SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Length is a measure of distance. In the International System of Quantities, length is a quantity with dimension distance. In most systems of measurement a base unit for length is chosen, from which all other units are derived. In the International System of Units system the base unit for length is the metre. Length is understood to mean the most extended dimension of a fixed object. However, this is not always the case and may depend on the position the object is in. Various terms for the length of a fixed object are used, these include height, vertical length or vertical extent, width, breadth or depth. Height is used. Width or breadth refer to a shorter dimension when length is the longest one. Depth is used for the third dimension of a three dimensional object. Length is the measure of one spatial dimension, whereas area is a measure of two dimensions and volume is a measure of three dimensions. Measurement has been important since humans settled from nomadic lifestyles and started using building materials, occupying land and trading with neighbours.

As trade between different places increased, the need for standard units of length increased. And as society has become more technologically oriented, much higher accuracy of measurement is required in an diverse set of fields, from micro-electronics to interplanetary ranging. Under Einstein's special relativity, length can no longer be thought of as being constant in all reference frames, thus a ruler, one metre long in one frame of reference will not be one metre long in a reference frame, moving relative to the first frame. This means. In Euclidean geometry, length is measured along straight lines. Pythagoras's theorem relating the length of the sides of a right triangle is one of many applications in Euclidean geometry. Length may be measured along other types of curves and is referred to as arclength. In a triangle, the length of an altitude, a line segment drawn from a vertex perpendicular to the side not passing through the vertex, is called the height of the triangle; the area of a rectangle is defined to be length × width of the rectangle.

If a long thin rectangle is stood up on its short side its area could be described as its height × width. The volume of a solid rectangular box is described as length × height × depth; the perimeter of a polygon is the sum of the lengths of its sides. The circumference of a circular disk is the length of the boundary of that disk. In other geometries, length may be measured along curved paths, called geodesics; the Riemannian geometry used in general relativity is an example of such a geometry. In spherical geometry, length is measured along the great circles on the sphere and the distance between two points on the sphere is the shorter of the two lengths on the great circle, determined by the plane through the two points and the center of the sphere. In an unweighted graph, the length of a cycle, path, or walk is the number of edges. In a weighted graph, it may instead be the sum of the weights of the edges. Length is used to define the shortest path and longest path between two vertices in a graph.

In measure theory, length is most generalized to general sets of R n via the Lebesgue measure. In the one-dimensional case, the Lebesgue outer measure of a set is defined in terms of the lengths of open intervals. Concretely, the length of an open interval is first defined as ℓ = b − a. so that the Lebesgue outer measure μ ∗ of a general set E may be defined as μ ∗ = inf. In the physical sciences and engineering, when one speaks of units of length, the word length is synonymous with distance. There are several units. Units of length may have been derived from the lengths of human body parts, the distance traveled in a number of paces, the distance between landmarks or places on the Earth, or arbitrarily on the length of some common object. In the International System of Units, the basic unit of length is the metre and is now defined in terms of the speed of light; the millimetre and the kilometre, derived from the metre, are commonly used units. In U. S. customary units, English or Imperial system of units used units of length are the inch, the foot, the yard, the mile.

A unit of length used in navigation is the nautical mile. Units used to denote distances in the vastness of space, as in astronomy

Fanny Elizabeth Hunt was the first woman to graduate with a Bachelor of Science from the University of Sydney, graduating in 1888. Hunt was born in Reading and was one of ten children of Margaret Morgan and Edwin Hunt, a teacher who became the headmaster of the Randwick Orphanage School; the family moved to Australia in 1879. She started her degree in the Faculty of Arts but in her second year enrolled in the Faculty of Science, she graduated in the Great Hall at Sydney University on Saturday 14 April 1888, becoming the first woman to graduate with a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Sydney. She was presented by Professor Liversidge to the Chancellor Sir William Manning who conferred the degree, she was the first headmistress of Ipswich Girls' Grammar School, from its opening in 1892 until 1901, being selected from a group of thirty applicants'of unusual merit'. One of the school's houses in named in her honour. In 1903 she founded Girton College, a girls' boarding school in Toowoomba, which closed in 1910.

The Toowoomba Preparatory School opened on its site in 1911. Hunt was a member of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, a life member of the Linnean Society

Christian Andreas Doppler was an Austrian mathematician and physicist. He is celebrated for his principle – known as the Doppler effect – that the observed frequency of a wave depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer, he used this concept to explain the color of binary stars. Doppler was born in Salzburg in 1803. After completing high school, Doppler studied philosophy in Salzburg and mathematics and physics at the Imperial–Royal Polytechnic Institute, where he became an assistant in 1829. In 1835 he began work at the Prague Polytechnic, where he received an appointment in 1841. One year at the age of 38, Doppler gave a lecture to the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences and subsequently published his most notable work, Über das farbige Licht der Doppelsterne und einiger anderer Gestirne des Himmels. There is a facsimile edition with an English translation by Alec Eden. In this work, Doppler postulated his principle that the observed frequency of a wave depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer, he tried to use this concept for explaining the colour of binary stars.

