Louise Lévêque de Vilmorin
Marie Louise Lévêque de Vilmorin was a French novelist and journalist. Born in the family château at Verrières-le-Buisson, Essonne, a suburb southwest of Paris, she was heir to a great French seed company fortune, that of Vilmorin, she was afflicted with a slight limp. Vilmorin was best known as a writer of delicate but mordant tales set in aristocratic or artistic milieu, her most famous novel was Madame de... published in 1951, adapted into the celebrated film The Earrings of Madame de... directed by Max Ophüls and starring Charles Boyer, Danielle Darrieux and Vittorio de Sica. Vilmorin's other works included Juliette, La lettre dans un taxi, Les belles amours, Saintes-Unefois, Intimités, her letters to Jean Cocteau were published after the death of both correspondents. She was awarded the recipient of the Renée Vivien prize for women poets in 1949; as a young woman, in 1923, she had been engaged to aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Vilmorin's first husband was an American real-estate heir, Henry Leigh Hunt, the only son of Leigh S. J. Hunt, a businessman who once owned much of Las Vegas, Nevada by his wife, Jessie Nobel.
They married in 1925, moved to Las Vegas, divorced in the 1930s. They had three daughters: Jessie and Helena, her second husband was Count Paul Pálffy ab Erdöd, a much-married Austrian-born Hungarian playboy, second husband to the Hungarian countess better known as Etti Plesch, owner of two Epsom Derby winners. Palffy married Louise as his fifth wife in 1938. Vilmorin was the mistress of another of Etti Plesch's husbands, Count Paul Esterházy de Galántha, who left his wife in 1942 for Vilmorin, they never married. For a number of years, she was the mistress of British ambassador to France. Louise spent the last years of her life as the companion of the French Cultural Affairs Minister and author André Malraux, calling herself "Marilyn Malraux". Francis Poulenc sang her praises, considering her an equal to Paul Éluard and Max Jacob, found in her writing "a sort of sensitive impertinence, an appetite which, carried on into song what I tried to express in my extreme youth with Marie Laurencin in Les Biches".
Louise was the younger daughter of Philippe de Vilmorin by his wife Berthe Marie Mélanie de Gaufridy de Dortan, daughter of Roger de Gaufridy de Dortan and his wife, Adélaïde de Verdonnet. Her siblings were: Marie "Mapie" Pierre, who married, as her first husband, a cousin, Guy Marie Félix Lévêque de Vilmorin in 1922 by whom she had three children, she married again in 1933, Guillaume de Toulouse-Lautrec-Montfa, comte de Toulouse-Lautrec, a relative of the painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. She became a popular food columnist in French magazines as Mapie de Toulouse-Lautrec. Henry Olivier André Roger, fathered by King Alfonso XIII of Spain. Louise de Vilmorin's children, all by her first husband, were: a) Jessie Leigh Hunt Alexandra Leigh Hunt married Henry Ridgeley Horsey, her children were Henry Ridgely Horsey Jr. Edmond Philip de Vilmorin Horsey, Alexandra Thérèse Leigh-Hunt Horsey, Randall Revell Horsey, Philippa Ridgely Horsey, c) Helena Leigh Hunt (23 June 1931 Hauts-de-Seine, Neuilly-sur-Seine - 28 December 1995 Southampton Hospital, Long Island, New York, aged 64 a realist still-life painter.
She was married to John Tracy Baxter, with whom according to the New York obituary, she had three daughters, Elizabeth Baxter, Etienne Baxter, Leigh Baxter. Ivry, Benjamin: Francis Poulenc, 20th-Century Composers series. Phaidon Press Limited, ISBN 0-7148-3503-X. Bothorel, Jean: Louise ou la Vie de Louise de Vilmorin, Bernard Grasset, Paris Wagener, Françoise, Je suis née inconsolable: Louise de Vilmorin, Albin Michel, Paris, ISBN 978-2-226-18083-4. Philippe André de Vilmorin Louis de Vilmorin Le Lit à colonnes Julietta The Lovers
Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today it involves online education. Courses that are conducted are blended or 100 % distance learning. Massive open online courses, offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent developments in distance education. A number of other terms are used synonymously with distance education. One of the earliest attempts was advertised in 1728; this was in the Boston Gazette for "Caleb Philipps, Teacher of the new method of Short Hand", who sought students who wanted to learn through weekly mailed lessons. The first distance education course in the modern sense was provided by Sir Isaac Pitman in the 1840s, who taught a system of shorthand by mailing texts transcribed into shorthand on postcards and receiving transcriptions from his students in return for correction.
