Signal Corps (United States Army)
The United States Army Signal Corps is a division of the Department of the Army that creates and manages communications and information systems for the command and control of combined arms forces. It was established in 1860, the brainchild of Major Albert J. Myer, had an important role in the American Civil War. Over its history, it had the initial responsibility for portfolios and new technologies that were transferred to other U. S. government entities. Such responsibilities included military intelligence, weather forecasting, aviation. Support for the command and control of combined arms forces. Signal support includes network operations and management of the electromagnetic spectrum. Signal support encompasses all aspects of designing, data communications networks that employ single and multi-channel satellite, tropospheric scatter, terrestrial microwave, messaging, video-teleconferencing, visual information, other related systems, they integrate tactical and sustaining base communications, information processing and management systems into a seamless global information network that supports knowledge dominance for Army and coalition operations.
While serving as a medical officer in Texas in 1856, Albert James Myer proposed that the Army use his visual communications system, called aerial telegraphy. When the Army adopted his system on 21 June 1860, the Signal Corps was born with Myer as the first and only Signal Officer. Major Myer first used his visual signaling system on active service in New Mexico during the early 1860s Navajo expedition. Using flags for daytime signaling and a torch at night, wigwag was tested in Civil War combat in June 1861 to direct the fire of a harbor battery at Fort Wool against the Confederate positions opposite Fort Monroe. For nearly three years, Myer was forced to rely on detailed personnel, although he envisioned a separate, trained professional military signal service. Myer's vision came true on 3 March 1863, when Congress authorized a regular Signal Corps for the duration of the war; some 2,900 officers and enlisted men served, although not at any single time, in the Civil War Signal Corps. Myer's Civil War innovations included an unsuccessful balloon experiment at First Bull Run, and, in response to McClellan's desire for a Signal Corps field telegraph train, an electric telegraph in the form of the Beardslee magnetoelectric telegraph machine.
In the Civil War, the wigwag system, restricted to line-of-sight communications, was waning in the face of the electric telegraph. Myer used his office downtown in Washington, D. C. to house the Signal Corps School. When it was found to need additional space, he sought out other locations. First came Fort Greble, one of the Defenses of Washington during the Civil War, when that proved inadequate, Myer chose Fort Whipple, on Arlington Heights overlooking the national capital; the size and location were outstanding. The school remained there for over 20 years and was renamed Fort Myer. Signal Corps detachments participated in campaigns fighting Native Americans in the west, such as the Powder River Expedition of 1865; the electric telegraph, in addition to visual signaling, became a Signal Corps responsibility in 1867. Within 12 years, the corps had constructed, was maintaining and operating, some 4,000 miles of telegraph lines along the country's western frontier. In 1870, the Signal Corps established a congressionally mandated national weather service.
Within a decade, with the assistance of Lieutenant Adolphus Greely, Myer commanded a weather service of international acclaim. Myer died in 1880, having attained the rank of brigadier general and the title of Chief Signal Officer; the weather bureau became part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1891, while the corps retained responsibility for military meteorology; the Signal Corps' role in the Spanish–American War of 1898 and the subsequent Philippine Insurrection was on a grander scale than it had been in the Civil War. In addition to visual signaling, including heliograph, the corps supplied telephone and telegraph wire lines and cable communications, fostered the use of telephones in combat, employed combat photography, renewed the use of balloons. Shortly after the war, the Signal Corps constructed the Washington-Alaska Military Cable and Telegraph System known as the Alaska Communications System, introducing the first wireless telegraph in the Western Hemisphere. For more details on this topic, see Aeronautical Division, U.
S. Signal Corps and Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps On 1 August 1907, an Aeronautical Division was established within the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. In 1908, on Fort Myer, the Wright brothers made test flights of the Army's first airplane built to Signal Corps' specifications. Reflecting the need for an official pilot rating, War Department Bulletin No. 2, released on 24 February 1911, established a "Military Aviator" rating. Army aviation remained within the Signal Corps until 1918. During World War I. Chief Signal Officer George Owen Squier worked with private industry to perfect radio tubes while creating a major signal laboratory at Camp Alfred Vail. Early radiotelephones developed by the Signal Corps were introduced into the European theater in 1918. While the new American voice radios were superior to the radiotelegraph sets and telegraph remained the major technology of World War I. A pioneer in radar, Colonel William Blair, director of the Signal Corps laboratories at Fort Monmouth, patented the first Army radar demonstrated in May 1937.
