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Lenna or Lena is the name given to a standard test image used in the field of image processing since 1973. It is a picture of the Swedish model Lena Forsén, shot by photographer Dwight Hooker, cropped from the centerfold of the November 1972 issue of Playboy magazine; the spelling "Lenna" came from the model's desire to encourage the proper pronunciation of her name. "I didn't want to be called Leena," she explained. Before Lenna, the first use of a Playboy magazine image to illustrate image processing algorithms was in 1961. Lawrence G. Roberts used two cropped 6-bit grayscale facsimile scanned images from Playboy's July 1960 issue featuring Playmate Teddi Smith, in his MIT master's thesis on image dithering. Intended for high resolution color image processing study, the Lenna picture's history was described in the May 2001 newsletter of the IEEE Professional Communication Society, in an article by Jamie Hutchinson: Alexander Sawchuk estimates that it was in June or July of 1973 when he an assistant professor of electrical engineering at the University of Southern California Signal and Image Processing Institute, along with a graduate student and the SIPI lab manager, was hurriedly searching the lab for a good image to scan for a colleague's conference paper.

They got tired of their stock of usual test images, dull stuff dating back to television standards work in the early 1960s. They wanted something glossy to ensure good output dynamic range, they wanted a human face. Just somebody happened to walk in with a recent issue of Playboy; the engineers tore away the top third of the centerfold so they could wrap it around the drum of their Muirhead wirephoto scanner, which they had outfitted with analog-to-digital converters and a Hewlett Packard 2100 minicomputer. The Muirhead had a fixed resolution of 100 lines per inch and the engineers wanted a 512×512 image, so they limited the scan to the top 5.12 inches of the picture cropping it at the subject's shoulders. This scan became one of the most used images in computer history. In a 1999 issue of IEEE Transactions on Image Processing "Lena" was used in three separate articles, the picture continued to appear in scientific journals throughout the beginning of the 21st century. Lenna is so accepted in the image processing community that Forsén was a guest at the 50th annual Conference of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology in 1997.

The use of the photo in electronic imaging has been described as "clearly one of the most important events in history". In 2015, Lena Forsén was guest of honor at the banquet of IEEE ICIP 2015. After delivering a speech, she chaired the best paper award ceremony. To explain Lenna's popularity, David C. Munson, editor-in-chief of IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, noted that it was a good test image because of its detail, flat regions and texture. However, he noted that its popularity was because an image of an attractive woman appealed to the males in a male-dominated field. While Playboy cracks down on illegal uses of its material and did send out notices to research publications and journals that used the image, over time it has decided to overlook the wide use of Lena. Eileen Kent, VP of new media at Playboy, said, "We decided we should exploit this, because it is a phenomenon." The use of the image has produced controversy because Playboy is "seen as being degrading to women", the Lenna photo has been pointed to as an example of sexism in the sciences, reinforcing gender stereotypes.

In a 1999 essay on reasons for the male predominance in computer science, applied mathematician Dianne P. O'Leary wrote: Suggestive pictures used in lectures on image processing... convey the message that the lecturer caters to the males only. For example, it is amazing that the "Lena" pin-up image is still used as an example in courses and published as a test image in journals today. A 2012 paper on compressed sensing used a photo of the model Fabio Lanzoni as a test image to draw attention to this issue; the use of the test image at the magnet school Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology in Fairfax County, Virginia provoked a guest editorial by a senior in The Washington Post in 2015 about its detrimental impact on aspiring female students in computer science. In 2017, the Journal of Modern Optics published an editorial titled "On alternatives to Lenna" suggesting three images that "are reasonably close to Lenna in feature space". In 2018, the Nature Research family of journals announced that they would no longer consider articles using the Lenna image.