The element of student feedback was a crucial innovation of Pitman's system. This scheme was made possible by the introduction of uniform postage rates across England in 1840; this early beginning proved successful, the Phonographic Correspondence Society was founded three years to establish these courses on a more formal basis. The Society paved the way for the formation of Sir Isaac Pitman Colleges across the country; the first correspondence school in the United States was the Society to Encourage Studies at Home, founded in 1873. The University of London was the first university to offer distance learning degrees, establishing its External Programme in 1858; the background to this innovation lay in the fact that the institution was non-denominational and, given the intense religious rivalries at the time, there was an outcry against the "godless" university. The issue soon boiled down to which institutions had degree-granting powers and which institutions did not; the compromise solution that emerged in 1836 was that the sole authority to conduct the examinations leading to degrees would be given to a new recognized entity called the "University of London", which would act as examining body for the University of London colleges University College London and King's College London, award their students University of London degrees.
As Sheldon Rothblatt states: "Thus arose in nearly archetypal form the famous English distinction between teaching and examining, here embodied in separate institutions."With the state giving examining powers to a separate entity, the groundwork was laid for the creation of a programme within the new university which would both administer examinations and award qualifications to students taking instruction at another institution or pursuing a course of self-directed study. Referred to as "People's University" by Charles Dickens because it provided access to higher education to students from less affluent backgrounds, the External Programme was chartered by Queen Victoria in 1858, making the University of London the first university to offer distance learning degrees to students. Enrollment increased during the late 19th century, its example was copied elsewhere; this program is now known as the University of London International Programme and includes Postgraduate and Diploma degrees created by colleges such as the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway and Goldsmiths.
In the United States, William Rainey Harper, first president of the University of Chicago, celebrated the concept of extended education, whereby the research university had satellite colleges in the wider community. In 1892, Harper encouraged correspondence courses to further promote education, an idea, put into practice by Chicago, Wisconsin and several dozen other universities by the 1920s Columbia University. Enrollment in the largest private for-profit school based in Scranton, the International Correspondence Schools grew explosively in the 1890s. Founded in 1888 to provide training for immigrant coal miners aiming to become state mine inspectors or foremen, it enrolled 2500 new students in 1894 and matriculated 72,000 new students in 1895. By 1906 total enrollments reached 900,000; the growth was due to sending out complete textbooks instead of single lessons, the use of 1200 aggressive in-person salesmen. There was a stark contrast in pedagogy: The regular technical school or college aims to educate a man broadly.
The college demands that a student shall have certain educational qualifications to enter it and that all students study for the same length of time. We, on the contrary, are aiming to make our courses fit the particular needs of the student who takes them. Education was a high priority in the Progressive Era, as American high schools and colleges expanded greatly. For men who were older or were too busy with family responsibilities, night schools were opened, such as the YMCA school in Boston that became Northeastern University. Outside the big cities, private correspondence schools offered a flexible, narrowly focused solution. Large corporations systematized their training programs for new employees; the National Association of Corporation Schools grew from 37 in 1913 to 146 in 1920. Starting in the 1880s, private schools opened across the country which offered sp
The Seattle Post-Intelligencer is an online newspaper and former print newspaper based in Seattle, United States. The newspaper was founded in 1863 as the weekly Seattle Gazette, was published daily in broadsheet format, it was long one of the city's two daily newspapers, along with The Seattle Times, until it became an online-only publication on March 18, 2009. J. R. Watson founded Seattle's first newspaper, on December 10, 1863, as the Seattle Gazette; the paper failed after a few years and was renamed the Weekly Intelligencer in 1867 by the new owner, Sam Maxwell. In 1878, after publishing the Intelligencer as a morning daily, Thaddeus Hanford bought the Daily Intelligencer for $8,000. Hanford acquired the daily Puget Sound Dispatch and the weekly Pacific Tribune and folded both papers into the Intelligencer. In 1881, the Intelligencer merged with the Seattle Post; the names were combined to form the present-day name. In 1886, Indiana businessman Leigh S. J. Hunt came to Seattle and purchased the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, which he owned and published until he was forced to sell in the Panic of 1893.