Before the United States entered World War II, mass
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships. Marketing is the business process of satisfying customers. With its focus on the customer, marketing is one of the premier components of business management. Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as "the activity, set of institutions, processes for creating, communicating and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients and society at large." The term developed from the original meaning which referred to going to market with goods for sale. From a sales process engineering perspective, marketing is "a set of processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions" of a business aimed at achieving customer interest and satisfaction. Philip Kotler defines marketing as Satisfying wants through an exchange process; the Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as "the management process responsible for identifying and satisfying customer requirements profitably." A similar concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value.
In this context, marketing can be defined as "the management process that seeks to maximise returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage."Marketing practice tended to be seen as a creative industry in the past, which included advertising and selling. However, because the academic study of marketing makes extensive use of social sciences, sociology, economics and neuroscience, the profession is now recognized as a science, allowing numerous universities to offer Master-of-Science programs; the process of marketing is that of bringing a product to market, which includes these steps: broad market research. Many parts of the marketing process involve use of the creative arts. The'marketing concept' proposes that in order to satisfy the organizational objectives, an organization should anticipate the needs and wants of potential consumers and satisfy them more than its competitors; this concept originated from Adam Smith's book The Wealth of Nations, but would not become used until nearly 200 years later.
Marketing and Marketing Concepts are directly related. Given the centrality of customer needs and wants in marketing, a rich understanding of these concepts is essential: Needs: Something necessary for people to live a healthy and safe life; when needs remain unfulfilled, there is a clear adverse outcome: death. Needs can be objective and physical, such as the need for food and shelter. Wants: Something, desired, wished for or aspired to. Wants are not essential for basic survival and are shaped by culture or peer-groups. Demands: When needs and wants are backed by the ability to pay, they have the potential to become economic demands. Marketing research, conducted for the purpose of new product development or product improvement, is concerned with identifying the consumer's unmet needs. Customer needs are central to market segmentation, concerned with dividing markets into distinct groups of buyers on the basis of "distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviors who might require separate products or marketing mixes."
Needs-based segmentation "places the customers' desires at the forefront of how a company designs and markets products or services." Although needs-based segmentation is difficult to do in practice, it has been proved to be one of the most effective ways to segment a market. In addition, a great deal of advertising and promotion is designed to show how a given product's benefits meet the customer's needs, wants or expectations in a unique way. A marketing orientation has been defined as a "philosophy of business management." Or "a corporate state of mind" or as an "organisation culture" Although scholars continue to debate the precise nature of specific orientations that inform marketing practice, the most cited orientations are as follows: A firm employing a product orientation is concerned with the quality of its own product. A product orientation is based on the assumption that, all things being equal, consumers will purchase products of a superior quality; the approach is most effective when the firm has deep insights into customers and their needs and desires derived from research and intuition and understands consumers' quality expectations and price they are willing to pay.
For example, Sony Walkman and Apple iPod were innovative product designs that addressed consumers' unmet needs. Although the product orientation has been supplanted by the marketing orientation, firms practicing a product orientation can still be found in haute couture and in arts marketing. A firm using a sales orientation focuses on the selling/promotion of the firm's existing products, rather than determining new or unmet consumer needs or desires; this entails selling existing products, using promotion and direct sales techniques to attain the highest sales possible. The sales orientation "is practiced with unsought goods." One study found that industrial companies are more to hold a sales orientation than consumer goods companies. The approach may suit scenarios in wh
The Maytag Corporation is an American home and commercial appliance brand owned by Whirlpool Corporation after the April 2006 acquisition of Maytag. The Maytag Washing Machine Company was founded in 1893 by businessman Frederick Maytag. In 1925, the Maytag Washing Machine Company became Inc.. In the early 1930s, photographer Theodor Horydczak took pictures of the plant and some of its workers. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the company was one of the few to make a profit in successive years. In 1938, Maytag provoked strikes by the company's workers because of a 10% pay cut; the company was able to beat the strike because of the intervention of four military companies, including a machine gun company, of the 113th Cavalry Regiment, Iowa National Guard. At his father's death in 1940, Fred Maytag II, grandson of the founder, took over the presidency. During World War II, the company participated in war production by making special components for military equipment. In 1946, production of washing machines was resumed.
