William Michael Duane was an Irish born, British teacher known for his progressive educational views, his belief in inclusivity and a multi-racial approach, his encouragement of informal relationships between staff and pupils and his opposition to corporal punishment. He was the head of the controversial short-lived Risinghill School in Islington. Duane was born on 26 January 1915 in Ireland to John Joseph Duane and Mary Ellen Fogarty; when Duane was 7 his father died. He was educated at Dominican School at Archway, London before going to the Jesuits' School, Stamford Hill, he trained as a teacher at the Institute of Education, University of London, before taking up at teaching post at Dame Alice Owen's School, until he joined World War II in 1940. During the War he enlisted, was promoted to Second Lieutenant, Staff Captain and Major. In 1946 he received medals for bravery including the Chevalier De L'Ordre De Leopold II Avec Palme and the Croix De Guerre Avec Palme, he was demobilised in 1946 After the War he returned to Dame Alice Owen's School before becoming a lecturer at the Institute of Education.
In 1948 Duane was appointed the head teacher of a newly opened school, Howe Dell Secondary School in Hatfield, at the time was one of the youngest heads in the country. Duane was given five years'with no questioned asked' to establish the school; until the school was ready, Duane was temporarily appointed the head of Beaumont Secondary Modern School in St. Albans for one term. Duane took charge of Howe Dell in 1949, implemented a democratic multi-racial progressive policy which rejected corporal punishment. Duane's policies were criticised by the authoritarian head of the school governors and he was faced with an inadequate building and pupils with varying levels of education. Duane faced further criticisms after he was appointed a Justice of the Peace and nominate as the Labour Party candidate in the local elections; the school was accused of lack of discipline and impropriety and failed a HMI inspection in 1950. The Governors called for Duane's dismissal; the case for dismissal was thrown out by the Hertfordshire County Council Education Committee, but Duane resigned and the school was closed in 1951.
Duane moved onto another headship at Alderman Woodrow Secondary Boys' School, Suffolk in 1952. His time at this school was less problematic, though he did come into conflict with the Suffolk Education Authority over the allocation grammar school places. After a good inspection report, Duane felt it was time to move on and left in 1959. In 1959, Duane became the head of the comprehensive Risinghill School in Islington, the post, to make him a famous figure; the secondary school was an amalgamation of four other local schools and included pupils of nineteen different nationalities from variety of backgrounds and abilities. He was faced with shortages of staff and a poorly built building. Duane introduced a non-authoritarian programme of pastoral care, pupil democracy, frank sex education, close co-operation with parents, promotion of creativity and multi-culturalism, he refused to expel pupils. Duane clashed with the London County Council and the HM Inspectorate over his policies and in 1962 the school was brought into controversy over an account of Duane's sex education lessons which were published anonymously by Duane.
The school received an hostile inspection report which recommended the reintroduction of corporal punishment and expulsion, but Duane refused. In 1965, the newly formed Inner London Education Authority decided to close the school; the case became well known due to the publication of, Risinghill: Death of a Comprehensive School by Leila Berg in 1968. After Risinghill controversy, Duane was never appointed a head teacher again, he became a lecturer at Garnett College of Education and wrote and lectured on his educational philosophies. In 1977 he received a MPhil from the University of Nottingham for his research on The Terrace, an experimental ROSLA scheme, jointly organised by Royston Lambert head of Dartington Hall School and Alec Clegg of the West Riding Education Authority, to provide education for 15-year-olds from Northcliffe School in Conisbrough who no longer saw relevance in standard education, he published his research in 1995. Michael Duane died on January 1997, shortly before his 82nd birthday.
