Constitution Street is a thoroughfare in Leith, Scotland. It runs north from the junction of Great Junction Street and Duke Street to Leith docks; the street takes its name from Constitution Hill, which stood on the site of the current Assembly Rooms. The road was only completed in 1800, at that time being built as a bypass from Bernard Street to Leith Walk, avoiding the crowded and twisting medieval streets of old Leith; the street at that time was causewayed. Buildings which predate this now have their original fine ground floor rooms buried at basement level. Constitution Street was to form part of the Edinburgh Trams network and much preparatory work was carried out but the Leith section of the project has been postponed with no date given for completion. On 9 January 1823 the last two men executed for piracy in Scotland were hanged at the north end of the street; the two men were Peter Heaman from Francois Gautiez from France. They were found guilty in the summer of 1822 of capturing the brig "Jane", en route from Gibraltar to Brazil, killing its master and stealing 38,000 Spanish dollars.
The crowd witnessing this event was given as a huge 40 to 50,000 persons. One account says. A second account says. Two bodies were discovered during an archaeological dig at the north end of the street in the correct area in the summer of 2000 validating the latter claim. South of Bernard Street, the most notable building is the classical Assembly Rooms, the former Leith Exchange building. Leith Police Station, built as Leith Town Hall in 1827 by R & R Dickson. Still contains the Victorian debating chamber of 1864. Church of St. James was designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, built in 1862. Thee stone spire was truncated in 1977; the churchyard belongs to South Leith Parish Church The churchyard was only used for burial from the mid 17th century, earlier interments being inside the church, beneath the parishioners usual seating position. The churchyard is split into trades: maltmen. In 2009, an excavation linked to the construction of Edinburgh Trams unearthed several bodies just outside the churchyard wall.
Grant, James A. Cassell's Old and New Edinburgh: Its History, its people and its places. VI. London: Cassell & Company
William Allan of Glen
William Allan of Glen JP was a 19th century Scottish merchant who served as Lord Provost of Edinburgh from 1829 to 1831. He was born on 20 August 1788 at Hillside House in Edinburgh, the son of Alexander Allan, a banker, his wife Ann Losh, his father had purchased the Hillside estate, which included most of Calton Hill and the lands to the north, in 1785 from James Grant or John Plenderleith for £10,500. He had a townhouse at 20 Charlotte Square and owned the huge 3500 acre Glen estate at Innerleithen. Hillside House stood east of Gayfield Square at the head of Leith Walk where Elm Row and Hillside street now stand, his father's bank was at 126 High Street on the Royal Mile. He was baptised on 23 August at St Cuthbert's Church, Edinburgh by Rev William Moodie, he was admitted into the trades incorporation as a guild brother in 1817 and made a burgess of the town at the same time. In 1820 he was living at 76 Queen Street, close to his father's townhouse at Charlotte Square. In 1821 he commissioned William Henry Playfair to design a large extension to the New Town on the Hillside and Calton Hill lands.
This included custom-designed houses for himself at 11 Hillside Crescent and his brothers Thomas at 4 Hillside Crescent and Alexander Allan at 5 Hillside Crescent. The scheme began on the ground in 1823. In 1826 he commissioned Playfair to remodel the huge Glen House at Innerleithen. However, this proved a financial disaster and he was forced to sell the complete mansion to Charles Tennant for £33,000 who had funds enough to complete the work, but employing David Bryce to complete the scheme. In 1829 he succeeded Walter Brown as Lord Provost of Edinburgh, he was succeeded in turn in 1831 by John Learmonth of Dean. The significant events/decisions during his term of office were the building of George IV Bridge and Dean Bridge and the macadamisation of The Mound. In the 1850s he was trying to live within his means at Boulogne having not only sold the Glen estate but his Edinburgh properties, he retired to 7 Chichester Terrace in Brighton. He was buried there in the Overdean Cemetery, his parents were painted with his niece Matilda by Sir Henry Raeburn.
His parents are buried in the family vault at Old Calton Burial Ground in central Edinburgh. William was a member of the Royal Company of Archers, the King's official bodyguard in Scotland, a member of the Pitt Club, he was cousin to Thomas Allan whose descendants included Robert George Allan. In 1829 he married widow of Richard Wormald, they do not appear to have had any children
Edinburgh Trams is a tramway in Edinburgh, operated by Transport for Edinburgh. It is a 14-kilometre line between York Place in Edinburgh Airport, with 16 stops. Construction began in June 2008, after encountering delays it opened on 31 May 2014; the scheme had an initial estimated cost of £375 million in 2003, but by May 2008, when contracts were signed, the cost had risen to £521 million. The final cost after delays was £776 million. After running for two years the scheme achieved pre-tax profitability and has exceeded the original ridership targets. On 14 March 2019, Edinburgh Council voted to approve the extension of the existing line from York Place to Newhaven; the extended line is due to be operational by early 2023. Edinburgh Corporation Tramways ran from 1871 until 16 November 1956. After that date, public transport consisted of a limited network of commuter rail lines. Towards the end of the 20th century, there was revived interest in trams and networks were introduced in Birmingham, Manchester and Sheffield.
