Claudius Ptolemy was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, held Roman citizenship; the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, and, according to Gerald Toomer, the translator of his Almagest into English, there is no reason to suppose he lived anywhere other than Alexandria, he died there around AD 168. Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and Western European science; the first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise and known as the Great Treatise. The second is the Geography, a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world; the third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.
This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum. Ptolemaeus is a Greek name, it occurs once in Greek mythology, is of Homeric form. It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself pharaoh in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter, the first king of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. All male kings of Hellenistic Egypt, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC ending the Macedonian family's rule, were Ptolemies; the name Claudius is a Roman nomen. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemy's family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius, responsible for granting citizenship. If, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD 41 and 68; the astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown. The ninth-century Persian astronomer Abu Maʿshar presents Ptolemy as a member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the descendants of Alexander's general Ptolemy I, who ruled Egypt, were wise "and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest".
Abu Maʿshar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line "composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy". We can evidence historical confusion on this point from Abu Maʿshar's subsequent remark "It is sometimes said that the learned man who wrote the book of astrology wrote the book of the Almagest; the correct answer is not known." There is little evidence on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name. Ptolemy can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data, he was a Roman citizen, but was ethnically either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian. He was known in Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian", suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt. Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic: بَطْلُمْيوس Baṭlumyus. Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena.
Ptolemy, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets; the Almagest contains a star catalogue, a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky. Across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa in the Medieval period, it was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria; the Almagest was preserved, in Arabic manuscripts. Because of its reputation, it was sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain.
Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution. His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe, he estimated the Sun was at an average dis
The Cananefates, or Canninefates, Caninefates, or Canenefatae, meaning "leek masters", were a Germanic tribe, who lived in the Rhine delta, in western Batavia, in the Roman province of Germania Inferior and during the Roman conquest. The name had its origins in the fact that the Cananefates lived on sandy soils that were considered excellent for growing Alliums such as leeks and onions. At the beginning of the Batavian rebellion under Gaius Julius Civilis in the year 69, the Batavians sent envoys to the Canninefates to urge a common policy. "This is a tribe," says Tacitus "which inhabits part of the island, resembles the Batavians in their origins, in their courageous character, but is inferior in numbers." This would imply a similar descent as the Batavians from the Chatti. In the failed uprising that followed, the Canninefates were led by their chieftain Brinno, the son of a chief who had faced down Caligula; the capital of the civitas of the Cananefates was Forum Hadriani, modern Voorburg.
In modern times, the region Kennemerland is said to derive from the name of the Cananefates. List of Germanic peoples
The Chattuarii or Attoarii were a Germanic tribe of the Franks. They lived north of the Rhine in the area of the modern border between Germany and the Netherlands, but moved southwards in the 4th century, as a Frankish tribe living on both sides of the Rhine. According to Velleius Paterculus, in 4 AD, the emperor Tiberius crossed the Rhine, first attacking a tribe which commentators interpret variously as the Cananefates or Chamavi, both being in the area of the modern Netherlands the Chattuari, the Bructeri between Ems and Lippe, somewhere to the north of the modern Ruhr district in Germany; this implies. Strabo mentions the Chattuari as one of the non-nomadic northern Germanic tribes in a group along with the Cherusci, the Chatti, the Gamabrivii. Strabo notes them as one of the tribes who allied under the Cherusci and were made poor after being defeated by Germanicus, they appeared at his triumph in 17 AD along with the Caülci, Bructeri, Cherusci, Chatti and Tubattii. There is no consensus on any connection between the Chattuarii and either the similar-sounding Chatti or, less the Chasuarii, who both lived in a similar region of Germany, are mentioned in Roman era texts.