On 19 November 2019, Code Like a Girl released a film and campaign called Losing Lena, with the aim of eliminating use of the Lena image in order to encourage more female participation in computing. As of 2001, Jeff Seideman, of the Society for Imaging Science and Technology, was working with the archivist of Playboy to rescan the image from the original negatives. Actroid Carole Hersee Lorem ipsum Shirley cards Stanford bunny Suzanne Utah teapot China Girl Lenna 97: A Complete Story of Lenna The Lenna Story – the original story of Lenna and an un-cropped scan of the original Playboy photograph

NASA Astronaut Group 17

NASA Astronaut Group 17, were chosen by NASA in 1998. The group of 32 candidates included eight pilots, 17 mission specialists, seven international mission specialists who become NASA astronauts, they began training in August 1998. Lee Archambault Pilot, STS-117 Commander, STS-119 Christopher FergusonPilot, STS-115 Commander, STS-126 Commander, STS-135 Kenneth HamPilot, STS-124 Commander, STS-132 Gregory C. JohnsonPilot, STS-125 Gregory H. JohnsonPilot, STS-123, Pilot, STS-134, William Oefelein Pilot, STS-116, Alan PoindexterPilot, STS-122, Commander, STS-131 George ZamkaPilot, STS-120, Commander, STS-130, Clayton AndersonSTS-117 Flight engineer, Expedition 15 STS-120 STS-131 Tracy CaldwellSTS-118 Flight engineer, Expedition 23/Expedition 24 Gregory ChamitoffNEEMO 3 Mission Specialist, STS-124 Flight engineer, Expedition 17/Expedition 18 Mission Specialist, STS-126 Mission Specialist, STS-134 Timothy CreamerFlight engineer, Expedition 22/Expedition 23 Michael ForemanMission specialist, STS-123 Mission specialist, STS-129 Michael FossumMission specialist, STS-121 Mission specialist, STS-124 Soyuz TMA-02M Flight engineer, Expedition 28 Commander, Expedition 29 Stanley G. LoveMission specialist, STS-122 Leland MelvinMission specialist, STS-122 Mission specialist, STS-129 Barbara MorganSTS-118 John OlivasMission specialist, STS-117 Mission specialist, STS-128 Nicholas PatrickMission specialist, STS-116 Mission specialist, STS-130 Garrett ReismanSTS-123 Flight engineer, Expedition 16/Expedition 17 STS-124 STS-132 Patricia Robertson Steven SwansonMission specialist, STS-117 Mission specialist, STS-119 Douglas H. WheelockMission specialist, STS-120 Sunita WilliamsSTS-116 Flight engineer, Expedition 14/Expedition 15 STS-117 Soyuz TMA-05M Flight engineer, Expedition 32 Commander, Expedition 33 Commander, USCV-2 Neil Woodward Léopold Eyharts, FranceSoyuz TM-27 Soyuz TM-26 STS-122 Flight Engineer, Expedition 16 STS-123 Paolo Nespoli, ItalySTS-120 Soyuz TMA-20 Expedition 26 Expedition 27 Marcos Pontes, Brazil Soyuz TMA-8 Soyuz TMA-9 Expedition 13, International Space Station Hans Schlegel, GermanyPayload Specialist, STS-55 Mission Specialist, STS-122 Robert Thirsk, CanadaPayload Specialist, STS-78 Soyuz TMA-15 Bjarni Tryggvason, CanadaPayload Specialist, STS-85 Roberto Vittori Soyuz TM-34 Soyuz TM-33 Soyuz TMA-6 Expedition 11 Soyuz TMA-5 Mission Specialist, STS-134 List of astronauts by selection Current astronauts page Retired astronauts page Foreign astronauts page Payload specialist astronauts page

