Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin; the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William, known as "The Great Elector". Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great, the third son of Frederick William I. Frederick the Great was instrumental in starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia and Sweden and establishing Prussia's role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power.
After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a major power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles, many wars; because of its power, Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule, although whether Austria would be included in such a unified German domain was an ongoing question. After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of more unifying the many German states caused revolution throughout the German states, with each wanting their own constitution. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states and Austria; the North German Confederation, which lasted from 1867 to 1871, created a closer union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent. The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were used in the German Empire.
The German Empire lasted from 1871 to 1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony, this was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, with the victory came an overwhelming wave of nationalism which changed the opinions of some of those, against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor of the unified German Reich and as such a direct ancestor of today's Federal Republic of Germany; the formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the fiat of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the Free State of Prussia, which followed the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I, was a major democratic force in Weimar Germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the Preußenschlag.
The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. In 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. After the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states, including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia; the towns were poverty stricken, with the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade. Poverty in these towns was caused by Prussia's neighbours, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns could not compete; these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these towns gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west, allowed the urban middle class of Brandenburg to prosper.
It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, as it faced two dangers that the other German territories did not, partition from within and the threat of invasion by its neighbours. It prevented partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea, which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories; the second issue was resolved through expansion. Brandenburg was surrounded on every side by neighbours whose boundaries were political. Any neighbour could consume Brandenburg at any moment; the only way to defend herself was to absorb her neighbours. Through negotiations and marriages Brandenburg but expanded her borders, absorbing neighbours and eliminating the threat of attack; the Hohenzollerns were made rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1518. In 1529 the Hohenzollerns secured the reversion of the Duchy of Pomerania after a series of conflicts, acquired its eastern part following the Peace of Westphalia. In 1618 the Hohenzollerns inherited the Duchy of Prussia, since 1511 ruled by Hohenzollern Albrecht of Brandenburg Prussia, who in 1525 converted the Teutonic Order ruled state to a Protestant Duchy by accepting fiefdom of the crown of Poland.
It was ruled in a personal union with Brandenburg
Strehla is a small town in the district of Meißen, Germany. It is located on the river Elbe, north of Riesa; this place name means arrow in Sorbian. Strehla includes the following subdivisions: Forberge Görzig/Trebnitz Großrügeln Lößnig Oppitzsch Paußnitz Unterreußen Strehla was first mentioned in 1002, when its castle was set on fire by Polish King Boleslaw I, on his way back to Poland from a meeting with German King Henry. During this war, Strehla went forth between Polish and German rule, it is situated on the Via Regia Lusatiae Superioris. The castle of Strehla belonged to the Pflugk family from the 14th century until 1945; the Battle of Strehla between Austria and Prussia took place around the town during the Seven Years' War. Strehla is regarded as the point towards the end of World War II where troops of the Western Allies heading East first encountered Soviet troops heading West, at 11:30am on April 25, 1945, when Lieutenant Albert Kotzebue of the 69th Infantry Division encountered a Russian on horseback at nearby Leckwitz identified as a trooper of a Soviet Guards rifle regiment.
The encounter on the same day at 4:40 p.m. in Torgau, about twenty miles to the north, would go into history books as the official link-up. Theodor Schreiber, professor of archeology in Leipzig Werner Unger, soccer player Maximilian Arnold, soccer player
The Maschinenbauanstalt Übigau was a German engineering firm based in the present-day district of Übigau in the city of Dresden, Germany. In 1836 an engineering establishment was set up directly south of Übigau House by high school professor, Andreas Schubert, which in 1837 built the first Saxon passenger steamship, the Königin Maria as well as the first German-built locomotive, the Saxonia; the production of locomotives was stopped in 1840 after a second unit Phoenix, however the production of steam boilers continued. In 1863 the Schlick'sche shipyard emerged here, a company that from 1877 as Kette A. G. became the most important German inland shipyard for barges and passenger ships. In 1892 it was joined by the shipbuilding research department of TU Dresden and by 1920 the Dresdner Maschinenfabrik und Schiffswerft Übigau had 1,500 employees. Apart from ships it made boilers, large engines and dredgers. By 1930, when it had to close for 5 years as a result of the worldwide economic crisis, it had delivered 1,400 ships from its slipways to places as far away as Africa and South America.