Proposals for a tram network were made in the 1990s, a plan to build a line along Princes Street and Leith Walk to Newhaven was proposed in 1999 by the City of Edinburgh Council and Edinburgh Enterprise and the New Edinburgh Tramways Company. A 2001 proposal envisaged three routes, lines 1, 2 and 3; the first was a circular route around the northern suburbs, the others were radial routes to Newbridge in the west and Newcraighall in the south. All lines would have passed through the city centre. In May 2004, a 15-year operating contract was awarded to Transdev, to operate and maintain the tram network; this contract was cancelled in 2009. Two bills to reintroduce a tram network were passed by the Scottish Parliament in March 2006. Lines 1 and 2 received parliamentary permission, but funding the entire network was deemed impossible. Line 3, to be paid for by a proposed Edinburgh congestion charge, was scrapped when the charge was defeated in a referendum and construction of the remaining two lines was split into four phases: Phase 1a 18.5-kilometre from Newhaven to Edinburgh Airport via Princes Street, combining parts of lines 1 and 2 Phase 1b 5.6-kilometre from Haymarket to Granton Square via Crewe Toll, comprising most of the remainder of line 1 Phase 2 linking Granton Square and Newhaven, completing the line 1 loop Phase 3 extending the airport line to Newbridge, completing line 2 The future of the scheme came under threat in 2007, when the Scottish National Party published its manifesto for the Scottish Parliamentary election.
The party made clear its intention to cancel the scheme, along with the Edinburgh Airport Rail Link, to save £1.1 billion. Following a lost vote in the Scottish Parliament, the SNP-led minority Scottish Government agreed to continue the line from the airport to Leith on condition that no more public money would be supplied. A report by Audit Scotland, commissioned by the Scottish Government, confirmed that the cost projections were sound; the cost of the scheme in 2003 was estimated at £498 million, £375 million in funding from the Scottish Government and £45 million from Edinburgh Council. On 25 October 2007, the council approved the final business case. Approval was given on 22 December 2007 for TIE to sign contracts with CAF to supply vehicles and BBS to design and construct the network. Contract negotiations finished in April 2008, construction started in June 2008. By this stage the cost of the project was estimated at £521 million. Funding problems and political disputes led to the scaling back of the original plans.
In April 2009, the council cancelled phase 1b, citing revenue shortfall created by the economic slowdown to save an estimated £75 million. The Granton extension was cancelled; until August 2011, the project was overseen by Transport Initiatives Edinburgh, a company wholly owned by the City of Edinburgh Council, who were responsible for project-managing the construction of the tramway. After the draft business case was accepted by the Scottish Government in March 2007, initial construction work commenced in July 2007, with the diversion of underground utilities in preparation for track-laying in Leith; these works followed a plan by System Design Services, a joint design team led by Parsons Brinckerhoff and Halcrow Group. In May 2008, final contracts to build the tram system were awarded to BSC, a consortium of Bilfinger Berger and Spanish tram builder Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles; the tramway uses a mix of street running and segregated off-road track, with conventional tram stop platforms.
Stops are fitted with shelters, ticket machines, lighting and CCTV. The network is operated from a depot in Gogar, close to the A8 roundabout, north of Gyle Centre tram stop; the route of the line required the construction of bridges to cross railway lines at Edinburgh Park and Stenhouse, a tunnel under the A8 near the Gogar roundabout. A bridge at Balgreen was widened. Works to build a tram interchange at Haymarket station involved the demolition of a Category C listed building, the former Caledonian Alehouse on Haymarket Terrace; some on-street track was laid in a special foundation with cobbled road surfacing designed to be sympathetic with the style of Edinburgh streets but was removed in many places due to objections from cyclists. The trams are powered by overhead cables attached to purpose-built poles or mounted on the sides of buildings. Nine electrical sub-stations were planned for the line to Newhaven, both underground and above-ground but only five were built after the line was truncated at York Place.