Geography of the British Indian Ocean Territory

The British Indian Ocean Territory is an archipelago of 55 islands in the Indian Ocean, located south of India. It is situated halfway between Africa and Indonesia; the islands form a semicircular group with an open sea towards the east. The largest, Diego Garcia, is located at the southern extreme end, it measures 60 square kilometres and accounts for three-quarters of the total land area of the territory. Diego Garcia is home to the joint UK-US naval support facility. Other islands within the archipelago include Danger Island, Three Brothers Islands, Nelson Island, Peros Banhos, as well as the island groups of the Egmont Islands, Eagle Islands, the Salomon Islands. BIOT is an archipelago of 55 islands, they were annexed by the UK in 1965 under the Treaty of Paris from a much larger archipelago which in 1804 consisted of 2,300 independent islands. BIOT is situated in the Indian Ocean near the Equator, it is halfway between Africa and Indonesia, about 1,000 miles southwest of India. It is situated 1,600 kilometres from South India and 600 kilometres to the south of the Maldives With a coastline stretching 698 kilometres, it is the southern extension of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge.

The Chagos Islands archipelago are northeast of Mauritius. The islands are characterised as coral atolls whose formation occurred at the summits of volcanic mountains these being submerged; the terrain is low, with most areas not exceeding 2 metres above sea level. The climate is tropical marine, it is located outside the route of the cyclones. The lagoon that surrounds the atoll has an area of about 120 square kilometres; the maximum water depth in the lagoon is about 25 metres. The width of the coral reef varies from 100–200 metres with a shallow depth of about 1 metre on the seaward side; the area covered by the fringing seaward reef shelf is about 35.2 square kilometres. The bed slope noted at the outer edge of the reef shelf is steep towards the deeper end. In 2010, the whole territory, as well as 545,000 square kilometres of ocean around the islands, was declared a marine reserve, it is known formally as the Chagos Marine Protected Area, because it is a "pristine ocean ecosystem now representing 16% of the world's protected coral reef."

Fishing is banned within the reserve area. Diego Garcia is a Ramsar site. Of the 55 islands of the Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia is the largest. Aside from this, the main islands are the Egmont Islands, Danger Island, Aigle Islands, Three Brothers, Nelson Island, Salomon Islands, Peros Banhos at the northern end of the Chagos Archipelago.7478 The coral atoll of Diego Garcia is 1,970 nautical miles east of the coast of Africa, 967 nautical miles south-southwest of the southern tip of India and 2,550 nautical miles west-northwest of the west coast of Australia. Diego Garcia lies at the southernmost tip of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge — a vast submarine range in the Indian Ocean; the total area encompassed by the atoll. At the entrance to the lagoon, there are three small islands, these are East Island, Middle Island, West Island. In some areas, the atoll has both wetlands; the ecosystem consists of undisturbed tropical forests. The Peros Banhos Islands, which are the largest group on the Chagos Bank, consists of 27 islands scattered around the rim of an immense lagoon, which has a perimeter of 12 leagues and enclosed some 310 square km of water.

They consist of several groups of reefs. They had a population of some 400 islanders before the evacuation in 1965, the largest number living on Île du Coin in the southwest corner of the atoll; some 25 km east of Peros Panhos Atoll, the smaller Salomon group comprises eleven islands clustered around a lagoon measuring 8 km long and 5 km wide. Prior to the removal of its population, six of the islands were inhabited with a total of about 250 islanders. Île Boddam in the southwest was the principal settlement, while Île Takamaka in the east was the centre of boatbuilding for the archipelago. Lying between Diego Garcia in the south, the Peros Banhos and Salomon Atolls in the north, the remaining coralline islands are scattered over a wide area of the Great Chagos Bank, an area of atolls and shoals with an average depth of water of some 20 metres. Uninhabited Île Nelson lies 35 km south of Salomon Atoll. A hundred km to the southwest of Nelson are the 3 islands of Trois Frères, which were inhabited in the 19th century.