In 1945 the firm was destroyed. The yard had its own shipping berth with cargo ships. Übigau Shipyard 1863-2001, photos and passenger steamer Dresden in 1926 There is an English-language German railway forum at Railways of Germany
Kingdom of Saxony
The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany. The kingdom was formed from the Electorate of Saxony. From 1871 it was part of the German Empire, it became a Free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War I and the abdication of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony. Its capital was the city of Dresden, its modern successor state is the Free State of Saxony. Before 1806, Saxony was part of the Holy Roman Empire, a thousand-year-old entity that had become decentralised over the centuries; the rulers of the Electorate of Saxony of the House of Wettin had held the title of elector for several centuries. When the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in August 1806 following the defeat of Emperor Francis II by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, the electorate was raised to the status of an independent kingdom with the support of the First French Empire the dominant power in Central Europe.
The last elector of Saxony became King Frederick Augustus I. Following the defeat of Saxony's ally Prussia at the Battle of Jena in 1806, Saxony joined the Confederation of the Rhine, remained within the Confederation until its dissolution in 1813 with Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Leipzig. Following the battle, in which Saxony — alone of all the German states — had fought alongside the French. King Frederick Augustus I was deserted by his troops, taken prisoner by the Prussians and considered to have forfeited his throne by the allies, who put Saxony under Prussian occupation and administration; this was more due to the Prussian desire to annex Saxony than to any crime on Frederick Augustus's part, the fate of Saxony would prove to be one of the main issues at the Congress of Vienna. In the end, 40% of the Kingdom, including the significant Wittenberg, home of the Protestant Reformation, was annexed by Prussia, but Frederick Augustus was restored to the throne in the remainder of his kingdom, which still included the major cities of Dresden and Leipzig.
The Kingdom joined the German Confederation, the new organization of the German states to replace the fallen Holy Roman Empire. During the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, Saxony sided with Austria, the Saxon army was seen as the only ally to bring substantial aid to the Austrian cause, having abandoned the defense of Saxony itself to join up with the Austrian army in Bohemia; this effectiveness allowed Saxony to escape the fate of other north German states allied with Austria — notably the Kingdom of Hanover — which were annexed by Prussia after the war. The Austrians and French insisted as a point of honour that Saxony must be spared, the Prussians acquiesced. Saxony joined the Prussian-led North German Confederation the next year. With Prussia's victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, the members of the Confederation were organised by Otto von Bismarck into the German Empire, with WIlliam I as its emperor. John, as Saxony's incumbent king, was subordinate and owed allegiance to the Emperor, although he, like the other German princes, retained some of the prerogatives of a sovereign ruler, including the ability to enter into diplomatic relations with other states.
Wilhelm I's grandson Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated in 1918 as a result of Germany's defeat in World War I. King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony followed him into abdication and the erstwhile Kingdom of Saxony became the Free State of Saxony within the newly formed Weimar Republic; the 1831 Constitution of Saxony established the state as a parliamentary monarchy. The king was named as head of the nation, he was required to follow the provisions of the constitution, could not become the ruler of any other state without the consent of the Diet, or parliament. The crown was hereditary in the male line of the royal family through agnatic primogeniture, though provisions existed allowing a female line to inherit in the absence of qualified male heirs. Added provisions concerned the formation of a regency if the king was too young or otherwise unable to rule, as well as provisions concerning the crown prince's education. Any acts or decrees signed or issued by the king had to be countersigned by at least one of his ministers, who thus took responsibility for them.
Without the ministerial countersignature, no act of the king was to be considered valid. The king was given the right to declare any accused person innocent, or alternately to mitigate or suspend their punishment or pardon them, he was given supreme power over religious matters in Saxony. He appointed the president of the upper house of the Diet, together with a proxy from among three candidates suggested by that house, appointed the president and proxy of the lower house, as well; the king was given sole power to promulgate laws, to carry them into effect, only by his consent could any proposal for a law be advanced in the Diet. He had authority to issue emergency decrees and to issue non-emergency laws that he found needful or "advantageous," though such instruments required the counter-signature of at least one of his ministers, had to be presented to the next Diet for approval, he could not, change the constitution itself or the electoral laws in this manner. He was permitted to veto laws passed by the Diet, or to send them back with proposed amendments for reconsideration.
