Oak Chicago. As Chicago grew from a regional center to a national metropolis Oak Park expanded – from 500 residents in 1872 to 1,812 in 1890, to 9,353 in 1900, to 20,911 in 1910, to 39,585 in 1920. Oak Park thus emerged as a leading Chicago suburb."A review of Oak Park's history by Wiss, Elstner Associates in 2006 further explains the importance of railroads and street cars in the development of Oak Park: The Village of Oak Park was formally established in 1902, disengaging from Cicero following a referendum. According to the local historical society, "The period 1892–1950 saw the construction of all of the housing stock in Oak Park, most of the village's current buildings." The village population grew and "by 1930, the village had a population of 64,000 larger than the current population", while cherishing a reputation as the "World's Largest Village." Chicago grew in the 19th century, recording 4,470 residing in the 1840 Census in the place so a fur trading post, reaching 1,099,850 in 1890, 1,698,575 in 1900, passing Philadelphia to the number two spot in the US, in that year, the fifth largest in the world.
Chicago was well located on the shores of Lake Michigan for transport. After World War II, "Oak Park was affected by larger developmental trends in the Chicago Metropolitan area; the construction of the Eisenhower Expressway cut through the southern portion of the Village in the mid 1950s. Starting in the 1960s and 1970s, Oak Park has made a conscious effort to accommodate changing demographics and social pressures while maintaining the suburban character that has long made the Village a desirable residential location. Beginning in the 1960s, Oak Park faced the issue of racial integration with effective programs to maintain the character and stability of the Village, while encouraging integration on racial basis; this was the greatest challenge to Oak Park, which some judge it has met with success, see #Demographics. Population fell from the peak level from smaller average household size, including a rise in one-person households. Oak Park has a history of alcohol prohibition; when the village was incorporated, no alcohol was allowed to be sold within its village limits.
This law was relaxed in 1973, when restaurants and hotels were allowed to serve alcohol with meals, was further loosened in 2002, when select grocery stores received governmental permission to sell packaged liquor. Now alcohol, such as beer and wine, is accessible. In 1889, Frank Lloyd Wright and his wife settled in Oak Park, he built many homes and the Unity Temple, his own church, in the village, before he left in 1911 to settle in Wisconsin. Oak Park attracts architecture buffs and others to view the many Frank Lloyd Wright designed homes found in the village, alongside homes reflecting other architectural styles; the largest collection of Wright-designed residential properties in the world is in Oak Park. A distinct focus on historic preservation of important architectural styles began in the 1970s and continues, with many buildings marked as significant, so far, three historic districts defin
Under Kilimanjaro is a non-fiction novel by Ernest Hemingway and published posthumously by Robert W. Lewis and Robert E. Fleming, it is based upon journals. It is a re-edited version of True at First Light. In 2007, it won the Eric Hoffer Award for Best Academic Press. True at First Light was published in 1999; the book was presented as a "fictional memoir". Six years the work was republished a second time as Under Kilimanjaro; the work is based on a written manuscript, is about Hemingway's second trip to Africa. Under Kilimanjaro was edited by Robert W. Lewis and Robert E. Fleming who state: “this book deserves as complete and faithful a publication as possible without editorial distortion, speculation, or textually unsupported attempts at improvement.” Green Hills of Africa, a non-fictional account of a Hemingway safari in 1933 The Kent State University Press: Under Kilimanjaro
For Whom the Bell Tolls
For Whom the Bell Tolls is a novel by Ernest Hemingway published in 1940. It tells the story of Robert Jordan, a young American in the International Brigades attached to a republican guerrilla unit during the Spanish Civil War; as a dynamiter, he is assigned to blow up a bridge during an attack on the city of Segovia. The novel is regarded as one of Hemingway's best works, along with The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, The Old Man and the Sea. Ernest Hemingway wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls in Cuba. In Cuba, he lived in the Hotel Ambos Mundos; the novel was finished in July 1940 at the InterContinental New York Barclay Hotel in New York City and published in October. It is based on Hemingway's experiences during the Spanish Civil War and features an American protagonist, named Robert Jordan, who fights with Spanish guerillas for the Republicans; the characters in the novel include those who are purely fictional, those based on real people but fictionalized, those who were actual figures in the war.
Set in the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range between Madrid and Segovia, the action takes place during four days and three nights. For Whom the Bell Tolls became a Book of the Month Club choice, sold half a million copies within months, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, became a literary triumph for Hemingway. Published on 21 October 1940, the first edition print run was 75,000 copies priced at $2.75. The book's title is taken from the metaphysical poet John Donne's series of meditations and prayers on health and sickness published in 1624 as Devotions upon Emergent Occasions Meditation XVII; the poem is given to schoolchildren to study. Hemingway quotes part of the meditation in the book's epigraph, which in turn refers to the practice of funeral tolling: No man is an Island, intire of it selfe; the point made by the choice of this title and epigraph is that the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, a major topic of debate in Western intellectual and political circles, is not of importance only to Spaniards.
Furthermore, the title and epigraph can be interpreted as a reference to the themes of death within the novel between the characters of Robert Jordan and Anselmo. The novel graphically describes the brutality of the civil war in Spain during this time, it is told through the thoughts and experiences of the protagonist, Robert Jordan. It draws on Hemingway's own experiences in the Spanish Civil War as a reporter for the North American Newspaper Alliance. Jordan is an American who had lived in Spain during the pre-war period, fights as an irregular soldier for the Republic against Francisco Franco's fascist forces. An experienced dynamiter, he is ordered by a Russian general to travel behind enemy lines and destroy a bridge with the aid of a band of local anti-fascist guerrillas, in order to prevent enemy troops from responding to an upcoming offensive. On his mission, Jordan meets the rebel Anselmo who brings him to the hidden guerrilla camp and acts as an intermediary between Jordan and the other guerrilla fighters.
In the camp, Jordan encounters María, a young Spanish woman whose life had been shattered by her parents' execution and her rape at the hands of the Falangists at the outbreak of the war. His strong sense of duty clashes with both the unwillingness of the guerrilla leader Pablo to commit to an operation that would endanger himself and his band, Jordan's own new-found lust for life which arises from his love for María. Pablo's wife, with the support of the other guerillas, displaces Pablo as the group leader and pledges the allegiance of the guerrillas to Jordan's mission; when another band of anti-fascist guerrillas, led by El Sordo, is surrounded and killed during a raid they conducted in support of Jordan's mission, Pablo steals the dynamite detonators and exploder, hoping to prevent the demolition and thereby avoid fascist reprisals. Although he disposes of the detonators and exploder by throwing them down a gorge into the river, Pablo regrets abandoning his comrades and returns to assist in the operation.
The enemy, apprised of the coming offensive, has prepared to ambush it in force and it seems unlikely that the blown bridge will do much to prevent a rout. Regardless of this, Jordan understands that he must still demolish the bridge unless he receives explicit orders not to. Lacking the detonation equipment stolen by Pablo, Jordan plans an alternative method to explode the dynamite by using hand grenades with wires attached so that their pins can be pulled from a distance; this improvised plan is more dangerous because the men must be nearer to the explosion. While Pilar and other guerrilla members attack the posts at the two ends of the bridge and Anselmo plant and detonate the dynamite, costing Anselmo his life when he is hit by a piece of shrapnel. While escaping, Jordan is maimed. Knowing that his wound is severe enough that he is unlikely to survive, that he would slow the others down, he bids goodbye to María and ensures that she escapes to safety with the surviving guerrillas, he refuses an offer from Agustín to shoot him and lies in agony, hoping to kill an enemy officer and delay their pursui
The Old Man and the Sea
The Old Man and the Sea is a short novel written by the American author Ernest Hemingway in 1951 in Cuba, published in 1952. It was the last major work of fiction by Hemingway, published during his lifetime. One of his most famous works, it tells the story of Santiago, an aging Cuban fisherman who struggles with a giant marlin far out in the Gulf Stream off the coast of Cuba. In 1953, The Old Man and the Sea was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, it was cited by the Nobel Committee as contributing to their awarding of the Nobel Prize in Literature to Hemingway in 1954; the Old Man and the Sea tells the story of a battle between an aging, experienced fisherman, a large marlin. The story opens with Santiago having gone 84 days without catching a fish, now being seen as "salao", the worst form of unluckiness, he is so unlucky that his young apprentice, has been forbidden by his parents to sail with him and has been told instead to fish with successful fishermen. The boy visits Santiago's shack each night, hauling his fishing gear, preparing food, talking about American baseball and his favorite player, Joe DiMaggio.
