Albé is a commune in the Bas Rhin département in Alsace in north-eastern France. It is located 2 km northeast of Villé, on the left bank of the river Giessen close to the valley of Erlenbach, from which it derives its name. To the North and West it is bounded by mountains leading to the communes of Breitenbach. To the East is the peak of Ungersberg. Numerous streams flow from this mounting and the buttresses of the Champ du Feu to the north, which merge to form the brook of the Erlenberg; this river flowed down the main street of the village, but has now been covered. The village is at 300 m altitude; until 1867 the village was known by its German name Erlenbach. The name Albé was formally adopted in 1919. Under Louis XIV it was awarded a coat of arms emblazoned "Azure, three chevrons Argent"; the Azure suggests the river and the three chevrons a narrow boxed valley. The village is first mentioned in 1303 as a possession of the Habsburg Empire. A growth in the population, as a result of an expansion in farming and forestry led to the demands by the abbot of Honcourt for the construction of a church, begun by 1342.
From the 13th to the 15th century, the area was occupied by various armies loyal to the German Emperor or the Pope. The nearby camp of Armagnacs, stationed in Châtenois, may have plundered Albé and other villages in the region. During the Easter of 1525, the peasantry of Albé took part in a revolt and the Abbeys of Honcourt and Baumgarten were destroyed; the revolt was crushed by troops from Lorraine on 20 May 1525, Albé was named by the Lord of Ensisheim as among those responsible for the sacking of the abbeys, liable for reprisal. Fire spread through the village in 1575 resulting in the destruction of the church; the town suffered again during the Thirty Years War. After attempting to resist Swedish troops, the town was laid waste. After the war, the town grew again and there was an influx of people from many different backgrounds, who brought with them their architectural traditions. A century of peace brought prosperity based again on viticulture, during the 18th century many grand lintel frame houses were built.
The French revolution brought a mixture of fear and hope, the town preserves a tree of freedom, a lime planted in 1795 in the village square. The church had been enlarged in 1752, by 1802 the village had a full-time vicar and obtained the status of parish. At the end of the 19th century the farmland was becoming exhausted and the spread of phylloxera gravely affected the town and the population shrank. Coal mines are operating in the village; the town is principally known for its wine, it is the only town in the valley to produce its own vin d'Alsace. The vineyards are on sunny slopes; the vineyards now cover about 15 hectares, this area is expected to increase as hillsides are improved for the purpose. Most of the grapes are processed locally; the forest surrounding the town is held in common, though some is managed for chestnuts and fuel. There is little industry in Albé, cottage industries such as weaving are not significant; however the production of brandy has taken place on a commercial scale.
The Maison du Val de Villé is a local museum, housed in the former mairie. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Achenheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department and Grand Est region of north-eastern France. The village, in the arrondissement of Strasbourg and the canton of Lingolsheim lies close to the Canal de la Bruche and to the departemental road connecting Soultz-les-Bains to Strasbourg; the oldest traces of human habitation in Alsace – tools used by Homo erectus in the Paleolithic era some 700,000 years ago – have been found in loess deposits at Achenheim. In 1264 the village was burnt down by forces from Strasbourg during the war between the city and its bishop, Walter de Geroldseck. Canal de la Bruche Bruche River Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ouvrage Four-à-Chaux is a gros ouvrage of the Maginot Line, located in the community of Lembach, France, in the Bas-Rhin département. Four à Chaux was adjoined by petit ouvrage Lembach and gros ouvrage Hochwald, faced the German frontier as part of the Fortified Sector of the Vosges. A "four à chaux" is a lime kiln in French, the ouvrage was located in the area of a limestone quarry and kiln, which operated until 1939. Four-à-Chaux was bombarded by the invading Germans in late June 1940 during the Battle of France with both aerial attacks and artillery bombardments. Four-à-Chaux survived to surrender at the end of the month. Block 1 was destroyed by the Germans before retreating in the face of American advances in 1945. During the 1950s Four-à-Chaux was renovated and reoccupied against a perceived threat from the Soviet Union, it fell out of use in the 1970s, is now operated as a museum. The site was surveyed by the Maginot Line's design and construction agency; the gros ouvrage was intended to receive a second 75mm gun turret in a second phase of construction, never pursued.
Due to its compact arrangement, Four-à-Chaux did not receive an electrified internal rail system. The fort features an artesian well. Four-à-Chaux is a position of medium importance on the Line, covering an area of 26 hectares, 4.5 km of subterranean galleries and six combat blocks. The ouvrage comprises eight blocks, with two entries; the significant change in level between the combat blocks and the ammunition entrance required an inclined gallery after the ammunition entrance. There is a 24-meter elevation difference between the ammunition entrance and the higher personnel entrance. In contrast to most gros ovrages in northeastern France, Four-à-Chaux's internal railway system was not electrified. A drainage gallery was built to function as an emergency exit from the area of the caserne. Block 1: Artillery block with two automatic rifle cloches and one 135mm retractable twin gun turret; the interior of the block was destroyed by the Germans during explosives effects testing. Block 2: Artillery block with one GFM cloche, one twin machine gun cloche and one 75mm retractable twin gun turret.
Block 3: Artillery block with one GFM cloche, one grenade launcher cloche and one 81mm retractable twin mortar turret. Block 4: Observation block with one GFM cloche, two JM cloches and one observation cloche. Block 5: Infantry block with one GFM cloche and one retractable twin machine gun turret. Block 6: Infantry block with one GFM cloche, one VDP cloche, one JM cloche, one twin machine gun embrasure and one machine gun /47mm anti-tank gun embrasure; the block was extensively renovated in the 1950s. Personnel entrance: one machine gun embrasure and one GFM cloche, as well as a false GFM cloche. Ammunition entrance: one JM/AC 47 anti-tank gun embrasure and two GFM cloches. A detached casemate is nearby: Casemate de Schmelzbach Ouest: Single block with one JM/AC47 embrasure, one twin machine gun embrasure and a GFM cloche; the 1940 manning of the ouvrage under the command of Commandant Exbrayat comprised 491 men and 19 officers of the 165th Fortress Infantry Regiment. The units were under the umbrella of the 5th Army.
The nearby Casernement de Lembach provided peacetime above-ground barracks and support services to Four-à-Chaux and other positions in the area. See Fortified Sector of the Vosges for a broader discussion of the Vosges sector of the Maginot Line. On 19 June 1940, the German 215th Infantry Division attacked in the area to the west of Lembach, between the river Schwartzbach and Lembach. In the day, Four-à-Chaux and other ouvrages were bombed by Stukas with no significant effect. Four-à-Chaux's 135mm and 75mm gun turrets fired on the Germans throughout the day; the next day an attack was repelled with artillery support from Hochwald. Four-à-Chaux was bombarded from the air and from German artillery during the period; the German advance continued into the Vosges region, but did not directly attack Four-à-Chaux with infantry. Four-à-Chaux formally surrendered on 1 July 1940. Four-à-Chaux saw little action during the Lorraine Campaign, where most action took place around Hochwald and Schoenenbourg. Block 1 was destroyed using explosives by the Germans before the surrender in 1945.
In the 1950s interest in the Maginot Line was renewed. In 1951, Four-à-Chaux and Schoenenbourg were designated the Môle de Haguenau, a point of resistance against a potential invasion by forces of the Warsaw Pact. Four-à-Chaux was repaired and put in a state of readiness in 1951–52, with the exception of the destroyed Block 1. By the late 1950s interest in fixed fortifications was waning after France developed a nuclear deterrent; the money needed to maintain and upgrade the fortifications was diverted for the nuclear programs. Four-à-Chaux was not maintained after the early 1970s. Today, Four-à-Chaux is open to the public under the guidance of the SILE association; the guided visit includes Block 2, the barracks, principal gallery and the museum. The ouvrage may be visited throughout the year; the surface of the ouvrage is not accessible due to the presence of unexploded ordnance. List of all works on Maginot Line Siegfried Line Atlantic Wall Czechoslovak border fortifications Allcorn, William.
The Maginot Line 1928–45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-84176-646-1 Degon, André. ISBN 978-2-7373-6080-0 Kaufmann, J. E. and Kaufmann, H. W. Fortress France: The Magino
Germersheim is a town in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, of around 20,000 inhabitants. It is the seat of the Germersheim district; the neighboring towns and cities are Speyer, Philippsburg, Karlsruhe and Wörth. The coat of arms features a golden crowned eagle on a blue background; the eagle derives from the fact that, at one time the town was ruled directly by the emperor of Germany. After his invasion of Gallia, Gaius Iulius Caesar made the Rhine river the border between the Roman Empire and Germania; some small areas east of it were invaded and added to the Roman province of Agri Decumates. As it was attacked more and more it was given up in the second half of the third century and a military camp was founded, named "Vicus Iulii", it was supported up to the fourth century. The first record of the name "Germersheim" is from 1090, when it was named in the Sinsheimer Chronik; the German King Rudolph von Habsburg gave Germersheim city rights in 1276. There is a legend which says that he, as a sick man, rode from Germersheim to Speyer to die there and not in Germersheim.