The papers of Michael Duane are held in the Archives of the Institute of Education, University of London and a full catalogue is available on-line. Duane, Michael, "Drama in Schools", The Derbyshire Countryside. Duanel, M, "Sex education: a small experiment", Family Planning, 11. Duane, Michael, "Parents and discipline: lessons from a tough-area school", The Sunday Telegraph Duane, Michael, "The Stench of hypocrisy", Education, 31 Duane, Michael, "Headmaster's View of the Risinghill Story", Morning Star Duane, Michael, "The Risinghill Myth", New Society: 91–92 Duane, Michael, "Children are not factory Fodder", Peace News Duane, Michael, "Comprehensives in dangers of perpetuating middle-class elitist assumptions", The Times Educational Supplement Duane, Michael, "Good relationships – the life blood of teaching -are poisoned by assumptions taken from the industry and competitive Society", The Times Educational Supplement Duane, Michael, "How we ought to train teachers", The Tim
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states, cognitive and social processes and behavior by observing and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments. To become a psychologist, a person completes a graduate university degree in psychology, but in most jurisdictions, members of other behavioral professions can evaluate, diagnose and study mental processes. Psychologists can be seen as practicing within two general categories of psychology: applied psychology which includes "practitioners" or "professionals", research-orientated psychology which includes "scientists", or "scholars"; the training models endorsed by the American Psychological Association require that applied psychologists be trained as both researchers and practitioners, that they possess advanced degrees. Psychologists have one of two degrees; the PhD prepares a psychologist to conduct scientific research for a career in academia. Both PsyD and PhD programs can prepare students to be licensed psychologists, training in these types of programs prepares graduates to take state licensing exams.
Within the two main categories are many further types of psychologists as reflected by the 56 professional classifications recognized by the APA, including clinical and educational psychologists. Such professionals work with persons in a variety of therapeutic contexts. People think of the discipline as involving only such clinical or counseling psychologists. While counseling and psychotherapy are common activities for psychologists, these applied fields are just two branches in the larger domain of psychology. There are other classifications such as industrial and community psychologists, whose professionals apply psychological research and techniques to "real-world" problems of business, social benefit organizations and academia. Clinical and counseling psychologists can offer a range of professional services, including: Providing psychological treatment Administering and interpreting psychological assessment and testing Conducting psychological research Teaching Developing prevention programs Consulting Program administration Providing expert testimony In practice and counseling psychologists might work with individuals, families, or groups in a variety of settings, including private practices, mental health organizations, schools and non-profit agencies.
Most clinical and counseling who engage in research and teaching do so within a college or university setting. Clinical and counseling psychologists may choose to specialize in a particular field. Common areas of specialization, some of which can earn board certification, include: Specific disorders Neuropsychological disorders Child and adolescent psychology Family and relationship counseling Health psychology Sport psychology Forensic psychology Industrial and organizational psychology Educational psychologyClinical and counseling psychologists receive training in a number of psychological therapies, including behavioral, humanistic, existential and systemic approaches, as well as in-depth training in psychological testing, to some extent, neuropsychological testing. Although clinical and counseling psychologists and psychiatrists share the same fundamental aim—the alleviation of mental distress—their training and methodologies are different; the most significant difference is that psychiatrists are licensed physicians, and, as such, psychiatrists are apt to use the medical model to assess mental health problems and to employ psychotropic medications as a method of addressing mental health problems.
Psychologists do not prescribe medication, although in some jurisdictions they do have prescription privileges. In five US states, psychologists with post-doctoral clinical psychopharmacology training have been granted prescriptive authority for mental health disorders. Clinical and counseling psychologists receive extensive training in psychological test administration, scoring and reporting, while psychiatrists are not trained in psychological testing; such tests help to inform treatment planning. For example, in a medical center, a patient with a complicated clinical presentation, being seen by a psychiatrist might be referred to a clinical psychologist for psychological testing to help the psychiatrist determine the diagnosis and treatment. In addition, psychologists spend several years in graduate school being trained to conduct behavioral research. While this training is available for physicians via dual MD/Ph. D. programs, it is not included in standard medical education, although psychiatrists may develop research skills during their residency or a psychiatry fellowship.
Psychologists from Psy. D. Programs tend to have more training and experience in clinical practice than those from Ph. D. programs. Psychiatrists, as licensed physicians, have been trained more intensively in other areas, such as internal medicine and neurology, may bring this knowledge to bear in identifying and treating medical or neurological conditions that present with psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, or
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists and Catholics, led by General Francisco Franco. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, different views saw it as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism; the Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces under the leadership of José Sanjurjo; the government at the time was a moderate, liberal coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña.
The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups, including both the opposing sides of Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista, a fascist political party. Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists; the coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, Málaga—did not gain control, those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided; the Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico.
Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict, they fought in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937, they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless. Madrid and Barcelona were occupied without resistance, Franco declared victory and his regime received diplomatic recognition from all non-interventionist governments. Thousands of leftist Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime; the war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans; the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain; those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain and to establish a liberal state.
The reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government. Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874; until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was based on agriculture. There was little development of a bourgeois commercial class; the land-based oligarchy remained powerful. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing political pressure, the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy. Alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was acute.
Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in 1909. Spain was neutral in World War I. Following the war, the working class, industrial class, military united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuc
Susan Sutherland Isaacs
Susan Sutherland Isaacs, CBE was a Lancashire-born educational psychologist and psychoanalyst. She published studies on the intellectual and social development of children and promoted the nursery school movement. For Isaacs, the best way for children to learn was by developing their independence, she believed that the most effective way to achieve this was through play, that the role of adults and early educators was to guide children's play. Isaacs was born in 1885 in Turton, the daughter of William Fairhurst, a journalist and Methodist lay preacher, his wife, Miriam Sutherland, her mother died. Shortly afterwards she became alienated from her father after he married the nurse who had attended her mother during her illness. Aged 15, she was removed from Bolton Secondary School by her father because she had converted to atheistic socialism, she stayed at home with her stepmother until she was 22. She was first apprenticed to a photographer and she began her teaching career as a governess for an English family.
In 1907, Isaacs enrolled to train as a teacher of young children at the University of Manchester. Isaacs transferred to a degree course and graduated in 1912 with a first class degree in Philosophy, she was awarded a scholarship at the Psychological Laboratory in Newnham College and gained a master's degree in 1913. Isaacs trained and practised as a psychoanalyst after analysis by the psychoanalyst John Carl Flugel, she became an associate member of the newly formed British Psychoanalytical Society in 1921, becoming a full member in 1923. She began her own practice that same year, she underwent brief analysis with Otto Rank and in 1927 she submitted herself to further analysis with Joan Riviere, to get personal experience and understanding of Melanie Klein's new ideas on infancy. Isaacs helped popularise the works of Klein, as well as the theories of Jean Piaget and Sigmund Freud, she was enthusiastic for Jean Piaget's theories on the intellectual development of young children, though she criticised his schemas for stages of cognitive development, which were not based on the observation of the child in their natural environment, unlike her own observations at Malting House School.
Between 1924 and 1927, she was the head of Malting House School in Cambridge, an experimental school founded by Geoffrey Pyke. The school fostered the individual development of children. Children were supported rather than punished; the teachers were seen as observers of the children. Her work had a great influence on early education and made play a central part of a child's education. Isaacs believed that play was the child's work. Between 1929 and 1940, she was an'agony aunt' under the pseudonym of Ursula Wise, replying to readers' problems in several child care journals, notably The Nursery World and Home and School. In 1933, she became the first Head of the Child Development Department at the Institute of Education, University of London, where she established an advanced course in child development for teachers of young children, her department had a great influence on the teaching profession and encouraged the profession to consider psychodynamic theory with developmental psychology. Isaacs argued that it is important to develop children's skills to think and exercise independent judgement.
Developing a child's independence is beneficial to their development as an individual. Parents were viewed as the main educators of their children with institutionalised care for children before the age 7 being potential damaging. Children learned best through their own play. For Isaacs, play involves a perpetual form of experiment..."at any moment, a new line of inquiry or argumemt might flash out, a new step in understanding be taken". Thus play should be viewed as children's work, social interaction is an important part of play and learning; the emotional needs of children are very important and symbolic and fantasy play could be a release for a child's feelings. "What imaginative play does, in the first place is to create practical situations which may then be pursued for their own sake, this leads on to actual discovery or to verbal judgment and reasoning". The role of the adults is to guide children's play, but on the whole they should have freedom to explore, her book Intellectual Growth in Young Children explains her perspective.
However, Isaacs was not in favour of uncontrolled self-expression: rather, she stressed the importance in child development of the internalisation of what she called the “good-strict” parent – one able to control the child's instincts, prevent their unrestrained force from harming self or other. She was one of the first to review and challenge Jean Piaget's stages of child development. During the Controversial discussions of the British Psychoanalytical Society, Isaacs presented an influential position paper of 1943 setting out the Kleinian view of phantasy. There she maintained that “Unconscious phantasies exert a continuous influence throughout life, both in normal and neurotic people”, adding that in the analytic situation “the patient's relation to his analyst is entirely one of unconscious phantasy”, her statement has however been criticised as a kind of'pan-instinctualism', over-simplifying the full range and scope of phantasy to a purely instinctual aim". Isaacs embarked upon a series of lectures in infant school education at Darlington Training College.