Santiago tells Manolin that on the next day, he will venture far out into the Gulf Stream, north of Cuba in the Straits of Florida to fish, confident that his unlucky streak is near its end. On the eighty-fifth day of his unlucky streak, Santiago takes his skiff into the Gulf Stream, sets his lines and by noon, has his bait taken by a big fish that he is sure is a marlin. Unable to haul in the great marlin, Santiago is instead pulled by the marlin, two days and nights pass with Santiago holding onto the line. Though wounded by the struggle and in pain, Santiago expresses a compassionate appreciation for his adversary referring to him as a brother, he determines that, because of the fish's great dignity, no one shall deserve to eat the marlin. On the third day, the fish begins to circle the skiff. Santiago, worn out and delirious, uses all his remaining strength to pull the fish onto its side and stab the marlin with a harpoon. Santiago straps the marlin to the side of his skiff and heads home, thinking about the high price the fish will bring him at the market and how many people he will feed.
On his way in to shore, sharks are attracted to the marlin's blood. Santiago kills a great mako shark with his harpoon, he makes a new harpoon by strapping his knife to the end of an oar to help ward off the next line of sharks. But the sharks keep coming, by nightfall the sharks have devoured the marlin's entire carcass, leaving a skeleton consisting of its backbone, its tail and its head. Santiago knows that he tells the sharks of how they have killed his dreams. Upon reaching the shore before dawn on the next day, Santiago struggles to his shack, carrying the heavy mast on his shoulder, leaving the fish head and the bones on the shore. Once home, he falls into a deep sleep. A group of fishermen gather the next day around the boat where the fish's skeleton is still attached. One of the fishermen measures it to be 18 feet from nose to tail. Pedrico is given the head of the fish, the other fishermen tell Manolin to tell the old man how sorry they are. Tourists at the nearby café mistakenly take it for a shark.
The boy, worried about the old man, cries upon finding him safe asleep and at his injured hands. Manolin brings him coffee; when the old man wakes, they promise to fish together once again. Upon his return to sleep, Santiago dreams of his youth—of lions on an African beach. Written in 1951, published in 1952, The Old Man and the Sea is Hemingway's final full-length work published during his lifetime; the book, dedicated to "Charlie Scribner" and to Hemingway's literary editor "Max Perkins", was featured in Life magazine on September 1, 1952, five million copies of the magazine were sold in two days. The Old Man and the Sea became a Book of the Month Club selection, made Hemingway a celebrity. Published in book form on September 1, 1952, the first edition print run was 50,000 copies; the illustrated edition featured black and white pictures by Charles Tunnicliffe and Raymond Sheppard. In May 1953, the novel received the Pulitzer Prize and was cited when in 1954 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature which he dedicated to the Cuban people.