At this point the newspaper was acquired by attorney and real estate developer James D. Hoge under whom it was representative of an establishment viewpoint, it was the state's predominant newspaper. Circulation was increased by coverage of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. Hoge, involved in other business sought to find a buyer and sold in 1899; the newspaper was acquired with assistance from James J. Hill by John L. Wilson who had first started the Seattle Klondike Information Bureau; the newspaper was acquired by Hearst in 1921. Circulation stood at 31,000 in 1911. In 1912, editor Eric W. Allen left the paper to found the University of Oregon School of Journalism, which he ran until his death in 1944. William Randolph Hearst took over the paper in 1921, the Hearst Corporation owns the P-I to this day. In 1936, 35 P-I writers and members of The Newspaper Guild went on three-month strike against "arbitrary dismissals and assignment changes and other'efficiency' moves by the newspaper." The International Brotherhood of Teamsters joined the strike in solidarity.
Roger Simpson and William Ames co-wrote their book Unionism or Hearst: the Seattle Post-Intelligencer Strike of 1936 on the topic. Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt had a special relationship with the P-I. In 1936, their son-in-law Clarence John Boettiger took over as publisher, he brought his wife Anna, the Roosevelts' daughter, to work at the paper. Anna became editor of the women's page. Boettiger left Seattle to enter the U. S. Army in April 1943, while Anna stayed at the paper to help keep a liberal voice in the running of the paper. After Boettiger's absence, the paper turned conservative with Hearst's new acting publisher. Anna left Seattle in December 1943 to live in the White House with Johnny; this ended the Roosevelt-Boettiger ties with the P-I. On December 15, 2006, no copies were printed as a result of a power outage caused by the December 2006 Pacific Northwest storms, it was the first time in 70 years. On January 9, 2009, the Hearst Corporation announced that after losing money on it every year since 2000, Hearst was putting the P-I up for sale.
The paper would be put on the market for 60 days, if a buyer could not be found within that time, the paper would either be turned into an Internet-only publication with a drastically reduced staff, or closed outright. The news of the paper's impending sale was broken by local station KING-TV the night prior to the official announcement, came as a surprise to the P-I's staff and the owners of rival newspaper the Seattle Times. Analysts did not expect a buyer to be found, in view of declining circulation in the U. S. newspaper industry and other newspapers on the market going unsold. Five days before the 60-day deadline, the P-I reported that the Hearst Corporation had given several P-I reporters provisional job offers for an online edition of the P-I. On March 16, 2009, the newspaper posted a headline on its front page, followed shortly after by a short news story, that explained that the following day's edition would be its final one in print; the newspaper's publisher, Roger Oglesby, was quoted saying that the P-I would continue as an online-only operation.
Print subscribers had their subscriptions automatically transferred to the Seattle Times on March 18. As of 2018, the P-I continues as an online-only newspaper. In September 2010, the site had an estimated 2.8 million unique visitors and 208,000 visitors per day. From 1983 to 2009, the P-I and The Seattle Times had a joint operating agreement whereby advertising, production and circulation were run for both papers by the Seattle Times Company, they maintained separate editorial departments. The papers published a combined Sunday edition, although the Times handled the majority of the editorial content while the P-I only provided a small editorial/opinions section. In 2003 Times tried to cancel the JOA, citing a clause in it that three consecutive years of losses were cause for cancelling the agreement. Hearst disagreed and filed suit to prevent the Times from cancelling the agreement. Hearst argued that a force majeure clause prevented the Times from claiming losses in 2000 and 2001 as reason to end the JOA, because they resulted from extraordinary events.
Each side publicly accused the other of attempting to put its rival out of business. The trial judge granted a summary judgment in Hearst's favor on the force majeure issue, but after two appeals, the Washington State Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Tim
Mount Pleasant, Iowa
Mount Pleasant is a city in and the county seat of Henry County, Iowa, in the United States. The population was 8,668 in the 2010 census, a decline from 8,751 in the 2000 census, it was founded in 1835 by pioneer Presley Saunders. The first permanent settlement at Mount Pleasant was made in 1833. Mount Pleasant was incorporated as a town in 1842, again in 1851. In 1869, Mount Pleasant was the site of a solar eclipse expedition, under the command of James Craig Watson and sponsored by National Almanac; the total solar eclipse occurred on August 7, 1869. In the Union Block building in 1869, Arabella A. Mansfield became the first woman in the United States to be awarded a license to practice law, she won a court case for entry to the bar. The legislature changed its statute; the third floor of the Union Block housed the Opera House or Union Hall, a gathering place for the community. It attracted national speakers on tour, including abolitionists Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, Anna Dickinson. James Harlan spoke there, as he was president of Iowa Wesleyan College in the town, was elected several times to the United States Senate.