Further west lies the Île d'Aigle, inhabited until 1935. Île Vache Marine, the southernmost of the Eagle Islands, lies south. Île Danger, 20 km south of Île d'Aigle, has never been inhabited. It is covered with tall coconut shrubs. Six Îles Atoll, 5 leagues further south of Danger, was occupied for short periods during the mid 19th century until 1935. Besides the six named islands, the atoll includes a seventh unnamed island; the atoll, in the form

Cosmo's Midnight

Cosmo's Midnight are an Australian electronic music duo formed by twin brothers and Patrick Liney in 2012. Their 2018 debut studio album, What Comes Next, reached the top 40 on the ARIA Albums Chart. Cosmo's Midnight were formed by the twin brothers and Patrick Liney, as a music duo in Sydney in 2012, they provide different styles within electronic music with pop and R&B elements. Their tracks have been included in several compilation albums such as the 2015 Ministry of Sound FUT. UR. ISM 3.0 and Chillout Sessions XVIII. Tracks have been presented on radio stations such as Triple J, FBi Radio, BBC Radio 1, KEXP, they were signed to Astral People management after winning a Future Classic remix contest for Flume's "Sleepless" in 2012. Cosmo's Midnight released their debut single, "Phantasm" featuring Nicole Millar, followed by their debut extended play, Surge, on indie label, Yes Please, in mid-2013, they remixed other artists including Panama, Indian Summer, Anna Lunoe and AlunaGeorge before signing to Sony Music Australia in 2014.

Cosmo's Midnight released singles "Snare" featuring Wild Eyed Boy and "Walk with Me" featuring Kučka as well as their second EP, Moments, in 2015. They undertook their first tour of North America early in 2017, followed in August with their next single, "Mind Off" featuring Kudu Blue; the duo released their debut album, What Comes Next, in June 2018, which peaked at No. 36 on the ARIA Albums Chart. According to AllMusic's Marcy Donelson, " bright keyboard timbres and idiosyncratic beats" had them "Working with collaborators from the pop, indie electronica, EDM realms."

Purple-throated carib

The purple-throated carib is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It breeds on Antigua, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Sint Eustatius, it has occurred as a vagrant in Barbados, Barbuda and the Virgin Islands. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and open spaces; the purple-throated carib is notable for the differences in the appearance of the sexes. The male has a shorter straight beak, her beak is about 1/3 longer. Media related to Eulampis jugularis at Wikimedia Commons

Shrine Catholic High School

Shrine Catholic High School is a private, co-educational, Roman Catholic secondary high school located in Royal Oak, affiliated with National Shrine of the Little Flower Church. It has an attached middle school called the "Academy"; the parish founded it as an all-girls school in the late 1930s as "Little Flower High". The all-boys school, "Shrine High School", was added and they were merged. Father Charles Coughlin helped establish the institution while serving as one of the first Roman Catholic priests to preach to a widespread audience over the medium of radio during the Great Depression, his program became controversial as World War II approached, bringing national attention to the parish. The Bishop asked Fr. Coughlin to give up his radio show, which he did; the school maintained the name "Shrine of the Little Flower High School" into the 1960s, when it became "Shrine High School" until its latest name change in 2001. Shrine's campus is located on 20 acres in Michigan. Features of the school include a chapel, learning resource center, an academic and college counseling center, three science labs, a two-story visual arts lab, a large library and softball fields, 2 fitness centers, a student center dining hall.

A new field house and the new Sanders Auditorium are the result of a renovation. Current technology is found throughout the school. Shrine participates in the Michigan High School Athletic Association and is a member of the Catholic High School League in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Detroit; the school has placed 17 athletes into the CHSL Hall of Fame. Shrine's sports include men's and women's basketball, cross-country, men's hockey, men's and women's soccer, women's softball, women's volleyball, men's and women's track and field, men's baseball, women's skiing, women's tennis. Kevin Bell, known as DJ Head, music producer and DJ Kristen Bell, actress Mike Haggerty, former NFL football player Keegan-Michael Key and comedian Tom Lewand, former executive vice president and chief operating officer of the Detroit Lions Jim Seymour, former NFL football wide receiver Bill Simpson, former NFL football defensive back John Wangler, former University of Michigan football quarterback Paul Vachon and author Shrine Catholic High School