Leiningen is the name of an old German noble family whose lands lay principally in Alsace and the Palatinate. Various branches of this family developed over the centuries and ruled counties with Imperial immediacy. Most of these counties were annexed by the First French Republic in 1793, after French troops conquered the Left Bank of the Rhine during the War of the First Coalition. Several family branches subsequently received secularized abbeys as compensation, but shortly afterwards, these new counties were mediatized and the family lost its immediacy. Today, the only existing branch is that of the Princes of Leiningen; the first count of Leiningen about whom anything definite is known was a certain Emich II. He built Leiningen Castle, now known as "Old Leiningen Castle", around 1100 to 1110. Nearby Höningen Abbey was built around 1120 as the family's burial place; this family became extinct in the male line when Count Frederick I died about 1220. Frederick I's sister, married Simon II, Count of Saarbrücken.
One of Liutgarde's sons named Frederick, inherited the lands of the counts of Leiningen, he took their arms and their name as Frederick II. He became known as a Minnesinger, one of his songs was included in the Codex Manesse. Before 1212, he built himself a new castle called Hardenburg, about 10 kilometers south of Altleiningen; this was outside the county of Leiningen on the territory of Limburg Abbey, of which his uncle was the overlord, which caused some trouble. His eldest son, married Gertrude, heiress of the County of Dagsburg, bringing that property into the family, they had no children and Simon's two brothers inherited the county of Leiningen together: Frederick III inherited Dagsburg and Emich IV Landeck Castle. Frederick III, who disliked sharing Leiningen castle with his brother, had a new castle built in 1238–41 about 5 kilometres northeast of Leiningen, called Neuleiningen Castle. Frederick III's son, Frederick IV, had two sons, who divided the county into Leiningen-Dagsburg and Leiningen-Hardenburg.
Having increased its possessions, the Leiningen family was divided around 1317 into two branches. The elder of these, whose head was a landgrave, died out in 1467. Upon this event, its lands fell to a female, the last landgrave's sister Margaret, wife of Reinhard, Lord of Westerburg, their descendants were known as the family of Leiningen-Westerburg; this family was divided into two branches, those of Leiningen-Westerburg-Alt-Leiningen and Leiningen-Westerburg-Neu-Leiningen, both of which are extinct today. After the French Revolution, the Left Bank of the Rhine was conquered during the War of the First Coalition and annexed by France in 1793; the two counts of Alt - and Neu - Leiningen were jailed in Paris. They lost their territories. In 1803 they were compensated with secularized Ilbenstadt Engelthal Abbey; the German mediatization brought an end to these short-lived counties in 1806, when their territories were divided between the Grand Duchy of Berg, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Usingen.
Ilbenstadt Abbey was sold by the House of Leiningen-Westerburg-Altleiningen in 1921, Engelthal Abbey by the heirs of the House of Leiningen-Westerburg-Neuleiningen in 1952. Meanwhile, the younger branch of the Leiningens, known as the family of Leiningen-Hardenburg, was flourishing. On 27 June 1560, this branch was divided into the lines of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg, founded by Count Johann Philip, Leiningen-Dagsburg-Heidesheim or Falkenburg, founded by Count Emicho. In 1658 Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg divided into Leiningen-Dagsburg Leiningen-Heidesheim Leiningen-Guntersblum The county of Leiningen-Dagsburg was inherited by Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg in 1774. Leiningen-Guntersblum was divided between two further side branches: Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg-Guntersblum, deprived of its lands on the left bank of the Rhine by France, but in 1803 received Billigheim as a compensation called Leiningen-Billigheim. In 1845 they acquired Neuburg Castle at Obrigheim; the branch became extinct in 1925.