This was independently at the same time when physicist Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau became involved in aspects of the discovery of the Doppler effect, known by the French as the Doppler-Fizeau Effect. Fizeau contributed towards understanding its effect with light rather than sound, in doing so, corrected many of Doppler's persistent errors, he developed the formal mathematical theorem underlying the principles of this effect. In 1848, he discovered the frequency shift of a wave when the source and receiver are moving relative to each other, therefore being the first to predict blue shifts and red shifts of light waves. Doppler continued working as a professor at the Prague Polytechnic, publishing over 50 articles on mathematics and astronomy, but in 1847 he left Prague for the professorship of mathematics and mechanics at the Academy of Mines and Forests in Selmecbánya, in 1849 he moved to Vienna. Doppler's research was interrupted by the revolutionary incidents of 1848. During the Hungarian Revolution, he fled to Vienna.

There he was appointed head of the Institute for Experimental Physics at the University of Vienna in 1850. While there, along with Franz Unger, influenced the development of young Gregor Mendel, the founding father of genetics, a student at the University of Vienna from 1851 to 1853. Doppler died on 17 March 1853 at age 49 from a pulmonary disease in Venice, his tomb, found by Dr. Peter M. Schuster, is just inside the entrance of the Venetian island cemetery of San Michele; some confusion exists about Doppler's full name. Doppler referred to himself as Christian Doppler; the records of his birth and baptism stated Christian Andreas Doppler. Forty years after Doppler's death the misnomer Johann Christian Doppler was introduced by the astronomer Julius Scheiner. Scheiner's mistake has since been copied by many. On 29 November 2017, Google celebrated his 214th birthday with a Google Doodle. Christian Doppler. Wien: Böhlau, 1992. Bd. 1: ISBN 3-205-05483-0 1. Teil: Helmuth Grössing: Wissenschaft, Umwelt, Gesellschaft.

Teil: Karl Kadletz Quellenanhang. Bd. 2: ISBN 3-205-05508-X 3. Teil: Peter Schuster: Das Werk. List of Austrian scientists List of Austrians List of minor planets named after people Alec Eden: Christian Doppler: Leben und Werk. Salzburg: Landespressebureau, 1988. ISBN 3-85015-069-0 Hoffmann, Robert; the Life of an Unknown Person. Christian Doppler's Youth in Vienna. In: Ewald Hiebl, Maurizio Musso, Christian Doppler – Life and Work. Principle an Applications. Proceedings of the Commemorative Symposia in Salzburg, Prague, Venice. Pöllauberg/Austria, Hainault/UK, Atascadero/US, pages 33 – 46. Christian Doppler at Find a Grave O'Connor, John J..

Omon Ra is a short novel by Russian writer Victor Pelevin, published in 1992 by the Tekst Publishing House in Moscow. It was the first novel by Pelevin, who until was known for his short stories. Pelevin traces the absurd fate of the protagonist Omon, named by his policeman father, placing him in circumstances that are both fantastic and at the same time have recognizable everyday detail. Pelevin uses this story to illustrate the underlying absurdity of the Soviet establishment with its fixation on "heroic achievements" in those fields of human endeavor which could be favorably presented to the outside world—science, the military, most space exploration; the book met with a significant success in the early post-Soviet cultural landscape and continues to be reprinted. An excerpt under the name "Lunokhod" was published in 1991 in the magazine "Knowledge is Power" and in the collection Blue Lantern. A variation of the book was published in the magazine The Banner in 1992. In 1993 the book was awarded with two literary prizes, the "Interpresson" and the "Bronze Snail".

The book is narrated in the first person. It is Bildungsroman; the protagonist is Omon Krivomazov, born in Moscow post-World War II. The plot traces his life from early childhood. In his teenage years, the realization strikes him that he must break free of Earth's gravity to free himself of the demands of the Soviet society and the rigid ideological confines of the state. After finishing high school, he enrolls in a military academy. Omon soon finds that the academy does not, in fact, create future pilots, but instead exposes cadets to a series of treacherous trials, beginning with the amputation of both of their feet; the goal of the trials is to manifest Soviet heroism in the cadets. These amputations come as a reference to a famous Soviet ace-pilot Alexey Maresyev, despite being badly injured in a plane crash after a dogfight, managed to return to Soviet-controlled territory on his own. During his 18-day-long journey, his injuries deteriorated so badly that both of his legs had to be amputated below the knee.

Desperate to return to his fighter pilot career, he subjected himself to nearly a year of physical therapy and exercise to master control of his prosthetic devices. He succeeded and returned to flying in June 1943. Before any intentional amputation can occur and his friend are whisked out of the academy into a top-secret installation, located under KGB headquarters in Moscow. There, they start preparing for an "unmanned" mission to the Moon. Omon is told that to substitute for researching and launching an automated probe, the Party prefers to use people, trained for "heroism", to fulfill the tasks nominally performed by machines, such as rocket stage separation, space vehicle course correction and so on. Soon Omon indeed seems to be launched to the Moon, strapped into a seat inside a Lunokhod, which he is meant to drive like a bicycle on the lunar surface, he is the final piece in a multi-stage mission to deliver a radio beacon to a specific point on the Moon and activate it. This he does though once he leaves the confines of the hermetically sealed Lunokhod, his protection against the vacuum and the interstellar cold consists of a cotton-filled overcoat and "special hydrocompensatory tampons" stuffed up his nose.