He was permitted to issue extraordinary decrees to obtain money for state expenditures refused by the Diet, through the
Machern is a municipality in the Leipzig district in Saxony, Germany. It is in the vicinity of the city of Leipzig. Machern lies 20 km east of Leipzig, about 10 km west of Wurzen over the Mulda river; the Leipzig-Riesa-Dresden railway line runs through the town, as does the B 6. Machern is 12 km south of Eilenburg, which can be reached with the B 107; the divisions of the municipality are Machern, Gerichshain with Posthausen, Püchau with Dögnitz, Lübschütz und Plagwitz. There is a museum located in an old Stasi bunker about 3 km north of Machern; the bunker was designed as a refuge for Stasi employees from Leipzig in the event of nuclear war or similar catastrophe. Machern castle was a manor house of the local nobility. Adjacent to the castle there is an English-style landscape park which dates back to the 18th century. Another manor house is located at Püchau, a independent village, now administered by Machern. Püchau Estate is notable for its English Tudor Revival Style, it is still owned and hosts cultural events.
There is a golf course located north of the village center
Oschatz is a town in the district Nordsachsen, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It is located 60 km east of 60 km west of Dresden. Oschatz lies in the Saxon Lowland and is located on the river Döllnitz, which joins the river Elbe as a left tributary 15 km away near Riesa. Oschatz is situated near the forested regions of the Dahlener Heath as well as the Wermsdorf Forest and the Collmberg. Neighboring districts include: Liebschützberg, Riesa, Naundorf and Dahlen; the average air temperature in Oschatz is 8.6 °C, the annual rainfall is about 570 millimeters
Riesa is a town in the district of Meißen in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It is located on the Elbe River 40 kilometres northwest of Dresden; the name Riesa is derived from Slavic Riezowe. This name, romanised as "Rezoa", appears first in October 1119 in a document from Pope Callixtus II; the world's first 110 kV power line was installed between Riesa and Lauchhammer in 1912. Between 1952 and 1994, Riesa was the seat of a district. During the 1980s, Riesa was the headquarters of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany's 9th Tank Division; the city grew from the start of the 20th century due to industrialisation. The population declined after German Reunification in 1989; the local steel works shut and the population fell from 52,000 to 31,000. Adolph von Carlowitz, Saxon officer, general of the infantry and war minister Dieter Noll, writer Jürgen Schmieder, politician Monika Zehrt, athlete Heiko Peschke, footballer Johannes Müller Ulf Kirsten, footballer Rüdiger Heinze, film producer and screenwriter Rolf Moebius, actor Walter Fritzsch, soccer coach Wolfgang Lischke, former footballer Peter Kotte, former footballer Harald Czudaj and entrepreneur Ralf Hauptmann, soccer player Riesa has a 25 m tall, 234 tonne, cast-iron sculpture of an oak trunk, named Elbquelle, which means source of the Elbe, by Jörg Immendorff, erected in 1999.
Local folk call the sculpture by many other names, most notably "Rostige Eiche", which means "rusty oak". In the city of Riesa there are two famous churches; the minster St. Marien was built in 1261 as an addition to the Benedictine Abbey; the Trinitatis Church was completed in 1897. Riesa is known locally for the SACHSENarena, a large hall which hosted the European Sumo Wrestling Championship in October 2003 and the World Sumo Wrestling Championship in October 2004. Riesa is well known locally for its pasta, produced at Teigwaren Riesa GmbH. Another symbol of Riesa are the Riesaer Zündhölzer, the matches which were traditionally manufactured there. Famous is the steel production in Riesa. Notable people from Riesa include the former footballer Ulf Kirsten. Riesa has BSG Stahl Riesa; the club's crest is white, as are the club colours. They play now in the Landesliga Sachsen. Riesa is twinned with: Mannheim, Germany Sandy, Utah Rotherham, Great Britain Lonato del Garda, Italy Suzhou, China Villerupt, France Głogów, Poland Riesa railway station is located north of the town's centre, it offers both regional and long-distance services.
Riesa is located on Bundesstraße 169, which ensures access to federal motorways A 14 and A 13. Riesa tourism site Official Web site Official Web site of Stahl Riesa Footballclub Texts on Wikisource: "Riesa". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Riesa". New International Encyclopedia. 1905