A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns, although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea, the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, although Yellowstone was not officially termed a national park in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. The first area to use national park in its legislation was the USs Mackinac Island. Australias Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac Island was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park, as a result, Australias Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence.
The largest national park in the meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park. According to the IUCN,6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006, IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are almost always open to visitors, in 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive. It was known as Hot Springs Reservation, but no authority was established. Federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877, John Muir is today referred to as the Father of the National Parks due to his work in Yosemite. He published two articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation. President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on July 1,1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley, according to this bill, private ownership of the land in this area was no longer possible.
The state of California was designated to manage the park for use, resort. Leases were permitted for up to ten years and the proceeds were to be used for conservation, a public discussion followed this first legislation of its kind and there was a heated debate over whether the government had the right to create parks. The perceived mismanagement of Yosemite by the Californian state was the reason why Yellowstone at its establishment six years was put under national control, in 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States first national park, being the worlds first national park. In some European countries, national protection and nature reserves already existed, such as Drachenfels, Yellowstone was part of a federally governed territory
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Holstebro Municipality is a municipality in Region Midtjylland on the Jutland peninsula in west Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 801.55 km², and has a population of 57,411, Østerby, a member of the Social Democratic party. The main town and the site of its council is the town of Holstebro. On January 1,2007 Holstebro municipality was, due to Kommunalreformen, merged with existing Ulfborg-Vemb, the town, lying on both sides of Storåen, has a population of 34,241. It is a member of the Douzelage twinning ring of towns
Aarhus Municipality, until 2011 formerly known as Århus Municipality, is a municipality in the Central Region, on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula in central Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 470.95 km2, and has a population of 331,332, the main town and the site of its municipal council is the city of Aarhus. Neighbouring municipalities are Syddjurs to the north, Favrskov to the northwest, Skanderborg to the southwest and it forms part of the East Jutland metropolitan area. Aarhus Municipality was not merged with other municipalities in the nationwide Kommunalreformen due to its relatively large size. Aarhus City Council is the municipal government, the city council consists of 31 members elected for four-year terms. Administratively the municipality is divided into six minor agencies which together constitute the magistrate led by a mayor and it is the only Danish city with a magistrate structure. The current Mayor of Aarhus municipality is Jacob Bundsgaard of the Social Democrats, Wammen wanted to focus on the upcoming election for Parliament.
The gender composition of the city council has risen steadily in favour of women through the 20th century, the first publicly elected mayor of Aarhus was appointed in 1919. In the 1970 Danish Municipal Reform the current Aarhus municipality was created by merging 20 municipalities, Aarhus Municipality has 45 electoral wards and polling stations in four electoral districts for the folketing. The diocese of Aarhus has four deaneries composed of 60 parishes within Aarhus municipality, Aarhus municipality contains 21 postal districts and some parts of another 9. The urban area of Aarhus and the suburbs are divided into the districts Aarhus C, Aarhus N, Aarhus V, Viby J, Højbjerg. Aarhus is segmented into districts on different levels often containing several distinct neighbourhoods within them, the historical centre, known as Indre By, includes the neighbourhoods Centralværkstedet, the Latin Quarter and the areas around the Central Station and Aarhus Concert Hall. Districts and suburbs further out are Brabrand, Egå, Hasselager, Kolt, Rosenhøj, Skæring, Skåde, Stavtrup and Tranbjerg.
Statistics Denmark defines towns or cities as areas more than 200 residents in a continuous settlement with no more than 200 meters between residential structures. The city of Aarhus is the second largest urban area in Denmark, the port on the east coast of Jutland. In 2013 Beder and Malling was officially counted as an urban area for the first time. Towns in the municipality are generally considered satellites of Aarhus, population figures from Statistics Denmark,1
Randers is a city in Randers Municipality, Central Denmark Region on the Jutland peninsula. It is Denmarks sixth-largest city, with a population of 61,163, Randers is the municipalitys main town and the site of its municipal council. The municipality is a part of the East Jutland metropolitan area, by road it is 38.5 kilometres north of Aarhus,43.8 kilometres east of Viborg, and 224 kilometres northwest of Copenhagen. Randers became a market town in medieval times, and many of its 15th-century half-timbered houses remain today, as does St Martins Church. Trade by sea was facilitated through the Gudenå River, entering Randers Fjord, most of the larger historic industries in Randers are gone today. From 1970, the population saw a decline from a peak of 58.500 citizens, the main tourist attraction is Randers Tropical Zoo thanks to its artificial rainforest, the largest in Northern Europe, its 350 varieties of plant and over 175 species of animals. The citys football team, Randers FC, play their homes games at the AutoC Park Randers, and are in Denmarks first league, the Superligaen.
The town is home to Randers rugby union club and Jutland RLFC, a rugby league team, as well as Randers Cimbria. The oldest forms of the name appear on coins minted from the times of King George until those of Svend Grathe. The coins bear the names Ranrosia, Radrusia, ancient written records include the Latin Randrusium, Icelandic Randrosi, and Rondrus, Randrøs. Other early forms provide Randersborg and Randershusen, the name appears to stem from Rand and Aros and probably means town on the hillside by the river mouth. The modern form Randers was first came into use at the end of the 17th century, Randers was formally established around the 12th century, but traces of activity date back to Viking times. Canute IV of Denmark, known as Canute the Saint and Canute the Holy, the peasants of Randers who rose up against him and his plans to attack England and its ruler, William the Conqueror, assembled in this town. Their uprising led to the death of Canute, a chronicle written at Essenbæk Abbey tells of a fire that ravaged the city.
The city was destroyed and rebuilt three times in the 13th century, in 1246, it was burned down by Abel of Denmarks troops during the civil uprising against Eric IV of Denmark. This action led to insurrection against the Germans. Ebbesen died in a battle at Skanderborg Castle in December 1340. A statue to Ebbesen stands in front of Randers Town Hall today, when King Valdemar IV of Denmark tried to assemble a government in 1350 after the mortgaging to the Holsteiners, the town was further reinforced with protection, and was often named as Randershus
Hedensted is a Danish town in Region Midtjylland and the seat of Hedensted Municipality. Its population, including its neighbouring town Løsning, is 11,355. The municipality as a whole has a population of 45,715, the oldest and one of the most important buildings in the town is the local church, built around 1175. It is especially noted for its early murals showing Christ, St. Peter, Hedensted had the benefits of a railway station until it was closed down in the 1970s. However, in 2005 a new station was opened on roughly the same spot, like many other Danish towns, Hedensted was expanded with large residential areas around the original town centre. Later, industrial parks followed south and west of the town, Hedensted is located midway between the larger towns of Horsens and Vejle. East of Hedensted, by the coast, lies the town of Juelsminde which in 2007 became a part of the municipality of Hedensted, media related to Hedensted at Wikimedia Commons
The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets, of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury. The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the mass is in the Sun. The four smaller inner planets, Venus and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being composed of rock. The four outer planets are giant planets, being more massive than the terrestrials. All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a flat disc called the ecliptic. The Solar System contains smaller objects, the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal.
Beyond Neptunes orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices, within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets, identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets and interplanetary dust clouds. Six of the planets, at least four of the dwarf planets, each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, the heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium, it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is thought to be the source for long-period comets, the Solar System is located in the Orion Arm,26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way.
For most of history, humanity did not recognize or understand the concept of the Solar System, the invention of the telescope led to the discovery of further planets and moons. The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains 99. 86% of the known mass. The Suns four largest orbiting bodies, the giant planets, account for 99% of the mass, with Jupiter. The remaining objects of the Solar System together comprise less than 0. 002% of the Solar Systems total mass, most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earths orbit, known as the ecliptic
Viborg, a city in central Jutland, Denmark, is the capital of both Viborg municipality and Region Midtjylland. Viborg is the seat of the Western High Court, the High Court for the Jutland peninsula, Viborg Municipality is the second-largest Danish municipality, covering 3. 3% of that countrys total land area. Viborg is one of the oldest cities in Denmark, with Viking settlements dating back to the late 8th century and its central location gave the city great strategic importance, in political and religious matters, during the Middle Ages. A motte-and-bailey-type castle was located in the city. Viborg takes its name from a combination of two Old Norse words, vé, meaning a place, and borg, meaning a fort. Viborg is famous for Viborg Cathedral, the construction of the cathedral started in 1130 and took about 50 years. The building has burned to the ground and been re-built several times, only the crypt of the original cathedral is still preserved. The cathedral was and is the locus of cult of Saint Kjeld of Viborg who was dean of the chapter there and had a great shrine there in the Middle Ages.
