The Stadsschouwburg of Amsterdam is the name of a theatre building at the Leidseplein in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The building is in the neo-Renaissance style dating back to 1894, the first rederijkers appeared at the end of the 15th century in Amsterdam. In the 16th century, these precursors of the modern theatre organized themselves into so-called rederijkerskamers, at that time, there were as yet no permanent theater buildings in Amsterdam, and the shipping company cherries performed on temporary stages, from carts or in public spaces. The Academy was established in a building at Keizersgracht in Amsterdam. The Schouwburg of Van Campen was a located at Keizersgracht 384 in Amsterdam. The site is now occupied by a hotel, in 1664 it was decided that the small theater of Van Campen had to be replaced by a larger theater building more in tune with the customs and Baroque architecture of the time. This new theater was twice as large as the old, and its first stone had been laid by the youngest daughter of the playwright Jan Vos.
Gerard de Lairesse helped decorate the interior, the rubble became valuable due to the gold and the jewels in it, and the site was sold by its owners after the fire. The city theatre moved to the Leidseplein and opened in 1774 or 1790 with a piece by August von Kotzebue, the building had a wooden structure behind a stone facade. The present theatre replaced its burned-down predecessor and it was built between 1892 and 1894 to a design of Jan L. Springer, with the cooperation of his father J. B. Springer and Adolf Leonard van Gendt, the rebuilding was supported closely by prominent banker and senator A. C. Wertheim. In 1982 it became a Rijksmonument, from the end Second World War, until the opening of the Stopera in 1986, the Dutch National Opera was based in the Stadsschouwburg. Whenever AFC Ajax has a win, they often go to the steps of the cities theater to be publicly applauded. The normal programme of events encompasses all sorts of theatrical forms, the Boekenbal is traditionally held in the Stadsschouwburg and it marks the beginning of the annual Boekenweek.
Geschiedenis van den Amsterdamschen Schouwburg 1496-1772, polly Cuninghame - Maria Gartman - Johanna Wattier Homepage Monument
The Muntplein is a square in the centre of Amsterdam. The square is in fact a bridge — the widest bridge in Amsterdam — which crosses the Singel canal at the point where it flows into the Amstel river, all bridges in Amsterdam are numbered, and the Muntplein carries the number 1. Muntplein is named after the Munttoren tower which stands on this square and this tower was once part of one of the three main medieval city gates. In the 17th century, it served as a mint. The guard house building attached to the tower is not the original medieval structure, an underpass was added to the building during a 1938–1939 renovation. The name Muntplein dates from 1917, the square was originally known as Schapenplein and, from 1877 to 1917, as Sophiaplein. The square is an intersection of six streets. It forms the end of the Kalverstraat shopping street and the major street Rokin. The eastern end of the flower market along the Singel canal is directly south of the square. Six tram lines stop at Muntplein, but only when travelling south, the building on Muntplein at the intersection of the Kalverstraat and Rokin is an early design by prominent Dutch architect Hendrik Petrus Berlage.
This article is based on the Dutch Wikipedia article about Muntplein
The Museumplein is a public space in the Museumkwartier neighbourhood of the Amsterdam-Zuid borough in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Located at the Museumplein are three major museums – the Rijksmuseum, Van Gogh Museum, and Stedelijk Museum – and the concert hall Concertgebouw, the area was originally a wax candle factory and marshy meadows. Construction began following the completion of the Rijksmuseum in 1885, with a plan based on the design of Pierre Cuypers. The area was the location of the International Colonial and Export Exhibition in 1883, the Museumplein was reconstructed after a design by the Swedish/Danish landscape architect Sven-Ingvar Andersson in 1999. It now includes underground parking spaces and an underground supermarket, in the winter, the pond can be transformed into an artificial ice skating area. The space is used for events such as festivals, celebrations. Museum Square 1891-2020 Museum District in Amsterdam
Leiden is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south, the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the worlds most famous painters, was born, other famous Leiden painters include Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen and Jan van Steen. The city has one of Europes most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave, many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto, ‘City of Discoveries’. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdoms oldest university, Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students.
Leiden is a university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city. Leiden was formed on a hill at the confluence of the rivers Oude. In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon, the name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- canal. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum and this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, and the citys name was thought to be derived of the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in closer to the town of Katwijk. The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold, Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a war against her uncle, William I. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada, Leiden received city rights in 1266.
In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons, burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels. But John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first and he rolled the cannons with his army but one which was too heavy went by ship
The Oudekerksplein is a square in the centre of Amsterdam. It is named after the 14th-century church Oude Kerk which dominates the square, the Oudekerksplein is wedged between the Warmoesstraat street and Oudezijds Voorburgwal canal. Originally the Oudekerksplein was a graveyard, in 1655, the graveyard was cleared and moved to a new location beyond the city limits, creating the present square. The Oudekerksplein lies at the heart of the district of De Wallen. Along the square are some 35 windows from behind which prostitutes offer their services, as part of the so-called Project 1012, the Amsterdam city government is trying to reduce the number of prostitutes on Oudekerksplein. The city wants to remove all brothels from the square and replace them with restaurants, artists workshops, as part of the plans, the coffeeshop on Oudekerksplein would be closed. A statue titled Belle, honouring the prostitutes of the world, was placed on the square in 2007, the plaque on this statue reads, Respect sex workers all over the world.
The street has a relief of a hand caressing a female breast. The sculpture was set in the cobblestone in February 1993 by an anonymous artist, the 1968 Dutch documentary film Rondom het Oudekerksplein gave an impression of what life in the red-light district was like in the 1960s
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Hortus Botanicus (Amsterdam)
Hortus Botanicus is a botanical garden in the Plantage district of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. One of the oldest in the world, it is one of Amsterdams major tourist attractions, Hortus Botanicus was founded in 1638 by the city to serve as an herb garden for doctors and apothecaries. It contains more than six thousand tropical and indigenous trees and plants, the monumental Palm House dates from 1912 and is renowned for its collection of cycads. The hexagonal pavilion dates from the late 1600s, the entrance gate was built in the early 1700s. The Orangery dates from 1875, and the Palm House and Hugo de Vries Laboratory - both created in Amsterdam School expressionist architecture - date from 1912 and 1915. The garden was almost bankrupt in 1987 when the University of Amsterdam stopped paying its expenses, now the Hortus Botanicus is supported by the Amsterdam City Council as well. There are two halls at the garden which are now used for conferences and ceremonies, and a cafe serves as meeting point for locals, Hortus Botanicus is now a popular attraction for both Dutch and international visitors.
The collection is famous for some of its trees and plants, well-known plants and trees can be found there, like the Persian ironwood tree which is known in Dutch as Perzische Parrotia. A single coffee plant, Coffea arabica, in Hortuss collection served as the parent for the coffee culture in Central. Hugo de Vries was the director of the garden during 1885–1918, recent additions to Hortus include a huge hothouse, which incorporates three different tropical climates. Media related to Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Westerpark is a public urban park in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The former borough of Westerpark is named after the park, as is the current neighborhood, in 2012 opposite the park, two trains were involved in a head-on collision. The verdant space of the former Westergasfabriek gasworks along Haarlemmerweg has become a place for cultural avant-garde businesses, westergasgabriek To the west of the park lies a historical building known as Westergasbriek. The building was built in 1883, the historic building has been renovated and are now used by creative and cultural entrepreneurs
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
Dam Square or Dam is a town square in Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands. Its notable buildings and frequent events make it one of the most well-known and important locations in the city and the country. Dam Square lies in the center of Amsterdam, approximately 750 meters south of the main transportation hub, Centraal Station. It is roughly rectangular in shape, stretching about 200 meters from west to east and it links the streets Damrak and Rokin, which run along the original course of the Amstel River from Centraal Station to Muntplein and the Munttoren. The Dam marks the endpoint of the other well-traveled streets Nieuwendijk, a short distance beyond the northeast corner lies the main red-light district, de Wallen. On the west end of the square is the neoclassical Royal Palace, beside it are the 15th-century Gothic Nieuwe Kerk and the Madame Tussauds Wax Museum. The National Monument, a stone pillar designed by J. J. P. Oud and erected in 1956 to memorialize the victims of World War II, overlooking the plaza are the NH Grand Hotel Krasnapolsky and the upscale department store De Bijenkorf.
These various attractions have turned the Dam into a tourist zone, the Dam derives its name from its original function, a dam on the Amstel River, hence the name of the city. Built in approximately 1270, the dam formed the first connection between the settlements on the sides of the river, as the dam was gradually built up to it became wide enough for a town square, which remained the core of the town developing around it. Dam Square as it exists today grew out of what was originally two squares, the dam, called Middeldam, and Plaetse, an adjacent plaza to the west. A large fish market arose where ships moored at the dam to load and unload goods, the area became a centre not only of commercial activity but of the government, as the site of Amsterdams town hall. As a market square, the Dam had a house that can be seen in some old paintings. It was demolished in 1808 by order of Louis Bonaparte who, upon taking up residence in the newly converted Royal Palace, complained that his view was obstructed.
The Damrak, or the mouth of the Amstel River, was partially filled in the 19th century, since then. The new land made room for the Beurs van Zocher, an exchange that was built in 1837. After the stock moved to the Beurs van Berlage in 1903. In its place, De Bijenkorf department store has stood since 1914, in 1856, a war memorial named De Eendracht was unveiled inside the square before King William III
The Spui is a square in the centre of Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands. The Spui was originally a body of water formed the southern limit of the city until the 1420s. In 1882 the Spui was filled in and became the square that we know today, in 1996 the square was renovated and is now largely car-free. Tram lines 1,2,4,5,9,14,16,24 and 25 stop at or near the Spui, there is a weekly art market on the Spui, every Sunday. The Spui provides entry to the Begijnhof, a Medieval courtyard, a small statue, Het Lieverdje, stands on the square. The statue represents the youth of Amsterdam, always playing pranks yet with a heart of gold and he was a gift to the city from a cigarette company in 1960. In the 1960s, the Provo counterculture movement held weekly gatherings around the statue. Also located at the Spui is the work of Lawrence Weiner, Een vertaling van de ene taal in de andere, each pair presents the sentence in Dutch on one side, and on the other side in English and Surinaams respectively.
The Maagdenhuis, the headquarters of the University of Amsterdam, arti et Amicitiae, an artists society and art gallery at the corner of Rokin and Spui, designed in part by Berlage. Gebouw Helios at Spui 15-19, in Art Nouveau style, the design by Gerrit van Arkel won third prize in the architects competition at the 1900 Worlds Fair in Paris. The Oude Lutherse Kerk, the Old Lutheran Church, across the Singel canal