Leiningen-Heidesheim, which in 1803 received Neudenau and became known as Leiningen-Neudenau. In 1779, the head of the Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg line was raised to the rank of a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire with the title of Prince of Leiningen. In 1801, this line was deprived of its lands on the left bank of the Rhine by France, but in 1803 it received Amorbach Abbey as an ample compensation for these losses. A few years the Principality of Leiningen at Amorbach was mediatized, its territory is now included in Baden, but in Bavaria and in Hesse. Amorbach Abbey is still today the family seat of the Prince of Leiningen; the second prince of the Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg line, Prince Emich Charles, married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After his death in 1814, the princess married Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, a younger son of George III of the United Kingdom, by whom she became the mother of the reigning British Queen Victoria. Since 1991, the head of the princely line has been Prince Andreas.
His eldest brother, Prince Karl Emich was excluded from succession. Note that different sources use different sequence numbers for some of the Counts. For consistency across sources, dates of birth and death are useful. Emicho of Leiningen helped lead the German Crusade, 1096, his relationship to the o
Barony of Westerburg
The Barony of Westerburg, a small principality around the present day town of Westerburg in the Westerwald mountains of Germany, is first recorded in 1209. The eponymous castle, built earlier than, is mentioned for the first time in 1192, was the family seat of the lords of Westerburg, a branch of the lords of Runkel; the lords of Westerburg go back to the House of Runkel, which had its main seat at Runkel Castle on the River Lahn. After this older branch died out, the lords of Westerburg inherited most of the estate rights of their Runkel cousins; the House of Runkel is first mentioned in a deed dated 1 April 1159. At that time a Siegfried of Runkel was a witness, when the lords of Laurenburg the House of Nassau, were given Nassau Castle as a fief, it is possible that at that time, the main territorial estate of the House of Runkel was in the region of Westerburg. This is evinced by the fact that Runkel Castle had only a small estate in its immediate vicinity. Through his marriage to a countess from the House of Leiningen, Siegfried III of Runkel acquired both Westerburg as well as the Vogtei over Stift St. Severus in Gemünden and called himself henceforth Siegfried of Runkel and of Westerburg.
Two of his sons inherited: Siegfried IV of Runkel, who resided in Westerburg, Dietrich I of Runkel, who lived in Runkel. By around 1250 family disputes arose that, under Siegfried' grandchildren led to the separation of the baronies of Runkel and Westerburg, at the latest in 1288. Dietrich's son, Siegfried V of Runkel, threatened his cousin, Henry from Runkel, the latter, a son of Siegfried IV, called himself henceforth, Henry II of Westerburg, he underlined the enmity by building the Schadeck Castle, first recorded in 1288, on the north bank of the Lahn opposite Runkel. Through his marriage to Agnes, daughter of Gerhard of Limburg, Henry came into the possession of the Barony of Schaumburg and one sixth of the Barony of Cleeburg. After Henry of Westerburg, seven generations of direct descendants followed him as lords of Westerburg: Siegfried of Westerburg Reinhard I of Westerburg John I of Westerburg Reinhard II of Westerburg Reinhard III of Westerburg Cuno I of Westerburg Reinhard IV, from 1475 Reinhard I of Leiningen-WesterburgLike the other small principalities between the rivers Rhine and Sieg, the Barony was under pressure from the Prince-Archbishopric of Trier and the expansive counts of Nassau, the House of Westerburg thus sought to protect itself by marrying into the other noble families of the area.
For example, they married into the houses of Isenburg Limburg, Merenberg, Virneburg, Wied, Diez, Weilnau and Nassau-Wiesbaden. On the death of Count Hesso of Leiningen-Dagsburg on 8 March 1467, the male line of this branch of the Leiningen counts died out, his sister, married to Reinhard III of Westerburg, inherited the greater part of the estate of this older main line of the House of Leiningen, the Westerburg family were called Leiningen-Westerburg. When Countess Margareta died in 1470, her entire Westerburg and Leiningen estate fell to her grandson Reinhard IV who, with the imperial permission, named himself Count Reinhard I of Leiningen-Westerburg from 1475 onwards and moved his seat to the County of Leiningen, his son Cuno III. Had three sons who founded the three lines of the family, it was not until 1557 that Westerburg was once again the seat of secondary lines of the House of Leiningen, divided. Under Reinhard's grandsons, the three branches of Leiningen-Leiningen, Leiningen-Westerburg and Leiningen-Schaumburg were established.
Reinhard II of Leiningen-Westerburg resided in Westerburg from 1557 onwards, but the Leiningen-Westerburg line ended in 1597 with the death of his sons Albert Philip and John Louis. It was inherited by the Leiningen-Schaumburg line, which continued to branch from 1695 and from which two secondary lines still exist today, Leiningen-Westerburg-Altleiningen and Leiningen-Westerburg-Neuleiningen. In 1806, in the wake of the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine under Napoleon, Westerburg was added to the Grand Duchy of Berg, but by 1813/1815 it had passed to the Duchy of Nassau and in 1866, with annexation of Nassau, it went to Prussia. Since 1946, the area of the former Westerburg principality has belonged to the state of Rhineland-Palatinate; the heraldic achievement of the Westerburgs comprises a gold cross on a red field, studded with 20 gold crosslets. On the helmet with its red and gold mantling a red or black vol, embellished with a red disc with a gold perimeter and a gold cross, studded with 5 golden crosslets.
Siegfried of Westerburg, 1275–1297 Archbishop of Cologne Sante, Wilhelm: Geschichte der Deutschen Länder - Territorien-Ploetz. Wurzburg, 1964. Köbler, Gerhard: Historisches Lexikon der Deutschen Länder. Munich, 1988. History of the County of Westerburg-Leiningen, with map Genealogy of the House of Runkel Genealogy of the House of Leiningen-Westerburg Genealogy of the House of Leiningen-Westerburg-Schaumburg and Neuleiningen Website of Runkel Castle
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476; the title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. In various languages the Holy Roman Empire was known as: Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero, Czech: Svatá říše římská, Polish: Święte imperium rzymskie, Slovene: Sveto rimsko cesarstvo, Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk, French: Saint-Empire romain. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in 1474. The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. This, or the shortened "Roman Empire of the German Nation", is used in Germany to refer to the Holy Roman Empire. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress; as the Church regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope
Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate is located in western Germany covering an area of 19,846 km2 and a population of 4.05 million inhabitants, the seventh-most populous German state. Mainz is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Trier and Worms. Rhineland-Palatinate is surrounded by the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, it borders three foreign countries: France and Belgium. Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after World War II from territory of the separate regions of the Free State of Prussia, People's State of Hesse, Bavaria, by the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until it was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate has since developed its own identity built on its natural and cultural heritage, including the extensive Palatinate winegrowing region, its picturesque landscapes, many castles and palaces.
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the Second World War on 30 August 1946. It was formed from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province, from Rhenish Hesse, from the western part of Nassau and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of Saarpfalz; the Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed by the rivers Moselle and Our, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland; the present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke of Koblenz and Trier of the old Prussian Rhine Province, those parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse west of the River Rhine and belonging to the People's State of Hesse, parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld. On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French.
To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums", Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Palatinate. The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig. It was called Rhenish-Palatinate; the provisional French government at that time wanted to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate. When the Americans and British, had led the way with the establishment of German federal states, the French came under increasing pressure and followed their example by setting up the states of Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was named as the state capital in the regulation. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz.
On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly took place there, a draft constitution was drawn up. Local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government. Adolf Süsterhenn submitted a draft constitution to the Advisory State Assembly, passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote with the absolute majority of the CDU voting for and the SPD and KPD voting against it. One of the reasons for this was that the draft constitution made provision for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947, the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate was adopted by 53% of the electorate in a referendum. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, it was rejected by the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate. On the same date, the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month Peter Altmeier succeeded him; the constitutional bodies, the Government, the Parliament and the Constitutional Court, established their provisional sea