This building had been considered one of the most endangered historic sites in Iowa. The Mount Pleasant Mental Health Institute was built in 1861. However, in 1936, a fire did great damage to the building; the hospital had to be closed. On December 10, 1986, Ralph Orin Davis, a resident, walked into a city council meeting and shot Mayor Edward King and two council members. Mayor King died of his wounds after being shot point blank in the head; the 69-year-old gunman had attended a couple of previous meetings, complaining about a backed-up sewer and wanting the city to pay for damages to his house. The two council members were wounded. Tom Vilsack was the replacement mayor becoming governor for 8 years, Secretary of Agriculture for 8 years. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.53 square miles, of which, 8.51 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Mount Pleasant's population density is estimated at 1123 people per square mile, considered low for urban areas.
As of the census of 2010, there were 8,668 people, 3,127 households, 1,935 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,018.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,365 housing units at an average density of 395.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.7% White, 4.3% African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.4% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.7% of the population. There were 3,127 households of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.1% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age in the city was 37.3 years. 21.1% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the city was 52.7% male and 47.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,751 people, 3,119 households, 1,940 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,137.3 people per square mile. There were 3,355 housing units at an average density of 436.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.46% White, 3.19% African American, 0.32% Native American, 3.53% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.73% from other races, 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.79% of the population. There were 3,119 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 3.01. Age spread: 22.5% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,558, the median income for a family was $46,063. Males had a median income of $31,524 versus $22,628 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,824. About 8.3% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.5% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 or over. Mount Pleasant is home to the Midwest Old Thresher's Reunion which attracts a crowd numbering over 100,000 admissions annually during an extended five-day weekend which ends on Labor Day; the reunion dates back to 1950 and pays tribute to the agricultural heritage of the American Midwest in an extensive interactive manner, with live-action exhibition-style displays centering on restored mechanical equipment steam engines, farm tractors, stationary gas engines and classic cars, the narrow-gauge Midwest Central Railroad, electric trolleys.
Country music shows featuring top-name performers, an expansive modern campground with transportation to the main grounds, an extensive food court and numerous other offerings (run entire
Iowa State University
Iowa State University of Science and Technology referred to as Iowa State, is a public land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, United States. It is the largest university in the state of Iowa and the third largest university in the Big 12 athletic conference. Iowa State is classified as a research university with "highest research activity" by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Iowa State is a member of the Association of American Universities, which consists of 60 leading research universities in North America. Founded in 1858 and coeducational from its start, Iowa State became the nation's first designated land-grant institution when the Iowa Legislature accepted the provisions of the 1862 Morrill Act on September 11, 1862, making Iowa the first state in the nation to do so. Iowa State's academic offerings are administered today through eight colleges, including the graduate college, that offer over 100 bachelor's degree programs, 112 master's degree programs, 83 at the Ph.
D. level, plus a professional degree program in Veterinary Medicine. Iowa State University's athletic teams, the Cyclones, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are a founding member of the Big 12 Conference; the Cyclones have won numerous NCAA national championships. In 1856, the Iowa General Assembly enacted legislation to establish the Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm; this institution was established on March 22, 1858, by the General Assembly. Story County was chosen as the location on June 21, 1859, beating proposals from Johnson, Kossuth and Polk counties; the original farm of 648 acres was purchased for a cost of $5,379. Iowa was the first state in the nation to accept the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1862. Iowa subsequently designated Iowa State as the land-grant college on March 29, 1864. From the start, Iowa Agricultural College focused on the ideals that higher education should be accessible to all and that the university should teach liberal and practical subjects; these ideals are integral to the land-grant university.
The institution was coeducational from the first preparatory class admitted in 1868. The formal admitting of students began the following year, the first graduating class of 1872 consisted of 24 men and two women; the Farm House, the first building on the Iowa State campus, was completed in 1861 before the campus was occupied by students or classrooms. It became the home of the superintendent of the Model Farm and in years, the deans of Agriculture, including Seaman Knapp and "Tama Jim" Wilson. Iowa State's first president, Adonijah Welch stayed at the Farm House and penned his inaugural speech in a second floor bedroom; the college's first farm tenants primed the land for agricultural experimentation. The Iowa Experiment Station was one of the university's prominent features. Practical courses of instruction were taught, including one designed to give a general training for the career of a farmer. Courses in mechanical, civil and mining engineering were part of the curriculum. In 1870, President Welch and I. P. Robert, professor of agriculture, held three-day farmers' institutes at Cedar Falls, Council Bluffs and Muscatine.
These became the earliest institutes held off-campus by a land grant institution and were the forerunners of 20th century extension. In 1872, the first courses were given in domestic economy and were taught by Mary B. Welch, the president's wife. Iowa State became the first land grant university in the nation to offer training in domestic economy for college credit. In 1879, the "School" of Veterinary Science was organized, the first state veterinary college in the United States; this was a two-year course leading to a diploma. The veterinary course of study contained classes in zoology, anatomy of domestic animals, veterinary obstetrics, sanitary science. William M. Beardshear was appointed President of Iowa State in 1891. During his tenure, Iowa Agricultural College came of age. Beardshear developed new agricultural programs and was instrumental in hiring premier faculty members such Anson Marston, Louis B. Spinney, J. B. Weems, Perry G. Holden, Maria Roberts, he expanded the university administration, the following buildings were added to the campus: Morrill Hall.
In his honor, Iowa State named its central administrative building after Beardshear in 1925. In 1898, reflecting the school's growth during his tenure, it was renamed Iowa State College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts, or Iowa State for short. Today, Beardshear Hall holds the following offices: President, Vice-President, Secretary, Registrar and student financial aid. Catt Hall is named after famed alumna Carrie Chapman Catt and is the home of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. In 1912 Iowa State had its first Homecoming celebration; the idea was first proposed by Professor Samuel Beyer, the college's “patron saint of athletics,” who suggested that Iowa State inaugurate a celebration for alumni during the annual football game against rival University of Iowa. Iowa State's new president, Raymond A. Pearson, liked the idea and issued a special invitation to alumni two weeks prior to the event: “We need you, we must have you. Come and see what a school you have made in Iowa State College.
Find a way.” In October 2012 Iowa State marked its 100th Homecoming with a "CYtennial" Celebration. Iowa State celebrated its first VEISHEA on
Des Moines, Iowa
Des Moines is the capital and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Iowa. It is the county seat of Polk County. A small part of the city extends into Warren County, it was incorporated on September 22, 1851, as Fort Des Moines, shortened to "Des Moines" in 1857. It is on and named after the Des Moines River, adapted from the early French name, Rivière des Moines, meaning "River of the Monks"; the city's population was 217,521 as of the 2017 population estimate. The five-county metropolitan area is ranked 89th in terms of population in the United States with 634,725 residents according to the 2016 estimate by the United States Census Bureau, is the second largest metropolitan area in the state after that of Omaha, which includes three counties in southwest Iowa. Des Moines is a major center of the U. S. insurance industry, has a sizable financial services and publishing business base. The city was credited as the "number one spot for U. S. insurance companies" in a Business Wire article and named the third-largest "insurance capital" of the world.
The city is the headquarters for the Principal Financial Group, the Meredith Corporation, Ruan Transportation, EMC Insurance Companies, Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield. Other major corporations such as Wells Fargo, Voya Financial, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, ACE Limited, Monsanto, DuPont Pioneer have large operations in or near the metropolitan area. In recent years, Hewlett Packard, Facebook have built data-processing and logistical facilities in the Des Moines area. Forbes ranked Des Moines as the "Best Place for Business" in both 2010 and 2013. In 2014, NBC ranked Des Moines as the "Wealthiest City in America" according to its criteria. Des Moines is an important city in U. S. presidential politics. Many presidential candidates set up campaign headquarters in Des Moines. A 2007 article in The New York Times said, "If you have any desire to witness presidential candidates in the most close-up and intimate of settings, there is arguably no better place to go than Des Moines." Des Moines takes its name from Fort Des Moines, named for the Des Moines River.
This was adopted from the name given by French colonists. "Des Moines" translates to either "from the monks" or "of the monks". The historian Virgil Vogel claimed that the name was derived from Moingona, an Algonquian clan name, which means "Loon"; some historians and researchers lacking linguistic or Algonquianist training concluded that Moingona meant "people by the portage" or something similar, a reference to the Des Moines Rapids. This was where the earliest known encounters between the European explorers took place. One popular interpretation of "Des Moines" ignores Vogel's research, concludes that it refers to a group of French Trappist monks, who in the 17th century lived in huts built on top of what is now known as the ancient Monks Mound at Cahokia, the major center of Mississippian culture, which developed in what is present-day Illinois, east of the Mississippi River and the city of St. Louis; this was some 200 miles from the Des Moines River. Based on archeological evidence, the junction of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers has attracted humans for at least 7,000 years.