In 2008 and 2009, the project met with delays to work on tramway infrastructure. Phase 1b of the project was cancelled bec
McDonald Road Library
McDonald Road Library is one of 28 freely-accessible public libraries in Edinburgh, Scotland. The library opened in 1904 as the East Branch of the city's library service, it is located on the corner of McDonald Road and Leith Walk, is a category B listed building. At its opening the library held a stock of 11,498 volumes and recorded in excess of 190,000 issues per annum during its early years. Books were not directly accessible by the public for browsing until after 1922 when Edinburgh's library service switched to an "open access" approach to their collections. In the year the library opened the then-five public libraries serving the city issued 962,724 loans from stock; the building is one of the original five branch libraries and opened after Central Library, under the stewardship of Hew Morrison who served as Principal Librarian between 1887 and 1922. The fourth branch library constructed, McDonald Road was built with help from funding provided by the trustees of a bequest from publisher Thomas Nelson to provide "shelter halls" for the working men of the city.
By 1950, the stock of volumes held in the library had more than tripled: 33,963 in the main collection and 6,211 in the junior reading room. Issues from the stock were 57,557 respectively. With the city much expanded, being served by Central Library, thirteen branch libraries, other suburban and deposited libraries and hospital services, plus books for the blind, the city's community was provided with access to over 650,000 volumes and the combined issues from the service totalled over four million lendings; as with all public libraries in Edinburgh, adult collections are organised using the Library of Congress Classification system. Since Wigan dropped the system during a 1974 local government reorganisation, Edinburgh is the only municipality in the UK continuing to use it. Children's books are organised under the more-widespread Dewey Decimal Classification scheme. McDonald Road branch is open to the public six days a week, it is on nine bus routes, offers free Wi-Fi, public computer access, a business hub, "Bookbug" sessions for pre-school children, five book/reading groups, a children's craft drop-in and some local councillors' surgeries.
Armstrong, Norma. Lum hats in paradise: Edinburgh City Libraries, 1890–1990. Edinburgh: Edinburgh City Libraries. Edinburgh Public Libraries 1890–1950: A Handbook and History of Sixty Years Progress. Edinburgh Public Libraries Committee. 1951. Historic Environment Scotland. "2 Mcdonald Road Library including Nelson Hall ". Retrieved 18 March 2019. City of Edinburgh Council page for the library McDonald Road Library - Facebook page Media related to McDonald Road Library at Wikimedia Commons
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting as head of state and head of government of the new republic. Cromwell was born into the middle gentry to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life, as only four of his personal letters survive along with a summary of a speech that he delivered in 1628, he became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, taking a tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of his period. He was an intensely religious man, a self-styled Puritan Moses, he fervently believed that God was guiding his victories, he was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short and Long Parliaments. He entered the English Civil Wars on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians, nicknamed "Old Ironsides".
He demonstrated his ability as a commander and was promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to being one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role under General Sir Thomas Fairfax in the defeat of the Royalist 11th forces. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England as a member of the Rump Parliament, he was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period, a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics, a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651. On 20 April 1653, he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as Barebone's Parliament before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England and Ireland from 16 December 1653.
As a ruler, he executed an effective foreign policy. He was buried in Westminster Abbey; the Royalists returned to power along with King Charles II in 1660, they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, beheaded. Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Sharp, a military dictator by Winston Churchill, a hero of liberty by John Milton, Thomas Carlyle, Samuel Rawson Gardiner, a revolutionary bourgeois by Leon Trotsky, his tolerance of Protestant sects did not extend to Catholics. He was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll. Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Elizabeth Steward; the family's estate derived from Oliver's great-grandfather Morgan ap William, a brewer from Glamorgan who settled at Putney in London, married Katherine Cromwell, the sister of Thomas Cromwell, the famous chief minister to Henry VIII. The Cromwell family acquired great wealth as occasional beneficiaries of Thomas's administration of the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Morgan ap William was a son of William ap Yevan of Wales. The family line continued through Richard Williams, Henry Williams to Oliver's father Robert Williams, alias Cromwell, who married Elizabeth Steward in 1591, they had ten children. Cromwell's paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire. Cromwell's father Robert was of modest means but still a member of the landed gentry; as a younger son with many siblings, Robert inherited only a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes. Cromwell himself in 1654 said, "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity". Cromwell was baptised on 29 April 1599 at St John's Church, attended Huntingdon Grammar School, he went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge a founded college with a strong Puritan ethos. He left in June 1617 without taking a degree after his father's death.