In 1946, Maytag began marketing a separate line of ranges and refrigerators made by other companies under the Maytag name. During the Korean War, the company again produced parts for military equipment, although washing-machine production continued. During the 1950s, the'white goods,' or laundry and kitchen appliance industry, grew rapidly. Maytag first entered the commercial laundry field at this time, manufacturing washers and dryers for commercial self-service laundries and commercial operators. In response, other full-line appliance producers began to compete with Maytag in the white-goods consumer market; these included'full-line' manufacturers such as Whirlpool, General Electric, Frigidaire, who built not only washing machines and dryers, but refrigerators and other appliances. Since Maytag was much smaller than the full-line producers, the company decided to limit itself to the manufacture of washers and dryers, alongside marketing ovens and refrigerators built by other companies, as a small, premium-brand manufacturer.
The company capitalized on its reputation by renaming its corporate address in Newton, Iowa, "One Dependability Square." By 1960, Maytag had ceased marketing ovens and refrigerators, but began once again to expand into kitchen appliances with its own design of portable kitchen dishwasher and a line of food-waste disposers. Upon the death of Fred Maytag II, the last family member involved in the company's management, E. G. Higdon was named president of the company, with George M. Umbreit becoming chairman and CEO. By the late 1970s, over 70 percent of U. S. households were equipped with washers and dryers, with 18,000 employees worldwide, the company was established as a dominant manufacturer of large laundry appliances. After the company's acquisition of Magic Chef, Inc. in 1986, a move which nearly doubled its size, the company acquired a new corporate name, Maytag Corporation. In 1989 Maytag acquired Chicago Pacific Corporation. Chicago Pacific Corporation owned Hoover UK as well as Thomasville Brand Furniture.
Maytag sold off the Thomasville Furniture brand. Maytag Corporation, led by Chairman Daniel Krumm, next planned to make Maytag a worldwide organization; the UK part of Hoover was to help Maytag expand into Europe. Hoover UK was not doing well financially and offered customers a round-trip ticket anywhere if they purchased a vacuum; this campaign cost the corporation $50 million to settle. Subsequently, Maytag sold off Hoover UK; this was a huge setback for the amount of cash Maytag had in hand and thus started the downward spiral financially. In 1991 Maytag built a new plant in Jackson, for the manufacture of newly designed plastic tub dishwashers; the Plastic tub was developed in Newton, but in 1996 Engineering was transferred to Jackson because Mr. Len Hadley president of Maytag Corporation, wanted the plant to be self-sufficient; this engineering team engineered a Stainless Steel dishwasher, Tall-Tub Plastic and Tall-Tub Stainless steel product. Engineering crescendoed with a Double Drawer dishwasher which today is manufactured in Findlay Ohio at the Whirlpool Plant, the only Maytag legacy product built in the Whirlpool Appliance line-up.
The Jackson plant evolved into a streamlined manufacturing facility that could build thousands of dishwashers daily on multiple lines. This plant was the most efficient plant and was a hallmark for other facilities. Whirlpool closed this plant. In 1997, Maytag Corporation purchased G. S. Blodgett Corporation. Blodgett made ovens for Major Pizza companies at the time of this purchase Maytag was looking at the Turbo Chef line they had been working on up to this point. Prior to 1997, the Maytag engineering team, at Maytag Laundry Appliances Research and Development, developed the Maytag Neptune line of front-load washers. A matching dryer was introduced to accompany the new washer; the company claimed that the new Neptune model saved energy costs over traditional washer/dryer sets. Production of the Neptune line was switched to Samsung Electronics. In 2001, the company acquired its appliance assembly facilities; that same year, Ralph F. Hake became the last chairman and chief executive officer of Maytag Corporation, serving in that post until March 2006.
Once renowned as the standard for laundry appliances, by 2003 the company faced increasing competition from new appliance brands in the US market, as well as from existing appliance manufacturers who had outsourced production a decade earlier in order to reduce costs. While Maytag had begun the process of shifting appliance production to lower-cost assembly plants outside the United States, in 2004 the company was still produci
Norwest Corporation was a banking and financial services company based in Minneapolis, United States. In 1998, it since that time has traded under the Wells Fargo name; the earliest roots of the company are with the Northwestern National Bank established in Minneapolis in 1872. Early Minneapolis business and political leaders Dorilus Morrison and Henry T. Welles were the bank's first two presidents; the bank was supported by the Northern Pacific Railroad, but as the city and region grew the bank's deposits and assets grew in kind. Between 1872 and 1892 the bank's deposits increased from $50,000 to $3 million. Between 1892 and 1902 deposits more than tripled to more than $10 million. During the prosperous 1920s, the nation's agricultural sector did not share in the good times. Many smaller banks that had overextended credit to farmers ran into serious trouble. In the Upper Midwest alone, 1,500 banks became insolvent from 1920 to 1929, it was with this backdrop that in early 1929, just months before the stock market crash, two banking associations were formed in the Twin Cities of Minnesota: Northwest Bancorporation and the First Bank Stock Corporation.
Northwest, known more as "Banco", was a banking cooperative anchored by Northwestern National Bank in Minneapolis. Banco served as a mutual protection association. Another 90 banks joined Banco in its first year of operation, by 1932 there were 139 affiliates. During the Great Depression, numerous additional banks failed. In 1932, 700 Upper Midwestern banks failed. None of the Banco members went under – and no depositor lost any savings – because the group was able to move liquidity around the system and in some cases, inject new capital into troubled banks; the number of members did decline, however, as some units in the group merged while others were sold off. Membership fell to 83 by 1940 to 70 by 1952. One of Banco's strategic advantages in the long run was its ability to operate in multiple states; the McFadden Act of 1927 had prohibited banks from operating branches across state lines. Banco was one of three major banks, allowed to conduct interstate banking under a grandfather clause in the 1927 act.
This advantage was tempered somewhat by the emergence of bank holding companies in the late 1960s, but under the holding company arrangement, a subsidiary bank in one state was a separate entity from a subsidiary bank in another state. Prior to the 1970s, Banco's affiliated members were autonomous, but during that decade, Banco began adopting a more unified structure in terms of systemwide planning, data processing, funds management, loan syndication. By the end of the decade, Banco consisted of 85 affiliates in seven states: Minnesota, Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana. Total assets had reached $11 billion, ranking Banco as the 20th largest banking company in the United States. Banco was active on the international banking scene through its lead bank, Northwestern National, which controlled Canadian American Bank, a merchant bank with offices in Winnipeg, London and Luxembourg. Banco was beset by a series of major setbacks in the early 1980s; the troubles began in late 1979 when Richard H. Vaughan, the president and CEO, was electrocuted by a wire that had fallen during a storm.
This set off a management crisis. Chester Lind stepped in as a caretaker leader. In October 1981 John W. Morrison was named chairman and CEO; the new leader began centralizing the still loosely knit confederation into a more traditional bank holding company. In 1982 the 80-odd affiliates began to be grouped into eight regions reporting to a corporate vice-chairman. Plans were laid to unify all the affiliates and Banco itself under a new name; the change occurred in 1983. Tellingly, the new name did not include'bank' or some variant thereof because Morrison aimed to reposition Norwest as a diversified financial services company. He'd taken steps in this direction a year earlier, when he engineered the acquisition of Dial Corporation in September 1982 for $252 million. Based in Des Moines, Dial had more than 460 offices in 38 states offering consumer loans for everything from cars to sailboats, it was considered one of the top consumer finance firms in the country and had a $1 billion consumer loan operation.
Dial was renamed Norwest Financial Services Inc. in 1983. While these restructuring initiatives were being carried out, the bank suffered another blow during the 1982 Thanksgiving weekend when a Thanksgiving Day fire destroyed the downtown Minneapolis headquarters. Norwest announced plans to build a modern 774-foot tower, the Norwest Center, as its replacement. However, until the Norwest Center opened in 1988, corporate staff was scattered around 26 different sites in the city, leading to numerous logistical difficulties. Meanwhile, with the farm economy going into a tailspin starting in 1981, Norwest began feeling the effects of its heavy farm loan portfolio--$1.2 billion, or seven percent of its overall loan portfolio. Norwest had another $1.2 billion in loans in foreign markets, which caused additional problems in the early 1980s as Norwest, like most U. S. banks, had made many bad loans overseas. As a result, Norwest saw its non-performing loans increase 500 percent from 1983 to 1984, to more than $500 million.
Further trouble came from the bank's mortgage unit, Norwest Mortgage Inc., built in
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Newton is the county seat of and most populous city in Jasper County, United States. Located 30 miles east of Des Moines, Newton is in Central Iowa; as of the 2010 Census, the city population was 15,254. It is the home of Iowa Speedway, Maytag Dairy Farms, the Iowa Sculpture Festival. Newton was founded in 1846 as Newton City, the name was changed to Newton in 1847 and Newton was incorporated as a city in 1857. In the late 19th century, Newton's growth was fueled by the development of coal mines in the region; the first significant mine in the area was the Couch mine of the Jasper County Coal and Railway Company, opened in the 1870s. It was, for the largest mine in the county, producing 70 tons per day. William Snooks opened a mine near Newton in 1886. In the early 20th century, large scale mining in the Newton area had declined, but there were still several mines in the area that were worked intermittently. In the 20th century, Newton was a manufacturing community, much of its growth derived from the washing machine industry.
Its most distinctive landmark, the Jasper County Courthouse, was built in 1911. Newton entered the national stage in 1938 when martial law was declared during a strike at the Maytag Washing Machine Company. Iowa governor Nelson Kraschel ordered the Iowa National Guard to protect the company with tanks and machine guns ready against the workers. With the backing of four troops of the 113th Cavalry Regiment, Maytag company beat the strike and forced workers to return to work with a 10% pay cut. At the conclusion of World War II, the Maytag Washing Machine Company expanded its operations in Newton, becoming the Maytag Corporation. Known for its dependable line of washing machines and clothes dryers, the company persuaded the town of Newton to change the name of its headquarters address in the city to “One Dependability Square.” In 2001, a decision to cut labor costs resulted in a reduction of the labor force at the Newton plant in favor of newer Maytag facilities in Mexico. Layoffs at the Newton plant continued through 2005.
Whirlpool's acquisition of Maytag in early 2006 led to speculation over the future of Maytag operations in Newton. On May 10, 2006, Whirlpool announced that it would close the Newton plant and corporate offices in the fall of 2007; the plant employed about 1,000 workers and the corporate offices employed about 800 at the time of the announcement. In January 2007, Whirlpool said in a statement that it sold most of the Maytag headquarters complex to Iowa Telecommunications Services Inc. a Newton-based telephone company which would use the complex to consolidate employees in a single location. Although the company did not disclose financial details, Newton economic development officials said Iowa Telecom paid $1.5 million for the buildings assessed at more than $12 million. The Maytag plant ended production on October 25, 2007. After Maytag announced its departure, community leaders and City administration worked together to develop a plan to diversify Newton's economy. After the Maytag plant closed, unemployment skyrocketed—rising to 10%.
In 2010, Jasper County had the highest unemployment rate of Iowa's 99 counties at 8.2%. However, in the following years, the unemployment rate dropped considerably—down to 5.4% in 2013. More impressively, Newton's population did not drop following the departure of Maytag. Newton has had a steady population of about 15,000 since the 1960s. Between 2007 and 2017, thirteen new companies have located here and have created over 2,000 new jobs; the following companies have started in or moved to Newton: Underwriter's Laboratory, Trinity Structural Towers, TPI Composites, Walter G. Anderson, the Iowa Speedway, Health Enterprises, Engineered Plastics Company, Pact Manufacturing, Advanced Wheel Sales, Hawkeye Stages. Phoenix Investors LLC, out of Milwaukee, acquired the former Maytag Manufacturing buildings in 2015 and have been making the space tenant ready by investing in improvements; the 1.8 million square foot facility is now 60 percent occupied. Des Moines Area Community College is the owner of the former Maytag corporate campus, now known as Legacy Plaza, after receiving the buildings as a gift in the fall of 2016 from Reza Kargarzadeh.
Legacy Plaza contains eight buildings dating back to the early 1900s. DMACC has been upgrading parts of the campus and is leasing space in this facility located just two blocks from Newton's downtown square. Current tenants include Compass Mortgage, DMACC Business Resources, Aureon and Letters, Gezellig Brewing Company, The Cellar Peanut Pub, CIRAS, Iowa Lean Consortium, Sequoia Fitness and Edward Jones. One of the industrial sectors Newton has attracted in recent years is green manufacturing. In December 2007, TPI Composites announced plans to open a plant to manufacture massive wind turbine blades, which are now in production. Today, TPI Composites employs over 1,100 people and has expanded its operations by 100,000 square feet as they began manufacturing composite bus bodies with Proterra. Additionally, Trinity Structural Towers, a company which manufactures wind turbine towers, opened in 2008. President Barack Obama visited the Trinity Structural Towers plant on April 22, 2009, that year's Earth Day.