The newest parts of the church are from 1876, the cathedral is famous for its many paintings by Danish painter Joakim Skovgaard, which depict stories from the Bible. Next to the cathedral is the Skovgaard museum, founded in 1937, before the Protestant Reformation Viborg was the home of five monasteries, about 12 parish churches, several chapels and of course the cathedral. Today only the cathedral and a few remains of the Franciscan, Viborg has over the last decade won a reputation as one of Denmarks leading cities for sports. It started with the womens handball team, which continues to be one of Europes top-5 clubs. Subsequently, both the mens team and most notably the professional football team have established themselves at the top of the Danish leagues. From 1998 to 2008, Viborg FF was a constant member of the Danish Superliga, Viborg is home to a number of educational institutions, including Viborg Katedralskole. Denmarks oldest educational institution celebrated its 900th birthday in 2000, the school is believed to have been founded about 1060 - at the same time as the city became the seat of a bishop.
The church needed to educate boys and young men to enter into the churchs service, although this role is now basically obsolete, the dorm continues to be a popular solution for many students wanting to get away from home or for a small number of students from Greenland. Viborg Katedralskole is today one of four gymnasiums in Viborg, Viborg is home to The Animation Workshop, an art school based in a former army barracks on the outskirts of town. The school, which achieved official recognition from the Danish government in 2003, for international parents Viborg has an international school where all teaching is in English based on the Cambridge International examinations
Herning is a Danish city in Region Midtjylland, on the Jutland peninsula. It is the town and the administrative seat of Herning Municipality. Herning has a population of 47,765 including the suburbs of Tjørring, Lind, Birk and Gjellerup, making Herning the 11th most populous urban area in Denmark. Herning was established at the beginning of the 1800s, during the period of heath reclamation, as a centre providing goods. A textile industry developed in and around the town. This industry was once Hernings principal economic activity, the town has a mote diversified industrial base. Herning became a town in 1913. Herning has twice awarded the title of Danish City of the Year. There are many small furniture and textile businesses in and around Herning, Herning is home to Messecenter Herning, the largest exhibition centre in Scandinavia, which hosts many trade fairs. Carl-Henning Pedersen and Else Alfelts Museum of Art is located in the city, the city is the site of three buildings designed by the architect Jørn Utzon.
One is publicly owned and two are privately owned, the town is home to sculptor Ingvar Cronhammars monumental work Elia. The sculpture is located near the Herning Art Museum, the old Herningsholm Estate in Herning is open to the public for touring. Classensborg Estate, now called Skarrildhus, is located 25 km south of the town, the grounds, can be toured and are known for their beautiful rhododendron displays during the spring. The Herning Museum displays a history of Herning, as well as the development of moorland agriculture, the museum operates traveling educational exhibits. Herning Blue Fox is a Danish professional ice hockey playing in the top Danish ice hockey league. Having won 16 championships and 29 medals in all, Herning Blue Fox has accumulated the greatest number of victories in the history of ice hockey in Denmark. FC Midtjylland is a team playing in the Danish Superliga. It is a merger of Herning Fremad and Ikast FS and won the championship of Denmark for the first time in 2015 having twice been the runner up
Grenaa is a Danish town and seaport on the east coast of the Jutlandic peninsula. Tourism and commerce are important sectors in the economy of Grenaa and it is the only larger town on Djursland. Grenaa is the seat, and the largest town, in Norddjurs Municipality. Grenaa was first mentioned in 1231 and it was granted the status of a market town in 1445. Grenaa has a lingering production industry just as in most of the western world, development of tourism and educational institutions is sought to play a larger role for Grenaa in the future. The 5 km sandy Grenaa Beach is significant for tourism, with a hinterland of summer cottages, including many rentals. Grenaa is a shopping centre for central-eastern Djursland, an about 40 km x 40 km peninsula, protruding into the sea. With 14.601 inhabitants Grenaa is the largest town on the c.40 km x 40 km peninsula, where coastal tourism is important. Djursland has 22 sandy beaches along the three-sided 260 km coastline, with in the order of 7.000 summer-, Grenaa Beach can be seen as the best of the beaches on Djursland, as it was elected as one of the two best beaches in Denmark in 2006.
All coastlines in Denmark are accessible to the public by law, contributing to making the walkable, the climate is coastal temperate, influenced by the Gulf Stream. Westerly and south-westerly winds are common, the yearly precipitation is 700 mm. The average summer temperature is 16 degrees Celsius, the coldest month is January with an average temperature of 0.5 degrees. This, combined with the coastlines, means that it seldom gets crowded on the coast. Grenaa has a seaport that has been expanded in recent years. The town is connected by ferry to Varberg in Sweden. The town is connected by railway to Denmarks second largest city, Aarhus,60 km to the south-east. The station offers local train services to Aarhus and Odder as part of the Aarhus Commuter Rail service. Aarhus Airport lies 20 km to the south-east from Grenaa, Grenaa Beach -5 km of sandy beach starting at Grenaa Marina. 250 species of creatures from around the world, including seals