Early biographers claim that he attended Lincoln's Inn, but the Inn's archives retain no record of him. Antonia Fraser concludes that it was that he did train at one of the London Inns of Court during this time, his grandfather, his father, two of his uncles had attended Lincoln's Inn, Cromwell sent his son Richard there in 1647. Cromwell returned home to Huntingdon after his father's death; as his mother was widowed, his seven sisters unmarried, he would have been needed at home to help his family. On 22 August 1620 at St Giles-without-Cripplegate, Fore Street, Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier. Elizabeth's father, Sir James Bourchier, was a London leather merchant who owned extensive lands in Essex and had strong connections with Puritan gentry families there; the marriage brought Cromwell into contact with Oliver St John and with leading members of the London merchant community, behin
Calton Hill is a hill in central Edinburgh, situated beyond the east end of Princes Street and included in the city's UNESCO World Heritage Site. Views of, from, the hill are used in photographs and paintings of the city. Calton Hill is the headquarters of the Scottish Government, based at St Andrew's House, on the steep southern slope of the hill; the Scottish Parliament Building and other notable buildings such as Holyrood Palace lie near the foot of the hill. Calton Hill is the location of several iconic monuments and buildings: the National Monument, the Nelson Monument, the Dugald Stewart Monument, the old Royal High School, the Robert Burns Monument, the Political Martyrs' Monument and the City Observatory. In 1456, James II granted land to Edinburgh by charter wherein Calton Hill is referred to as "Cragingalt", the name by which it appears on the 1560 Petworth map of the Siege of Leith; the name may have derived from Old Welsh or Old English meaning "the place of the groves". The records of South Leith Parish Church name "Caldtoun" as one of the quarters of the parish in 1591, though the village and area are otherwise referred to as "Craigend", signifying the main land form at the western end of the feudal barony of Restalrig, as opposed to the distinguishing feature at its eastern end, a loch, hence the name Lochend.
The name "Caldtoun" remained general until about 1700. The Armstrongs' map of the Three Lothians still uses the name "Caldtoun" and Ainslie's maps of Edinburgh record a change in spelling from Caltoun to Calton between 1780 and 1804 There was a prehistoric hillfort on Calton Hill and an area used for quarrying. By his charter of 1456, James II granted the community of Edinburgh the valley and the low ground between Calton Hill and Greenside for performing tournaments and other warlike deeds; this was part of his policy of military preparedness that saw the Act of 1457 banning golf and football and ordering archery practice every Sunday. This natural amphitheatre was used for open-air theatre and saw performances of the early Scots play "Ane Pleasant Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis" by Sir David Lyndsay. In May 1518 the Carmelite Friars, were granted lands by charter from the city at Greenside and built a small monastery there. Monasteries were abandoned following the Scottish Reformation of 1560, the Calton Hill monastery therefore stood empty before conversion in 1591 into a hospital for lepers, founded by John Robertson, a city merchant.
So severe were the regulations that escape, or the opening of the gate of the hospital between sunset and sunrise, would incur the penalty of death carried out on the gallows erected at the gate. The monastery would appear to have been located at the north-east end of Greenside Row and its site is shown there on the 1931 Ordnance Survey maps. Ten skeletons found in July 2009 during roadworks to create a new tramway in Leith Walk are believed to have been connected with the hospital; the Calton area was owned by the Logan family of Restalrig but their lands were forfeited in 1609 following the posthumous sentence of treason on Robert Logan. The lands of Restalrig and Calton, otherwise known as Easter and Wester Restalrig, passed to the Elphinstone family. Sir James Elphinstone was made Lord Balmerino in 1604 and in 1673 the lands of Restalrig and Calton were erected into a single barony. In 1725, the western side of Calton Hill was sold to the royal burgh of Edinburgh; the eastern end was owned by the charitable institution of Heriot's Trust.
Calton remained a burgh of barony until it was formally incorporated into Edinburgh by the Municipality Extension Act of 1856. In 1631, the Lord Balmerino granted a charter to The Society of the Incorporated Trades of Calton forming a society or corporation; this gave the Society the exclusive right to trade within Calton and the right to tax others who wished to do so. The trades of burghs were separately incorporated, for example in the Canongate there were eight incorporations, but the Incorporated Trades of Calton allowed any tradesman to become a member providing they were healthy and their work was of an acceptable standard; this lack of restrictive practices allowed a thriving trade to develop. The village of Calton was situated at the bottom of the ravine at the western end of Calton Hill, on the road from Leith Wynd in Edinburgh and North Back of Canongate to Leith Walk and to Broughton and thence the Western Road to Leith. In the village, the street was variously known as St. Ninian's Low Calton.
Many of the old buildings here were demolished at the time of the Waterloo Place and Regent Bridge development, which bridged the ravine, from 1816. The remaining old village houses of the Low Calton were removed in the 1970s. Calton was in South Leith Parish and Calton people went to church in Leith; the churchyard there was inconveniently situated for burials from Calton and, in 1718, the Society bought a half acre of land at a cost of £1013 from Lord Balmerino for use as a burial ground. This became known as Old Calton Burial Ground. Permission was granted for an access road known as High Calton and now the street called Calton Hill, up the steep hill from the village to the burial ground; the group of 1760s houses near the top of this street are all. In 1787, the artist Robert Barker, inspired by wal
New Town, Edinburgh
The New Town is a central area of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. A masterpiece of city planning, it was built in stages between 1767 and around 1850, retains much of its original neo-classical and Georgian period architecture, its best known street is Princes Street, facing Edinburgh Castle and the Old Town across the geographical depression of the former Nor Loch. Together with the Old Town, the New Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995; the idea of a New Town was first suggested in the late 17th century when the Duke of Albany and York, when resident Royal Commissioner at Holyrood, encouraged the idea of having an extended regality to the north of the city and a North Bridge. He gave the city a grant:That, when they should have occasion to enlarge their city by purchasing ground without the town, or to build bridges or arches for the accomplishing of the same, not only were the proprietors of such lands obliged to part with the same on reasonable terms, but when in possession thereof, they are to be erected into a regality in favour of the citizens.
It is possible that, with such patronage, the New Town may have been built many years earlier than it was but, in 1682, the Duke left the city and became King in 1685, only to lose the throne in 1688. The decision to construct a New Town was taken by the city fathers, after overcrowding inside the Old Town city walls reached breaking point and to prevent an exodus of wealthy citizens from the city to London; the Age of Enlightenment had arrived in Edinburgh, the outdated city fabric did not suit the professional and merchant classes who lived there. Lord Provost George Drummond succeeded in extending the boundary of the Royal Burgh to encompass the fields to the north of the Nor Loch, the polluted body of water which occupied the valley north of the city. A scheme to drain the Loch was put into action, although the process was not completed until 1817. Crossing points were built to access the new land; the Mound, as it is known today, reached its present proportions in the 1830s. As the successive stages of the New Town were developed, the rich moved northwards from cramped tenements in narrow closes into grand Georgian homes on wide roads.
However, the poor remained in the Old Town. A design competition was held in January 1766 to find a suitably modern layout for the new suburb, it was won by 26-year-old James Craig, following the natural contours of the land, proposed a simple axial grid, with a principal thoroughfare along the ridge linking two garden squares. Two other main roads were located south with two minor streets between. Several mews off the minor streets provided stable lanes for the large homes. Completing the grid are three north-south cross streets. Craig's original plan has not survived but it has been suggested that it is indicated on a map published by John Laurie in 1766; this map shows a diagonal layout with a central square reflecting a new era of civic Hanoverian British patriotism by echoing the design of the Union Flag. Both Princes Street and Queen Street are shown as double sided. A simpler revised design reflected the same spirit in the names of civic spaces; the principal street was named George Street, after the king at the time, George III.
Queen Street was to be located to the north, named after his wife, St. Giles Street to the south, after the city's patron saint. St Andrew Square and St. George's Square were the names chosen to represent the union of Scotland and England; the idea was continued with the smaller Thistle Street between George Street and Queen Street, Rose Street between George Street and Princes Street. King George rejected the name St. Giles Street, St Giles being the patron saint of lepers and the name of a slum area or'rookery' on the edge of the City of London, it was therefore renamed Princes Street after his sons. The name of St. George's Square was changed to Charlotte Square, after the Queen, to avoid confusion with the existing George Square on the South Side of the Old Town; the westernmost blocks of Thistle Street were renamed Hill Street and Young Street, making Thistle Street half the length of Rose Street. The three streets completing the grid, Castle and Hanover Streets, were named for the view of the castle, King George's father Frederick, the name of the royal family respectively.
Craig's proposals hit further problems. The exposed new site was unpopular, leading to a £20 premium being offered to the first builder on site; this was received by John Young who built Thistle Court, the first buildings in the New Town, at the east end of Thistle Street in 1767. Instead of building as a terrace as envisaged, he built a small courtyard. Doubts were overcome soon enough, further construction started in the east with St. Andrew Square. Craig had intended that the view along George Street be terminated by two large churches, situated at the outer edge of each square, on axis with George Street. Whilst the western church on Charlotte Square was built, at St Andrew Square the land behind the proposed church site was owned by Sir Lawrence Dundas, he commissioned a design from Sir William Chambers. The resulting Palladian mansion, known as Dundas House, was completed in 1774. In 1825 it was acquired by the Royal Bank of Scotland and today is the registered office of the bank.. The forecourt of the building, with the equestrian monument to John Hope, 4th Earl of Hopetoun, occupies the proposed church site.
St. Andrew's Church had to be built on a site on George St