The success of The Old Man and the Sea made Hemingway an international celebrity. The Old Man and the Sea is taught at schools around the world and continues to earn foreign royalties; the Old Man and the Sea served to reinvigorate Hemingway's literary reputation and prompted a reexamination of his entire body of work. The novel was received with much popularity, its publisher, Scribner's, on an early dust jacket, called the novel a "new classic", many critics favorably compared it with such works as William Faulkner's short story The Bear and Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick. Gregorio Fuentes, who many critics believe was an inspiration for Santiago, was a blue-eyed man born on Lanzarote in the Canary Islands. After going to sea at age ten on ships that called in African ports, he migrated permanently to Cuba when he was 22. After 82 years in Cuba, Fuentes attempted to reclaim his Spanish citizenship in 2001. Critics have noted that Santiago was at least 22 when he immigrated from Spain to Cuba, thus old enough to be considered an immigrant—and a foreigner—in Cuba.
Hemingway at first planned to use Santiago's story, which became The Old Man and the Sea, as part of an intimacy between mother and son. Relationships in the book relate to the Bible, which he referred to as "The Sea Book"; some a
The Torrents of Spring
The Torrents of Spring is a novella written by Ernest Hemingway, published in 1926. Subtitled "A Romantic Novel in Honor of the Passing of a Great Race", Hemingway used the work as a spoof of the world of writers, it was written as a parody of Sherwood Anderson's Dark Laughter. Set in northern Michigan, The Torrents of Spring concerns two men who work at a pump factory: World War I veteran Yogi Johnson, writer Scripps O'Neill. Both are searching for the perfect woman; the story begins with O'Neill returning home from the library to find that his wife and small daughter have left him, explaining that "It takes a lot to mend the walls of fate." O'Neill, desperate for companionship, befriends a British waitress, Diana, at the beanery where she works and asks her to marry him immediately. However, he soon becomes disenchanted with her penchant for strange footwear. "Her feet ain't sweet so what's the reet?" he muses in doggerel verse as he loafs about the laundry. Diana makes an attempt to impress her spouse by reading books from the lists of The New York Times Book Review, including many forgotten pot-boilers of the 1920s.
But O'Neill soon leaves her for another waitress, who enthralls him with her store of literary anecdotes. Yogi Johnson, who has become depressed after a Parisian prostitute leaves him for a British officer who makes her dress in a German soldier's uniform, has a period during which he anguishes over the fact that he doesn't seem to desire any woman at all though spring is approaching, "which turns a young man's fancy to love." At last, he falls in love with an aboriginal American woman who enters a restaurant clothed only in moccasins, the wife of one of the two aboriginal Americans he befriends near the end of the story, in the penultimate chapter. Johnson is cured of his impotence when, viewing the naked squaw, he is overcome by "a new feeling" which he hastens to attribute to Mother Nature, together they "light out for the territories." It was believed that Hemingway wrote The Torrents of Spring in an effort to get out of his contract with his publisher Boni & Liveright, though Hemingway denied this.
They held the right of first refusal for his next three books, one of, to be a novel, with the proviso that the contract would be terminated if one of the three were rejected. By rejecting Torrents, Boni & Liveright terminated the contract. In his letters, Hemingway shows a passionate affection for his novella, he corresponded with Sherwood Anderson in May–July 1926, stating that his motivation for writing his first long work was more motivated by his refusal to "pull punches" and encourage sub-par work out of Anderson—as his peer—and not to get out of a contract with Boni & Liveright. Written in ten days, The Torrents of Spring was a satirical treatment of pretentious writers. Hemingway submitted the manuscript early in December 1925, it was rejected by the end of the month. In January 1926, Max Perkins at Scribner's agreed to publish The Torrents of Spring in addition to Hemingway's future work; the Torrents of Spring was published by Scribner's in May of that year. Mixed reaction greeted the novella, itself critical of other writers.
The work is dismissed by critics and seen as vastly less important than The Sun Also Rises, published in the same year. Hadley Richardson, Hemingway's wife at the time, believed his characterization of Anderson was "nasty", while John Dos Passos considered it funny but did not want to see it published. F. Scott Fitzgerald, on the other hand, considered the novella a masterpiece. Little scholarly criticism has been devoted to The Torrents of Spring, as it is considered less important than Hemingway's subsequent work. Hemingway Archives, John F. Kennedy Library