The Chattuari appear again in the historical record in the 4th century, living on the Rhine amongst the first tribes to be known as Franks. Ammianus Marcellinus reports that Emperor Julian, crossed the Rhine border from Xanten and......entered the district belonging to a Frank tribe, called the Attuarii, men of a turbulent character, who at that moment were licentiously plundering the districts of Gaul. He attacked them unexpectedly while they were apprehensive of no hostile measures, but were reposing in fancied security, relying on the ruggedness and difficulty of the roads which led into their country, which no prince within their recollection had penetrated; some of them were settled in France pagus attuariorum south of Langres in the 3rd century. Under the Franks, the name of the Chattuari was used for what became two early medieval gaus on either side of the ride, north of the Ripuarian Franks, whose capital was in Cologne; the eastern side, they were near the Ruhr river, across the Rhine they settled near the Niers river, between Maas and Rhine, where the Romans had much earlier settled the Germanic Cugerni.
This western gau is mentioned in the Treaty of Meerssen, in the year 870 AD. The Chattuarii may appear in the poem Beowulf as "Hetwaras" where they appear to form a league together with the Hugas and the Frisians to fight against a Geatish raiding force from Denmark; the Geats are defeated and their king Hygelac is killed, Beowulf alone escaping. According to Widsith, the Hætwera were ruled by Hun. List of ancient Germanic peoples
The Oksywie culture was an archaeological culture that existed in the area of modern-day Eastern Pomerania around the lower Vistula river from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD. It is named after the village of Oksywie, now part of the city of Gdynia in northern Poland, where the first archaeological finds typical of this culture were discovered. Archaeological research during the past recent decades near Pomerania in Poland suggests that the transition of the local component of the Pomeranian culture into the Oksywie culture occurred in the 2nd century BC. A connection with the Rugii has been suggested. Like other cultures of this period, the Oksywie culture related to La Tène cultural characteristics, possessed traits shown from the Baltic cultures. Oksywie culture's ceramics and burial customs indicate strong ties with the Przeworsk culture. Men only had their ashes placed in well made black urns with fine finish and a decorative band around, their graves were supplied with practical items for the afterlife such as weapons.
Buried with the man, this culture would place swords with one-sided edge, the graves were covered or marked by stones. Women's ashes were supplied with feminine items. Oxhöftkultur Andrzej Kokowski "Archäologie der Goten" 1999 Marija Gimbutas. "The Bronze and the Early Iron Age of the Eastern Balts
The Bastarnae were an ancient people who between 200 BC and 300 AD inhabited the region between the Carpathian mountains and the river Dnieper, to the north and east of ancient Dacia. The Peucini, denoted a branch of the Bastarnae by Greco-Roman writers, occupied the region north of the Danube delta; the ethno-linguistic affiliation of the Bastarnae was Celtic, supported by earliest historians. However historian sources imply a Germanic or Scytho-Sarmatian origins, they are associated with the Germans, or the peoples "between the Celts and the Germans". The most scenario is that they were a Celtic tribe resident in the lower Vistula river valley. In ca. 200 BC, these tribes migrated accompanied by some Germanic elements, southeastwards into the North Pontic region. Some elements appear to have become assimilated, to some extent, by the surrounding Sarmatians by the 3rd century. Although sedentary, some elements may have adopted a semi-nomadic lifestyle, it has not, so far, been possible to identify archaeological sites which can be conclusively attributed to the Bastarnae.
The archaeological horizons most associated by scholars with the Bastarnae are the Zarubintsy and Poienesti-Lukashevka cultures. The Bastarnae first came into conflict with the Romans during the 1st century BC, when, in alliance with Dacians and Sarmatians, they unsuccessfully resisted Roman expansion into Moesia and Pannonia, they appear to have maintained friendly relations with the Roman empire during the first two centuries AD. This changed from c. 180, when the Bastarnae are recorded as participants in an invasion of Roman territory, once again in alliance with Sarmatian and Dacian elements. In the mid-3rd century, the Bastarnae were part of a Gothic-led grand coalition of lower Danube tribes that invaded the Balkan provinces of the Roman empire. Large numbers of Bastarnae were resettled within the Roman empire in the late 3rd century. According to Polybius: "A mission from the Dardanians now arrived, telling of the Bastarnae, their numbers, the huge size and the valour of their warriors, pointing out that Perseus and the Galatians were in league with this tribe.