In 1914, she married a botany lecturer. A
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
City of Salford
The City of Salford known as Salford, is a city and metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, extending west to include the towns of Eccles, Swinton, Little Hulton, Irlam. The city has a population of 245,600, is administered from the Salford Civic Centre in Swinton; the city's boundaries, set by the Local Government Act 1972, include five former local government districts. It is bounded on the south east by the River Irwell, which forms part of its boundary with Manchester to the east, by the Manchester Ship Canal to the south, which forms its boundary with Trafford; the metropolitan boroughs of Wigan and Bury lie to the west and north respectively. Some parts of the city, which lies directly west of Manchester, are industrialised and densely populated, but around one third of the city consists of rural open space; the western half of the city stretches across Chat Moss. Salford has a history of human activity stretching back to the Neolithic age. There are over 250 listed buildings in the city, including Salford Cathedral, three Scheduled Ancient Monuments.
With the Industrial Revolution and its neighbours grew along with its textile industry. The former County Borough of Salford was granted city status in 1926; the city and its industries experienced decline throughout much of the 20th century. Since the 1990s, parts of Salford have undergone regeneration Salford Quays, home of BBC North and Granada Television, the area around the University of Salford. Salford Red Devils are a professional rugby league club in Super League and Salford City F. C. are a professional football club in the National League. Old Trafford, the home of Manchester United, in Trafford, is opposite Salford Quays. Although the metropolitan borough of the City of Salford was a 20th-century creation, the area has a long history of human activity, extending back to the Stone Age. Neolithic flint arrow-heads and tools, evidence of Bronze Age activity has been discovered in Salford; the northerly section of Watling Street, a Roman road from Manchester via Bury to Ribchester, passes through the city.
In 1142, a monastic cell dedicated to St. Leonard was established in Kersal; the 12th century hundred of Salford was created as Salfordshire in the historic county of Lancashire and survived until the 19th century, when it was replaced by one of the first county boroughs in the country. Salford became a free borough in about 1230, when it was granted a charter as a free borough by the Earl Ranulph of Chester; the cell in Kersal was sold in 1540 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. A 16th-century manor house, called Kersal Cell, was built on the site of the priory. In the English Civil War between King Charles I and parliament, Salford was Royalist. Salford was noted as Jacobite territory. During the Industrial Revolution, Salford grew as a result of the textile industry. Although Salford experienced an increase in population, it was overshadowed by the dominance of Manchester and did not evolve as a commercial centre in the same way. On 15 September 1830, Eccles was site of the world's first railway accident.
During a stop in Eccles to take on water, William Huskisson, Member of Parliament for Liverpool, had his leg crushed by Stephenson's Rocket. Although Huskisson was taken to Eccles for treatment he died of his injuries; the six-foot-tall Oglala Sioux tribesman, "Surrounded By the Enemy", died here from a bronchial infection at age twenty-two in 1887 during a tour of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show and was buried at Brompton Cemetery. In 1894, the Manchester Ship Canal was opened. Along the route of the canal, it was necessary to create an aqueduct carrying the Bridgewater Canal over the Ship Canal; the Barton Swing Aqueduct, designed by Sir Edward Leader Williams, is 100 metres long and weighs 1,450 metric tons. At the start of the 20th century, Salford began to decline due to competition from outside the UK. A survey in 1931 concluded. Salford was granted city status in 1926. During World War II, Salford Docks were bombed. In the decades following the Second World War there was a significant economic and population decline in Salford.
In 1961 a small part of Eccles was added to the city. On 1 April 1974, the City and County Borough of Salford was abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, was replaced by the metropolitan borough of City of Salford, one of ten local government districts in the new metropolitan county of Greater Manchester; the city status of the new district was confirmed by additional letters patent issued on the same day. Since the early 1990s, the decline has slowed. Prior to the metropolitan borough's creation, the name Salford for the new local government district courted controversy. Salford was "thought second-class by those in Eccles", who preferred the new name "Irwell" for the district. A councillor for the City and County Borough of Salford objected to this suggestion, stating this label was nothing but "a dirty stinking river"