Several prehistoric occupation areas have been identified by archeologists in downtown Des Moines. Discovered in December 2010, the "Palace" is an expansive, 7,000-year-old site found during excavations prior to construction of the new wastewater treatment plant in southeastern Des Moines, it contains numerous graves. More than 6,000 artifacts were found at this site. State of Iowa archaeologist John Doershuk was assisted by University of Iowa archaeologists at this dig. At least three Late Prehistoric villages, dating from about AD 1300 to 1700, stood in or near what developed as downtown Des Moines. In addition, 15 to 18 prehistoric American Indian mounds were observed in this area by early settlers. All have been destroyed during development of the city. Des Moines traces its origins to May 1843, when Captain James Allen supervised the construction of a fort on the site where the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers merge. Allen wanted to use the name Fort Raccoon. S. War Department preferred Fort Des Moines.
The fort was built to control the Sauk and Meskwaki Indians, whom the government had moved to the area from their traditional lands in eastern Iowa. The fort was abandoned in 1846 after the Sauk and Meskwaki were removed from the state and shifted to the Indian Territory; the Sauk and Meskwaki did not fare well in Des Moines. The illegal whiskey trade, combined with the destruction of traditional lifeways, led to severe problems for their society. One newspaper reported: "It is a fact that the location of Fort Des Moines among the Sac and Fox Indians for the last two years, had corrupted them more and lowered them deeper in the scale of vice and degradation, than all their intercourse with the whites for the ten years previous". After official removal, the Meskwaki continued to return to Des Moines until around 1857. Archaeological excavations have shown that many fort-related features survived under what is now Martin Luther King, Jr. Parkway and First Street. Soldiers stationed at Fort Des Moines opened the first coal mines in the area, mining coal from the riverbank for the fort's blacksmith.
Settlers occupied nearby areas. On May 25, 1846, the state legislature designated Fort Des Moines as the seat of Polk County. Arozina Perkins, a school teacher who spent the winter of 1850–1851 in the
Las Vegas the City of Las Vegas and known as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, the county seat of Clark County. The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city, known for its gambling, fine dining and nightlife; the Las Vegas Valley as a whole serves as the leading financial and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for its mega casino–hotels and associated activities, it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any other city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the world's most visited tourist destinations; the city's tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, television programs, music videos.
Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century. Population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85.2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, according to a 2018 estimate, the population is 648,224 with a regional population of 2,227,053; as with most major metropolitan areas, the name of the primary city is used to describe areas beyond official city limits. In the case of Las Vegas, this applies to the areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip, located within the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester; the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago. A young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829.
Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, California in 1829. The area was named Las Vegas, Spanish for "the meadows," as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as the desert spring waters needed by westward travelers; the year 1844 marked the arrival of John C. Frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas's Fremont Street is named after him. Eleven years members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies; the fort was abandoned several years afterward. The remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city. 1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas.
At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks. This year witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam; the influx of construction workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935. In 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the aerobatic team called the Thunderbirds. Following World War II, lavishly decorated hotels, gambling casinos, big-name entertainment became synonymous with Las Vegas. In the 1950s the Moulin Rouge opened and became the first racially integrated casino-hotel in Las Vegas. In 1951, nuclear weapons testing began at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. During this time the city was nicknamed the "Atomic City". Residents and visitors were able to witness the mushroom clouds until 1963, when the limited Test Ban Treaty required that nuclear tests be moved underground.
The iconic "Welcome to Las Vegas" sign, never located within municipal limits, was created in 1959 by Betty Willis. During the 1960s, corporations and business powerhouses such as Howard Hughes were building and buying hotel-casino properties. Gambling was referred to as "gaming"; the year 1995 marked the opening of the Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas's downtown area. This canopied five-block area features 12.5 million LED lights and 550,000 watts of sound from dusk until midnight during shows held on the top of each hour. Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, 2012 was dubbed "The Year of Downtown." Hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of projects made their debut at this time. They included The Smith Center for the Performing Arts and DISCOVERY Children's Museum, Mob Museum, Neon Museum, a new City Hall complex and renovations for a new Zappos.com corporate headquarters in the old City Hall building. Las Vegas is situated within Clark County in a basin on the floor of the Mojave Desert and is surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides.
Much of the landscape is arid with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems; the peaks surrounding Las Vegas reach elevations of o