They said they were much more afraid of him than of the Bastarnae, they begged for aid." According to Livy: "The way to the Hadriatic and to Italy lay through the Scordisci. And this same ignorance prevails in regard to the rest of the peoples that come next in order on the north. Accroding to Plutarch: "He secretly stirred up the Gauls settled along the Danube, who are called Basternae, an equestrian host and warlike, and a report prevailed that the Barbarians had been hired by him to pass through lower Gaul, along the coast of the Adriatic, make an incursion into Italy." According to Tacitus: "As to the tribes of the Peucini and Fenni I am in doubt whether I should class them with the Germans or the Sarmatæ, although indeed the Peucini called by some Bastarnæ, are like Germans in their language, mode of life, in the permanence of their settlements. They all live in filth and sloth, by the intermarriages of the chiefs they are becoming in some degree debased into a resemblance to the Sarmatæ."
According to Cassius Dio: "During the same period in which these events occurred Marcus Crassus was sent into Macedonia and Greece and carried on war with the Dacians and Bastarnae. I have stated who the former were and why they had become hostile. According to Zosismus: "He left in Thrace the Bastarnae, a Scythian people, who submitted to him, giving them land to inhabit there; the origin of the tribal name is uncertain. It is not clear whether it was an exonym or an endonym. A related question is whether the groups denoted "Bastarnae" by the Romans considered themselves a distinct eth
The Goths were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe. The Goths dominated a vast area, which at its peak under the Germanic king Ermanaric and his sub-king Athanaric extended all the way from the Danube to the Don, from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea; the Goths spoke one of the extinct East Germanic languages. In the Gothic language of Ostrogothic Italy they were called the Gut-þiuda, most translated as "Gothic people", but only attested as dative singular Gut-þiudai. In Old Norse they were known as the Gutar or Gotar, in Latin as the Gothi, in Greek as the Γότθοι, Gótthoi; the Goths have been referred to by many names at least in part because they comprised many separate ethnic groups, but because in early accounts of Indo-European and Germanic migrations in the Migration Period in general it was common practice to use various names to refer to the same group.
The Goths believed that the various names all derived from a single prehistoric ethnonym that referred to a uniform culture that flourished around the middle of the first millennium BC, i.e. the original Goths. The exact origin of the ancient Goths remains unknown. Evidence of them before they interacted with the Romans is limited; the traditional account of the Goths' early history depends on the Ostrogoth Jordanes' Getica written c. 551 AD. Jordanes states that the earliest migrating Goths sailed from what is now Sweden to what is now Poland. If this is accurate they may have been the people responsible for the Wielbark archaeological complex. Modern academics have abandoned this theory. Today, the Wielbark culture is thought to have developed from earlier cultures in the same area. Archaeological finds show close contacts between southern Sweden and the Baltic coastal area on the continent, further towards the south-east, evidenced by pottery, house types and graves. Rather than a massive migration, similarities in the material cultures may be products of long-term regular contacts.
However, the archaeological record could indicate that while his work is thought to be unreliable, Jordanes' story was based on an oral tradition with some basis in fact. Sometime around the 1st century AD, Germanic peoples may have migrated from Scandinavia to Gothiscandza, in present-day Poland. Early archaeological evidence in the traditional Swedish province of Östergötland suggests a general depopulation during this period. However, there is no archaeological evidence for a substantial emigration from Scandinavia and they may have originated in continental Europe. Upon their arrival on the Pontic Steppe, the Germanic tribes adopted the ways of the Eurasian nomads; the first Greek references to the Goths call them Scythians, since this area along the Black Sea had been occupied by an unrelated people of that name. The application of that designation to the Goths appears to be not ethnological but rather geographical and cultural - Greeks regarded both the ethnic Scythians and the Goths as barbarians.