In 1325 the town was given to the Electorate of the Palatinate by King Ludwig IV. It got a higher status in the following centuries. A Catholic Order founded a monastery in 1298 which it used up to 1527. Having been nearly destroyed in the times of the plague and the Thirty Years' War Germersheim was burned down by French troops in 1674. Only the crypt and the foundations of the Catholic Church survived. Still strategically important during the French Revolutionary Wars, in July 1793 Germersheim was the scene of a significant French defeat when an Austrian army under the veteran Field Marshal von Wurmser defeated a French army under Beauharnais. From the year 1797, Germersheim belonged to France, incorporated into the newly created Mont-Tonnerre department in 1798, it was conquered by Bavarian troops in 1814. After being retaken in 1814, Germersheim's Bavarian rulers started to build a fortress in 1831, it was completed in 1855, although excavations for underground passages continued until 1861.
By this time, the fortress had become outdated, as artillery had improved in the thirty years since work began. The fortress was destroyed in 1921/22 as a result of the Treaty of Versailles; some parts still exist, such as the "Fronte Beckers". Germersheim was the scene of several conflicts between French troops and German veteran associations during the occupation of the Rhineland following the First World War. General Hans Graf von Sponeck, who ordered the retreat of his troops from Kerch because they were going to be hopelessly cut off by the Russian landings at Theodosia, on the Crimean Peninsula, against express instruction of his superior officer in the winter 1941, was interned here in the fortress after Hitler had commuted his death sentence to six years detention. In the purge following the failed assassination attempt on Hitler Graf von Sponeck, although not involved, was shot. Today, a street in Germersheim is named Hans-Graf-von-Sponeck-Straße in his honour. There are regular regional train connections to Mannheim.
Karl Schmitt-Walter, opera singer Eduard Orth, Education minister of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate 1956 - 1967 Paul Josef Nardini, theologian Eugen von Zimmerer, Governor of Cameroon and minister Frank Hardart, born as Franz Anton Hardardt, American entrepreneur, co-founder of the Horn & Hardart food services company Otto Freiherr Kreß von Kressenstein, Bavarian general and War Minister Friedrich Kreß von Kressenstein, Bavarian General of the Infantry Hermann Kriebel, German officer, Freikorpsführer, diplomat and NSDAP politician Friedrich Krebs and politician Franz Sondinger, actor and writer Karl Schmitt-Walter, opera singer Franz Immig, soccer player Lothar Fischer, German sculptor Official website History of the Germersheim fortress Project Via Rhenana - Roman Road along the Upper Rhine "Germersheim". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M
Château de Frœnsbourg
The Château de Frœnsbourg is a ruined French castle north west of the town of Lembach, within the Bas-Rhin département. It has been listed since 1898 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture, it is a troglodyte structure, with two main buildings making up the rest of the structure. The castle was indirectly mentioned in 1235, it is attested in 1269, in an account of the brothers "of Frundsperg". Until the 1340s, the castle would have belonged to the Froensbourgs, who had the same armorial bearings as the Fleckensteins. A little before the middle of the 14th century, the castle was divided between the lords of Froensbourg and Sickingen, it was besieged and ruined, in 1349, because of the banditry of Reinhard von Sickingen, but was restored after 1358, the date when the castle was offered as a stronghold to the Palatine Count. The dwelling tower on the southern rock, known as the small castle, was owned towards the end of the 15th century by Fleckenstein, who had it restored, its main door is dated 1481.
The big castle occupied the whole of the northern rock. At the higher level, on the side of a attack, is a keep with living quarters towards the south. On the middle and lower floors were located the common buildings and dependences made of wood - traces of anchorings remain in the rocks - and troglodytic rooms; the lower courtyard stood in the west and there was a ditch to the north. There are several staircases cut into the rock; the castle was destroyed by the French in 1677 but was already abandoned at that time. The castle stands on an isolated sandstone spur oriented north-south, separated from the mountain by a large ditch; the spur, split in two, comprises a longer and higher northern rock, connected at mid-level by a modern footbridge to the southern rock. At the base of the northern rock, on the north-western side, a low room is cut into the rock and joined by a narrow bay to a tiny cylindrical room leading to the middle level; this could correspond to an old well-cistern. Above the door is evidence of the anchoring for a drawbridge.
Further south, a western projection with access door is located, a winding staircase cut in the sandstone, traces of buildings with a stable, a well in a corner and vestiges of staircases in the rock. At the middle level, to the east are two rooms cut in the rock. Towards the south, a square cistern close to the modern footbridge gives access to the small southern rock; this is occupied by the remains of the dwelling tower whose Gothic arch doorway remains, dated 1481. The remains of the northern keep and the lodgings towards the south, located on the higher terrace of the northern rock, are inaccessible. List of castles in France Château du Fleckenstein Ministry of Culture photos