While at the factory in Newton, the President said that he traveled to the factory in order to usher in "a new era of energy exploration in America."Global Fiberglass has leased over 100,000 square feet in the former Maytag manufacturing plant. They plan to take down wind turbines across the Midwest that have been decommissioned and will grind up the fiberglass. Newton was awarded the National Sustainable Community of the Year Award by Siemens and the US Chamber of Commerce in 2010 for its successful, pro-active approach to recovery. In 2012, the Newton
University of Iowa
The University of Iowa is a public research university in Iowa City, Iowa. Founded in 1847, it is the second largest university in the state; the University of Iowa is organized into 11 colleges offering more than 200 areas of study and seven professional degrees. Located on an urban 1,880 acre campus on the banks of the Iowa River, the University of Iowa is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity." The university is best known for its programs in health care and the fine arts, with programs ranking among the top 25 nationally in those areas. The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and the Stead Family Children's Hospital are ranked nationally by U. S. News and World Report in eleven specialties; the university was the original developer of the Master of Fine Arts degree and it operates the Iowa Writer's Workshop, which has produced 17 of the university's 46 Pulitzer Prize winners. Iowa is a member of the Association of American Universities, the Universities Research Association, the Big Ten Academic Alliance.
Among American universities, the University of Iowa was the first public university to open as coeducational, opened the first coeducational medical school, opened the first Department of Religious Studies at a public university. The University of Iowa's 33,000 students take part in nearly 500 student organizations. Iowa's 22 varsity athletic teams, the Iowa Hawkeyes, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are members of the Big Ten Conference; the University of Iowa alumni network exceeds 250,000 graduates located around the globe. The University of Iowa was founded on February 25, 1847, just 59 days after Iowa was admitted to the Union; the Constitution of the State of Iowa refers to a State University to be established in Iowa City "without branches at any other place." The legal name of the university is the State University of Iowa, but the Board of Regents approved using "The University of Iowa" for everyday usage in October 1964. The first faculty offered instruction at the university beginning in March 1855 to students in the Old Mechanics Building, located where Seashore Hall is now.
In September 1855, there were 124 students. The 1856–57 catalogue listed nine departments offering ancient languages, modern languages, intellectual philosophy, moral philosophy, natural history, natural philosophy, chemistry; the first president of the university was Amos Dean. The original campus consisted of the Iowa Old Capitol Building and the 10 acres of land on which it stood. Following the placing of the cornerstone July 4, 1840, the building housed the Fifth Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Iowa and became the first capitol building of the State of Iowa on December 28, 1846; until that date, it had been the third capitol of the Territory of Iowa. When the capitol of Iowa was moved to Des Moines in 1857, the Old Capitol became the first permanent "home" of the University. In 1855, The university became the first public university in the United States to admit men and women on an equal basis. In addition, Iowa was the world's first university to accept creative work in theater, writing and art on an equal basis with academic research.
The university was one of the first institutions in America to grant a law degree to a woman, to grant a law degree to an African American, to put an African American on a varsity athletic squad. The university offered its first doctorate in 1898; the university was the first state university to recognize the Gay, Bisexual and Allied Union. The University of Iowa established the first law school west of the Mississippi River, it was the first university to use television in education, in 1932, it pioneered in the field of standardized testing. The University of Iowa was the first Big Ten institution to promote an African American to the position of administrative vice president. A shooting took place on campus on November 1, 1991. Six people died in the shooting, including the perpetrator, one other person was wounded; this was the fifth-deadliest university shooting in United States history, tied with a shooting at Northern Illinois University. In the summer of 2008, flood waters breached the Coralville Reservoir spillway, damaging more than 20 major campus buildings.
Several weeks after the flood waters receded university officials placed a preliminary estimate on flood damage at $231.75 million. The university estimated that repairs would cost about $743 million. In 2008, UNESCO designated Iowa City the world's third City of Literature, making it part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. In 2014, the Iowa Board of Regents proposed tying state funding to undergraduate resident enrollment, which would have shifted millions of dollars away from the UI to Iowa State University and the University of Northern Iowa. Iowa legislators did not support the plan. In 2015, the Iowa Board of Regents selected Bruce Harreld, a business consultant with limited experience in academic administration, to succeed Sally Mason as president; the regents' choice of Harreld provoked criticism and controversy on the UI campus due to his corporate background, lack of history in leading an institution of higher education, the circumstances related to the search process. The regents said they had based their decision on the belief that Harreld could limit costs and find new sources of revenue beyond tuition in an age of declining state support for universities.
In July 2016, the university took over the former AIB College of Business in Des Moines, wher