The earliest known material culture associated with the Goths on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea is the Wielbark culture, centered on the modern region of Pomerania in northern Poland. This culture replaced the local Oxhöft or Oksywie culture in the 1st century AD, when a Scandinavian settlement developed in a buffer zone between the Oksywie culture and the Przeworsk culture; the culture of this area was influenced by southern Scandinavian culture beginning as early as the late Nordic Bronze Age and early Pre-Roman Iron Age. In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomerania and today's northern Poland from c. 1300 BC and onwards was so considerable that some see the culture of the region as part of the Nordic Bronze Age culture. In Eastern Europe the Goths formed part of the Chernyakhov culture of the 2nd to 5th centuries AD. Around 160 AD, in Central Europe, the first movements of the Migration Period were occurring, as Germanic tribes began moving south-east from their ancestral lands at the mouth of River Vistula, putting pressure on the Germanic tribes from the north and east.
As a result, in episodes of Gothic and Vandal warfare Germanic tribes crossed either the lower Danube or the Black Sea, led to the Marcomannic Wars, which resulted in widespread destruction and the first invasion of what is now Italy in the Roman Empire period. It has been suggested. Goths served in the Roman military and played a limited role, e.g. Gainas. In the first attested incursion in Thrace, the Goths were mentioned as Boranoi by Zosimus, as Boradoi by Gregory Thaumaturgus; the first incursion of the Roman Empire that can be attributed to Goths is the sack of Histria in 238. Several such raids followed in subsequent decades, in particular the Battle of Abrittus in 251, led by Cniva, in which the Roman Emperor Decius was killed. At the time, there were at least two groups of Goths: the Greuthungs. Goths were subsequently recruited into the Roman Army to fight in the Roman-Persian Wars, notably participating at the Battle of Misiche in 242; the Moesogoths settled in Moesia. The first seaborne raids took place in three subsequent years 255-257.
An unsuccessful attack on Pityus was followed in the second year by another, which sacked Pityus and Trabzon and ravaged large areas in th
German is a West Germanic language, spoken in Central Europe. It is the most spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Switzerland, South Tyrol, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, Liechtenstein, it is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most spoken Germanic language, after English. One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of 100 million people worldwide and the most spoken native language in the European Union. Together with French, German is the second most spoken foreign language in the EU after English, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers.
German is the second most taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level, the fourth most taught non-English language in the US, the second most used scientific language as well as the third most used language on websites after English and Russian. The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books in the world being published in the German language. In the United Kingdom and French are the most-sought after foreign languages for businesses. German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns and adjectives, three genders, two numbers, strong and weak verbs. German derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A portion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, fewer are borrowed from French and Modern English. With different standardized variants, German is a pluricentric language, it is notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and other parts of the world.
Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects". Modern Standard German is a West Germanic language descended from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages; the Germanic languages are traditionally subdivided into three branches: North Germanic, East Germanic, West Germanic. The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse; the East Germanic languages are now extinct, the only historical member of this branch from which written texts survive is Gothic. The West Germanic languages, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English, Dutch, Yiddish and others. Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift from those that were not.
The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects, while those spoken to the north comprise the Low German/Low Saxon and Low Franconian dialects. As members of the West Germanic language family, High German, Low German, Low Franconian can be further distinguished as Irminonic and Istvaeonic, respectively; this classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones and Istvaeones. Standard German is based on a combination of Thuringian-Upper Saxon and Upper Franconian and Bavarian dialects, which are Central German and Upper German dialects, belonging to the Irminonic High German dialect group. German is therefore related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish, Yiddish. Related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries, such as Swiss German, the various Germanic dialects spoken in the French region of Grand Est, such as Alsatian and Lorraine Franconian.
After these High German dialects, standard German is related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects or Low German/Low Saxon dialects, neither of which underwent the High German consonant shift. As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic.