Susan von der Lippe
Susan von der Lippe, née Susan Gerard Rapp, is an American competition swimmer, Olympic medalist, Masters world record-holder in multiple events. She attended Stanford University, where she swam for the Stanford Cardinal swimming and diving team in National Collegiate Athletic Association and Pacific-10 Conference competition. Rapp first qualified for the 1980 Olympic games, but was unable to compete due to the United States-led boycott of the Olympic games hosted by the Soviet Union. Four years at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, she had significant success, she won a silver medal for her second-place performance in the women's 200-meter breaststroke, finishing with a time of 2:31.15. She earned a gold medal by swimming for the winning U. S. team in the preliminary heats of the women's 4×100-meter medley relay. Individually, she finished seventh in the final of the women's 100-meter breaststroke, recording a time of 1:11.45. Four years at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, Rapp competed in the B Final of the women's 200-meter breaststroke, finishing thirteenth overall with a time of 2:32.90.
At the age of 42, von der Lippe qualified for the 2008 U. S. Olympic Trials in 100-meter butterfly; as of 2014, von der Lippe holds 61 individual United States Masters Swimming pool records, across the 35-39, 40-44 and 45-49 age groups. She holds Masters World records in breaststroke, individual medley in the 40-44 and 45-49 age groups. List of Masters world records in swimming List of Olympic medalists in swimming List of Stanford University people Susan Rapp – Olympic Games results at databaseOlympics.com
Freestyle is a category of swimming competition, defined by the rules of the International Swimming Federation, in which competitors are subject to few limited restrictions on their swimming stroke. Freestyle races are the most common of all swimming competitions, with distances beginning with 50 meters and reaching 1500 meters known as the mile; the term'freestyle stroke' is sometimes used as a synonym for'front crawl', as front crawl is the fastest swimming stroke. It is now the most common stroke used in freestyle competitions. Freestyle swimming implies the use of legs and arms for competitive swimming, except in the case of the individual medley or medley relay events; the front crawl is most chosen by swimmers, as this provides the greatest speed. During a race, the competitor circles the arms forward in alternation, kicking the feet down. Individual freestyle events can be swum using one of the regulated strokes. For the freestyle part of medley swimming competitions, one cannot use breaststroke, butterfly, or backstroke.
Front crawl is based on the Trudgen, improved by Richmond Cavill from Sydney, Australia. Cavill developed the stroke by observing a young boy from Alick Wickham. Cavill and his brothers spread the Australian crawl to England, New Zealand and America, creating the freestyle used worldwide today. During the Olympic Games, front crawl is swum exclusively during freestyle; some of the few rules state that swimmers must touch the end of the pool during each length and cannot push off the bottom, hang on the wall, or pull on the lane lines during the course of the race. As with all competitive events, false starts can lead to disqualification of the swimmer. Times have dropped over the years due to better training techniques and to new developments in the sport. In the first four Olympics, swimming competitions were not in open water; the 1904 Olympics freestyle race was the only one measured at 100 yards, instead of the usual 100 meters. A 100-meter pool was built for the 1908 Olympics and sat in the center of the main stadium's track and field oval.
The 1912 Olympics, held in the Stockholm harbor, marked the beginning of electronic timing. Male swimmers wore full body suits up until the 1940s, which caused more drag in the water than their modern swimwear counterparts. Over the years, some design considerations have reduced swimming resistance, making the pool faster, namely: proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy-absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, the use of other innovative hydraulic and illumination designs; the 1924 Olympics was the first to use the standard 50 meter pool with marked lanes. In freestyle events, swimmers dove from the pool walls, but diving blocks were incorporated at the 1936 Olympics; the flip turn was developed in the 1950s. Lane design created in the early 1970s has cut down turbulence in water, aiding in the more dynamic pool used today. Freestyle means "any style" for individual swims and any style but breaststroke, butterfly, or backstroke for both the individual medley, medley relay competitions.
The wall has to be touched upon completion. Some part of the swimmer must be above water at any time, except for the first 15 meters after the start and every turn; this rule was introduced to prevent swimmers from using the faster underwater swimming to their advantage, or swimming entire laps underwater. The exact FINA rules are: Freestyle means that in an event so designated the swimmer may swim any style, except that in individual medley or medley relay events, freestyle means any style other than backstroke, breaststroke, or butterfly Some part of the swimmer must touch the wall upon completion of each length and at the finish Some part of the swimmer must break the surface of the water throughout the race, except it shall be permissible for the swimmer to be submerged during the turn and for a distance of not more than 15 meters after the start and each turn. By that point the head must have broken the surface. There are nine competitions used in freestyle swimming, both using either a long course or a short course pool.
The United States employs short course yards. In the United States, it is common for swimmers to compete in a 25-yard pool during the Fall and Spring, switch over to a 50-meter pool format during the Summer. 50 m freestyle 100 m freestyle 200 m freestyle 400 m freestyle 800 m freestyle 1500 m freestyle 4×50 m freestyle relay 4 × 100 m freestyle relay 4 × 200 m freestyle relay Young swimmers have the option to swim a 25 yard/meter freestyle event. Freestyle is part of the medley over the following distances: 100 m individual medley 200 m individual medley 400 m individual medley 4 × 100 m medley relay In the long distance races of the 800 meter and 1500 meter, some meets hosted by FINA only
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat
Janet Beth Evans is an American former competition swimmer who specialized in distance freestyle events. Evans was a world champion and world record-holder, won a total of four gold medals at the 1988 and the 1992 Olympics. Born in Fullerton, Evans grew up in neighboring Placentia, where she started swimming competitively as a child. By the age of 11, she was setting national age group records in distance events. After swimming as a teenager for Fullerton Aquatics Sports Team and graduating from El Dorado High School, Evans attended Stanford University, where she swam for the Stanford Cardinal swimming and diving team from 1989 to 1991, she received the Honda Sports Award for Swimming and Diving, recognizing her as the outstanding college female swimmer of the year in 1988–89. When the NCAA placed weekly hours limits on athletic training time, she quit the Stanford swim team to focus on training, she attended the University of Texas at Austin before graduating from the University of Southern California with a bachelor's degree in communications in 1994.
Evans was distinctive for her unorthodox "windmill" stroke and her inexhaustible cardio-respiratory reserves. Slight of build and short of stature, she more than once found herself competing and winning against bigger and stronger athletes, some of whom were subsequently found to have been using performance-enhancing drugs. Janet Evans was the 1989 recipient of the James E. Sullivan Award as the top amateur athlete in the United States, she was named the Female World Swimmer of the Year by Swimming World Magazine in 1987, 1989, 1990. After retiring from competitive swimming, Evans worked as a motivational speaker and corporate spokesperson for companies such as AT&T, Campbell's, PowerBar, John Hancock and Xerox. In 2008, Evans competed on the NBC show Celebrity Circus. In 2010, Evans returned to competitive swimming in Masters swimming. Evans married Bill Willson in 2004, with; as of June 2012, the family lives in California. On November 3, 2016, Janet Evans was chosen to serve as co-Grand Marshal of the 2017 Rose Parade.
In 1987, she broke the world records in the 400-meter, 800-meter, 1,500-meter freestyle distances. At the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, she won three individual gold medals, she earned the nickname "Miss Perpetual Motion.". In these Olympics, Evans set a new world record in the 400-meter freestyle event; this record stood for 18 years until France's Laure Manaudou broke it in May 2006. Evans held the 1,500-meter freestyle record, set in March 1988, through June 2007, when it was broken by American Kate Ziegler with her time of 15:42.54. Evans held the world record in the 800-meter freestyle, 8:16:22, that she set in August 1989, until it was broken by Rebecca Adlington of Britain in August 2008. Adlington set the new record with her time of 8:14.10 in winning the race at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Evans's 800-meter record was one of the longest-standing ones in swimming, it went unbroken through four Olympic Games. Only the 100-meter freestyle swimming record set by the Dutch swimmer Willy den Ouden stood longer—from 1936 through 1956, during a period when international competition was interrupted by world war.
Following her outstanding performance of 1988, Evans continued to dominate the world's long-distance swimming competitions. Evans became the first woman to win back-to-back Olympic and world championship titles in any one swimming event by winning the 1988 and 1992 Olympic gold medals and the 1991 and 1994 world championships in the 800-meter freestyle race, she would astonishingly go undefeated in all of the 400-, 800-, 1500-meter freestyle events for over five years, only being broken with her shock defeat by Dagmar Hase in the 400-meter freestyle at the Barcelona Olympics, where she led for the entire race but was narrowly caught at the end. Evans won the 400-meter and 800-meter freestyle events at the U. S. National Championships 12 times each, the largest number of national titles in one event by an American swimmer in the 100-year history of the competition. Evans ended her swimming career, for all practical purposes, at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, she did not win any medals.
She was given the honor of carrying the Olympic torch in the opening ceremony, she handed the torch to the American boxing legend Muhammad Ali to light the cauldron. On July 27, 1996, she was in a building being interviewed by a German newsman when a bomb exploded nearby; the explosion lightly shook the building and startled Evans. In the swimming pool, Evans finished ninth in the preliminaries of the 400-meter freestyle, she did not qualify for the finals, as only the top eight finishers advance to the next level. In the final swim of her career, Evans finished in sixth place in the 800-meter freestyle. At the Atlanta Games, American swimming officials criticized Ireland's Michelle Smith about her unexpected gold medals, suggesting that she might have been using performance-enhancing drugs; when asked about the accusations, Evans said that when anyone like Smith showed such a significant improvement, "there's always that question." American sportswriters sympathetic to Smith took this comment to mean that Evans was accusing Smith of steroid use as well, they attacked Evans as being a sore loser.
Evans insisted that she meant no such accusation and that her remarks were taken out of context. In 1998, Smith received a four-year suspension for tampering with a urine sample. At the end of Evans's swimming career, she held seven world records, five Olympic medals, 45 American national titles – third o
1988 Summer Olympics
The 1988 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. In the Seoul Games, 159 nations were represented by a total of 8,391 athletes: 6,197 men and 2,194 women. 237 events were held and 27,221 volunteers helped to prepare the Olympics. 11,331 media showed the Games all over the world. These were the last Olympic Games for the Soviet Union and East Germany, as both ceased to exist before the next Olympic Games; the Soviets utterly dominated the medal table, winning 132 total medals. No country came close to this result after 1988; the games were boycotted by its ally, Cuba. Ethiopia and the Seychelles did not respond to the invitations sent by the IOC. Nicaragua did not participate due to financial considerations; the participation of Madagascar had been expected, their team was expected at the opening ceremony of 160 nations. However, the country withdrew because of financial reasons.
Nonetheless, the much larger boycotts seen in the previous three Summer Olympics were avoided, resulting in the largest number of participating nations during the Cold War era. Seoul was chosen to host the Summer Games through a vote held on 30 September 1981, finishing ahead of the Japanese city of Nagoya. Below was the vote count that occurred at the 84th IOC Session and 11th Olympic Congress in Baden-Baden, West Germany. After the Olympics were awarded, Seoul received the opportunity to stage the 10th Asian Games in 1986, using them to test its preparation for the Olympics. In its final Olympics, the Soviet Union utterly dominated the medal table winning 55 gold and 132 total medals. No country came close to this result after 1988. Soviet Vladimir Artemov won four gold medals in gymnastics. Daniela Silivaş of Romania won three and equalled compatriot Nadia Comăneci's record of seven Perfect 10s in one Olympic Games. After having demolished the world record in the 100 m dash at the Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, U.
S. sprinter Florence Griffith Joyner set an Olympic record in the 100-metre dash and a still-standing world record in the 200-metre dash to capture gold medals in both events. To these medals, she added a gold in the 4×100 relay and a silver in the 4×400. Canadian Ben Johnson won the 100 m final with a new world record, but was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol. Johnson has since claimed. In the Women's Artistic Gymnastics Team All-Around Competition, the U. S. women's team was penalized with a deduction of five tenths of a point from their team score by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique after the compulsory round due to their Olympic team alternate Rhonda Faehn appearing on the podium for the uneven bars during the duration of Kelly Garrison-Steve's compulsory uneven bars routine, despite not competing, having been caught by the East German judge, Ellen Berger. The U. S. finished fourth after the completion of the optional rounds with a combined score of 390.575, three tenths of a point behind East Germany.
This still remains controversial in the sport of gymnastics, as the U. S. performed better than the East German team and they would have taken the bronze medal in the team competition had they not been penalized or had an inquiry accepted to receive the points back. Phoebe Mills won an individual bronze medal on the balance beam, shared with Romania's Gabriela Potorac, making history as the first medal won by a U. S. woman in artistic gymnastics at a attended games. The USSR won their final team gold medals in artistic gymnastics on both the men's and women's sides with scores of 593.350 and 395.475 respectively. The men's team was led by Vladimir Artemov. Lawrence Lemieux, a Canadian sailor in the Finn class, was in second place and poised to win a silver medal when he abandoned the race to save an injured competitor, he arrived in 21st place, but was recognized by the IOC with the Pierre de Coubertin medal honoring his bravery and sacrifice. U. S. diver Greg Louganis won back-to-back titles on both diving events despite hitting his head on the springboard in the third round and suffering a concussion.
Christa Luding-Rothenburger of East Germany became the first athlete to win Olympic medals at the Winter Olympics and Summer Olympics in the same year. She added a cycling silver to the speed skating gold she won earlier in the Winter Olympics of that year in Calgary. Anthony Nesty of Suriname won his country's first Olympic medal by winning the 100 m butterfly, scoring an upset victory over Matt Biondi by.01 of a second. Swimmer Kristin Otto of East Germany won six gold medals. Other multi-medalists in the pool were Janet Evans. Swedish fencer Kerstin Palm became the first woman to take part in seven Olympics. Swimmer Mel Stewart of the U. S. was the most anticipated to win the men's 200 m butterfly final but came in 5th. Mark Todd of New Zealand won his second consecutive individual gold medal in the three-day event in equestrian on Charisma, only the second time in eventing history that a gold medal has been won consecutively. Baseball and Taekwondo were demonstration sports; the opening ceremony featured a mass demonstration of taekwondo with hundreds of adults and children performing moves in unison.
This was the last time the U. S. was represented by a basketball tea
Edwin Charles Reese is an American college and Olympic swimming coach and former college swimmer. Reese has been the head coach of the Texas Longhorns men's swimming and diving team that represents the University of Texas in Austin, Texas since 1978, served as the men's head coach for the United States' Olympic Swimming Team in 2004 and 2008, as well as an assistant coach at the 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2012 Summer Olympics. Reese was born in Daytona Beach, Florida in 1941, he attended Mainland High School in Daytona Beach, swam for the Mainland Buccaneers high school swim team, winning two state high school championships in the 200-yard individual medley swimming event. He enrolled in the University of Florida in Gainesville, where he swam for coach Buddy Crone and coach Bill Harlan's Florida Gators swimming and diving teams, leading the Gators to three consecutive Southeastern Conference team championships; as the team's senior co-captain, Reese became the first Florida swimmer to win five SEC individual titles in a single season—the 200-yard breaststroke, the 200-yard and 400-yard individual medleys, the 400-yard freestyle relay and the 400-yard medley relay.
Reese graduated from the University of Florida with a bachelor's degree in physical education in 1963. After Reese graduated from Florida, he remained in Gainesville as a graduate assistant coach and earned his master's degree from Florida in 1965. Reese coached and taught at Roswell High School in Roswell, New Mexico for one year, before returning to the University of Florida as an assistant coach for six seasons. Reese became the head coach of the Auburn Tigers swim team at Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama in 1972, leading the Tigers for six seasons; the Tigers were a team that had not qualified a single swimmer for the finals or consolation finals of the SEC championship meet during the previous season. After six seasons, Auburn had produced four consecutive top-ten showings at the NCAA championships, in his final season at Auburn, the Tigers placed second in the SEC and NCAA championships, the highest finish in program history to that time. In 1978, Reese accepted the head coaching position for the Texas Longhorns men's swimming and diving team of the University of Texas in Austin, Texas.
Since that time, his Longhorns team have won 14 National Collegiate Athletic Association team championships, he has been named NCAA Coach of the Year eight times. Starting with his second year at Texas, his teams have won the conference championship every season. Reese has coached former world record holders, his recent elite swimmers include Ian Crocker, Rick Carey, Brendan Hansen, Neil Walker, Ricky Berens, Dave Walters, Garrett Weber-Gale, Eric Shanteau, Scott Spann, Aaron Peirsol and Joseph Schooling. Reese was inducted into the University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame as a "Gator Great" in 1988, the International Swimming Hall of Fame as an "Honor Coach" in 2002, his brother, Randy Reese, a university and Olympic swimming coach, was inducted in 2005. Reese is a member of the Longhorn Hall of Honor. Auburn Tigers Florida Gators List of University of Florida alumni List of University of Florida Athletic Hall of Fame members List of University of Florida Olympians Texas Longhorns Eddie Reese – University of Texas coach profile at TexasSports.com Eddie Reese – Honor Coach profile at International Swimming Hall of Fame Floswimming Video Interviews with Eddie Reese
Dick Hannula is a swimming coach in Tacoma, Washington who coached for Tacoma Swim Club known as TSC. He was the swimming coach at Lincoln High School from 1952-1959 coach at Wilson High School from 1959-1983; the Wilson High School swimming pool is named the Dick Hannula Pool in his honor. During his time coaching, his students won 24 consecutive state championships, a total of 323 swim meets with no loss. In 1980, he was chosen as the National High School Swim Coach of the Year, was a 1987 Honor Coach in the International Swimming Hall of Fame, in 1990 was the commissioner of swimming for the Goodwill Games. A four-term president of the National Swimming Association, he coached the US National Swim Team in 1973, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1985, he managed the national swim team at the 1984 Summer Olympics and the 1988 Summer Olympics. A member of the International Swimming Hall of Fame, Hannula became the assistant coach for The University of Puget Sound's men's and women's swim teams in the 2007-2008 season and coaches for Tacoma Swim Club on a regular basis.
He resides in North Tacoma with Sylvia. He has four children. Hannula is of Austrian origin. Hannula is the author of Coaching Swimming Successfully. ISBN 0-7360-4519-8; the Swim Coaching Bible. ISBN 0-7360-3646-6. and The Swim Coaching Bible, Volume II. Hannula is the inventor of Han's Paddles, the first "holed" paddles Template:Http://www.hanspaddles.com/. The gold medals won in 1977 in Sofia were by Dick Hannula Jr. not Dick Hannula Sr