However, when the time comes for Omon to shoot himself after he places the beacon, according to his orders, the gun he was given for the purpose misfires. Omon finds himself not on the Moon at all, but in an abandoned subway tunnel, where he had been driving his Lunokhod all along, ignoring all signs which might have given him a clue as to his real whereabouts, he tries to escape and is chased and shot at, but he manages to find his way into the "normal" world again, coming up into one of the stations of the Moscow Metro. One of Omon's "teachers" explains the idea behind the charade: if the fact that the Soviet Union is a champion of peaceful space exploration holds true only inside a person's head, this is not any different from it being the reality; the reality, when it concerns subjects not capable of being experienced, is in fact only a perception formed in people's consciousness, can be manipulated to the extent that the question of "true" version of events becomes meaningless. The title, Omon Ra, refers to the main character's given and chosen names.

Omon's first name comes from the acronym for a branch of the Russian police force. It was given to him by his father. Ra is an allusion to the Egyptian Sun god, whose head is that of a falcon. Omon bestowed this surname upon himself, inspired by the fact that the word falcon was sometimes applied to cosmonauts and heroes. Ra is connected with the Egyptian myth of the sun orbiting the earth, which connects to Omon's obsession with spaceflight. Ra becomes his call sign for the lunar mission. Together these names relate to Omon's dream of flight and the absurd military system he must go through to achieve it. Omon Ra Raised by the Soviet apparatus due to his apathetic aunt and absent father, Omon dreams of becoming a cosmonaut, he is selected for a special program. Mitiok Omon's friend, who dreams of going into space, he was executed after the "reincarnational test" which revealed that he had been a Nazi officer in his previous life. Colonel Urchagin Blind and paralysed graduate of the military political academy named after Pavel Korchagin, the protagonist of the novel How the Steel was Tempered (his injury is the reference to the author of the novel Nikolai Ostrov

John Middleton Co. a subsidiary of Altria Group, is the second largest manufacturer of large machine-made cigars, a maker of pipe tobacco. Cigar brands sold by John Middleton include Black & Mild, Middleton's Cherry Blend, Gold & Mild and Prince Albert's. Prince Albert's is available in Soft & Sweet Vanilla. Black & Mild is the top-selling cigar in the five-pack category the United States, with nearly a third of the market in 2009. Pipe tobacco brands include Apple, Black & Mild, Carter Hall, Middleton's Cherry Blend, Gold & Mild, Kentucky Club, Prince Albert, Royal Comfort, Sugar Barrel and Wine Berry. Kentucky Club is available in original, Continental Blend and Mixture, Prince Albert's is available in original, Cherry Vanilla and Soft Vanilla. In 1856, John Middleton opened a tobacco store in Pennsylvania, his family added more stores and a mail order business. In 1950, the company began making its own pipe tobacco, by 1959 sold its stores and concentrated on making and selling tobacco. In 1960, John Middleton Co. moved to King of Pennsylvania.

In 1968, using Middleton's Cherry Blend, the company began making pipe-tobacco cigars. In 1980, Black & Mild became the company's second cigar brand, its top seller by 1996. By the late 1980s, John Middleton Co. had bought the pipe tobacco brands Kentucky Club, Prince Albert, Carter Hall and Royal Comfort. In 1997, the company bought a facility in Limerick, which became its primary manufacturing location the next year. Processing remained at King of Prussia. In the 1990s, the company introduced two Prince Albert cigar brands. In 2007, John Middleton Co. became a subsidiary of Altria Group. During the same decade, the company introduced several more Black & Mild cigar products, including one, shorter than the others. John S. Middleton Official website

Clifford Guy McIntire was a member of the US House of Representatives from Maine. He was born in Perham, Maine on May 4, 1908. After attending public schools, he was graduated from the University of Maine's College of Agriculture at Orono in 1930. After graduating from college, he purchased a large farm, which he managed until 1952. McIntire worked in various roles for the Farm Credit Administration between 1933 and 1947, serving as an appraiser and regional manager, he became the assistant general manager of Maine Potato Growers, Inc. at Presque Isle, Maine from 1947 to 1951. McIntire was elected as a Republican to the Eighty-second Congress, by special election, October 22, 1951, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Frank Fellows, he was reelected to the six succeeding Congresses and served from October 22, 1951, to January 3, 1965. McIntire voted in favor of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960, 1964, he was not a candidate for reelection in 1964 but was instead an unsuccessful candidate for election to the Senate, losing to the popular Edmund Muskie by an overwhelming margin.

McIntire served as director of the American Farm Bureau Federation and was a member of Richard Nixon's Task Force on Rural Development between 1969 and 1970. He was appointed by President Gerald Ford in September 1974 to the newly created United States Railway Association. However, he died soon afterwards in Bangor, Maine, on October 1, 1974. United States Congress. "Clifford McIntire". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress