Roger Joseph Kiley was an American football player and a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. Born in Chicago, Kiley received a Bachelor of Laws from Notre Dame Law School in 1923, he was a college athletic coach from 1922 to 1932, as an assistant coach at the University of Notre Dame in 1923, as head coach at Loyola University Chicago from 1923 to 1927, as an assistant coach at Auburn University from 1927 to 1932. He was a professional football player for the Chicago Cardinals in 1923, he was in private practice of law in Chicago from 1933 to 1940. He was a member of the Chicago Board of Alderman from 1933 to 1940, he was a Judge of the Superior Court of Cook County in Illinois in 1940. He was a Judge of the Illinois Appellate Court for the First District in Chicago from 1941 to 1961. A native of Chicago, Kiley was a prominent end for Knute Rockne's Notre Dame Fighting Irish, one of the sports' first great pass catchers, paired with Eddie Anderson and catching passes from George Gipp.
Kiley was nominated by President John F. Kennedy on June 20, 1961, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit vacated by Judge William Lynn Parkinson, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 27, 1961, received his commission on June 30, 1961. He assumed senior status on January 1, 1974, his service was terminated on September 1974, due to his death in River Forest, Illinois. Roger Kiley at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Career statistics and player information from Pro-Football-Reference Roger Kiley at Find a Grave
Jerry Lyne is a South Side Chicagoan, who played for and coached the Loyola Ramblers men's basketball team over the course of several decades that he was affiliated with the Loyola University Chicago. Lyne began playing basketball in 5th grade at Little Flower School on the North Side of Chicago, where he became captain. Subsequently, he became captain for Loyola, he started for three and captained the team as a senior. While a student at Loyola in the Near North Side community area, he commuted to and from the Auburn Gresham community area on the South Side via the Chicago Transit Authority buses and Chicago'L'. After serving as an assistant coach for twelve years under George Ireland, Lyne became the interim coach when Ireland retired due to health reasons in January 1975, he remained coach until 1980. Lyne became an assistant for the 1962–63 Loyola Ramblers men's basketball team who won the 1963 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. During his 12 years as an assistant, he worked at his father's tavern as a porter.
He worked for the last seven summers of his assistantship for the Chicago Park District's basketball program. Under his helm, the 1977–78 Ramblers were victorious at home over Larry Bird's Indiana State Sycamores team, 79–76. During his final season as coach, the team set the Loyola single-game scoring record with a 133-point performance on November 22, 1979 against Loras College, he concluded his coaching career with a 105–87 loss to Illinois in the 1980 National Invitation Tournament. Lyne was inducted into the Chicago Sports Hall of Fame in 1989. Coaching record at Sports-reference.com
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden, colloquially known as The Garden or in initials as MSG, is a multi-purpose indoor arena in New York City. Located in Midtown Manhattan between 7th and 8th Avenues from 31st to 33rd Streets, it is situated atop Pennsylvania Station, it is the fourth venue to bear the name "Madison Square Garden". The Garden is used for professional basketball and ice hockey, as well as boxing, ice shows, professional wrestling and other forms of sports and entertainment, it is close to other midtown Manhattan landmarks, including the Empire State Building and Macy's at Herald Square. It is home to the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League, the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association, was home to the New York Liberty from 1997 to 2017. Called Madison Square Garden Center, the Garden opened on February 11, 1968, is the oldest major sporting facility in the New York metropolitan area, it is the oldest arena in the National Hockey League and the second-oldest arena in the National Basketball Association.
In 2016, MSG was the second-busiest music arena in the world in terms of ticket sales, behind The O2 Arena in London. Including two major renovations, its total construction cost is $1.1 billion, it has been ranked as one of the 10 most expensive stadium venues built. It is part of the Pennsylvania Plaza office and retail complex, named for the railroad station. Several other operating entities related to the Garden share its name. Madison Square is formed by the intersection of 5th Broadway at 23rd Street in Manhattan, it was named after James Madison, fourth President of the United States. Two venues called Madison Square Garden were located just northeast of the square, the first from 1879 to 1890, the second from 1890 to 1925; the first Garden, leased to P. T. Barnum, had no roof and was inconvenient to use during inclement weather, so it was demolished after 11 years. Madison Square Garden II was designed by noted architect Stanford White; the new building was built by a syndicate which included J. P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, P. T. Barnum, Darius Mills, James Stillman and W. W. Astor.
White gave them a Beaux-Arts structure with a Moorish feel, including a minaret-like tower modeled after Giralda, the bell tower of the Cathedral of Seville – soaring 32 stories – the city's second tallest building at the time – dominating Madison Square Park. It was 200 feet by 485 feet, the main hall, the largest in the world, measured 200 feet by 350 feet, with permanent seating for 8,000 people and floor space for thousands more, it had a 1,200-seat theatre, a concert hall with a capacity of 1,500, the largest restaurant in the city and a roof garden cabaret. The building cost $3 million. Madison Square Garden II was unsuccessful like the first Garden, the New York Life Insurance Company, which held the mortgage on it, decided to tear it down in 1925 to make way for a new headquarters building, which would become the landmark Cass Gilbert-designed New York Life Building. A third Madison Square Garden opened in a new location, on 8th Avenue between 49th and 50th Streets, from 1925 to 1968.
Groundbreaking on the third Madison Square Garden took place on January 9, 1925. Designed by the noted theater architect Thomas W. Lamb, it was built at the cost of $4.75 million in 249 days by boxing promoter Tex Rickard. The arena was 200 feet by 375 feet, with seating on three levels, a maximum capacity of 18,496 spectators for boxing. Demolition commenced in 1968 after the opening of the current Garden, was completed in early 1969; the site is now the location of One Worldwide Plaza. In 1959, Graham-Paige purchased a controlling interest in the Madison Square Garden. In November 1960, Graham-Paige president Irving Mitchell Felt purchased from the Pennsylvania Railroad the rights to build at Penn Station. To build the new facility, the above-ground portions of the original Pennsylvania Station were torn down; the new structure was one of the first of its kind to be built above the platforms of an active railroad station. It was an engineering feat constructed by Robert E. McKee of Texas. Public outcry over the demolition of the Pennsylvania Station structure—an outstanding example of Beaux-Arts architecture—led to the creation of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission.
The venue opened on February 11, 1968. In 1972, Felt proposed moving the Knicks and Rangers to a incomplete venue in the New Jersey Meadowlands, the Meadowlands Sports Complex; the Garden was the home arena for the NY Raiders/NY Golden Blades of the World Hockey Association. The Meadowlands would host its own NBA and NHL teams, the New Jersey Nets and the New Jersey Devils, respectively; the New York Giants and Jets of the National Football League relocated there. In 1977, the arena was sold to Western Industries. Felt's efforts fueled controversy between the New York City over real estate taxes; the disagreement again flared in 1980. The arena, since the 1980s, has since enjoyed tax-free status, under the condition that all Knicks and Rangers home games must be hosted at MSG, lest it lose this exemption. Garden owners spent $200 million in 1991 to renovate facilities and add 89 suites in place of hundreds of upper-tier seats; the project was designed by Ellerbe Becket. In 2004–2005, Cablevision battled with the City of New York over the proposed West Side Stadium, cancelled.
Chicago Public High School League
The Chicago Public High School Athletic Association known as the Chicago Public League, is the interscholastic competition arm of the Chicago Public Schools. The governance of the CPL is set through the Department of Sports Administration and Facilities of CPS. Origins of the Chicago Public League can be traced back to its predecessor, the Cook County High School League, which started during 1889-90; some of the schools that participated in the Cook County League still exist today: Crane, Lincoln Park, Hyde Park, Calumet, Austin and Lake View. Three other schools from this League have since gone to other leagues around the area: University High, which plays in the Independent League, Lyons Township High of LaGrange and Oak Park High, both of which now play in the West Suburban Conference; the Chicago Public High School League was formed in the summer of 1913, when the Cook County High School League broke apart as a result of the Chicago Board of Education desire to be responsible for a league in which all the schools would be under its jurisdiction.
The suburban schools joined by University High formed the Suburban League. In the first 15 years of the Public league's history a full plethora of sports were offered; the dominant powers were such traditional powers as Hyde Park, Lane Tech, Crane Tech, joined by new powers Senn, Lindblom and Tilden Tech. The mid-1920s saw the adoption of such exotic sports as gymnastics, rifle marksmanship, indoor golf, speed skating, but none of these sports attracted more than a small percentage of the schools. During the 1920s, the Chicago Public League, which had unofficially abided by the Illinois High School Athletic Association ban on all girls interscholastic contests, began to relax its strictures against interscholastic sports for girls; the league in 1922 began sponsoring tennis and swimming competition, became lax in its ban on the other sports, so that the girls began interschool competition in basketball and softball. However, when the CPL schools began joining the IHSAA in 1926 the league ended its sponsorship of girls' golf and swimming, cracked down on girls' interscholastic contests in the other sports.
The CPL did not return to girls' interscholastics until the early 1970s, with the passage of Title IX by the federal government in 1972. Beginning with the Great Migration coming in the 1920s, a number of schools became predominantly African American, notably Phillips, DuSable, Forrestville, Carver; the advent of charter schools in the late 1990s and early 2000s yet saw another expansion of the league as schools such as CICS, Noble Network of Charter Schools, ACE Technical Charter High School were included. The CPL as it stands today is diverse with nearly every major nationality and race represented in all sports; the CPL is headed by the Director of Sports Administration and Facilities of the Chicago Public Schools. Calvin Davis holds this position. Davis, who has 25 years of teaching and administrative experience in the Chicago Public Schools took over in 2003 after being selected by CEO Arne Duncan to replace Dr. J. W. Smith who retired that year. Under the Director are the City Wide Sport Coordinators, who govern competition in the sports that they are assigned.
Some coordinators handle multiple sports: one example is Mickey Pruitt, a graduate of Robeson and former member of the Chicago Bears. Pruitt governs competition in football and lacrosse. Nearly every sport has four playing levels: Varsity, Sophomore and Elementary. Incoming freshmen can ` play-up' to either varsity levels; the elementary school sports program which offers 17 sports for girls and boys in grades five through eight for 500 schools was developed in the late 1990s by the league as a way to close the athletic gap between the CPL and its parochial counterpart, the Chicago Catholic League/Girls Catholic Athletic Conference. Today, coaches in the high school sector of the CPL recruit the elementary division to fill their ranks, as opposed to earlier years where most kids came into the high school athletic arena with little or no experience; the championship trophy of the CPL is noted by "The Shield". A school holding one of these trophies is recognized as having beaten a large field of competitors for the city title.
Until 2004, the trophy was made of wood with either a gold or silver plate notating champion or runner-up finish. Since 2004, it is now made of black marble with gold trimming and plated with a silver sculpture of the sport the trophy was earned in. Between 1972 and 2002, the holder of The Shield gained automatic entry into the Illinois State Finals in most sports. Since the city championship has been decided prior to the start of the state tournament. Another reason schools play for The Shield is the venues; every year The Shield is contested in a number of major college stadiums. Over the years they have included Soldier Field, the UIC Pavilion, United Center, International Amphitheater, Chicago Coliseum, Chicago Stadium, Wrigley Field, Comiskey Park-US Cellular Field, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago State University, Northeastern Illinois University, DePaul University. With the exception of s
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Porter Andrew Moser is the head men's basketball coach at Loyola University Chicago. From Naperville, Moser attended and played varsity basketball at Benet Academy, Creighton University. Moser held the head coaching position at Illinois State and Arkansas-Little Rock. Prior to being hired at Loyola, Moser was an assistant coach at Saint Louis under Rick Majerus for the 2007-08 season, the associate head coach from 2008-11. During his high school career, Moser helped at Benet Academy in suburban Lisle to a 70-14 record in three years on the varsity roster, playing for coach Bill Geist; the Naperville native led Benet to three East Suburban Catholic Conference titles and was a three-time all-conference and two-time all-area selection. As a senior, he was named Most Valuable Player in the West Suburban Catholic Conference. On May 6, 2017, he was inducted into the Illinois Basketball Coaches Association Hall of Fame. Moser went on to play college basketball at Creighton University for coach Tony Barone, where he helped the Bluejays to a Missouri Valley Conference Championship and NCAA Tournament appearance in 1989.
He played in 102 games including 27 starts, averaging 4.6 points and 1.7 assists per game during his collegiate career. After graduating from Creighton, Moser began his coaching career in the 1990–91 season as a graduate assistant at Creighton under Barone. Following Barone to Texas A&M, Moser was an assistant there from 1991 to 1995 and helped Texas A&M make its first postseason appearance in seven years, in the 1994 National Invitation Tournament. After serving as an assistant at Milwaukee in the 1995–96 season, Moser returned to Texas A&M for what would become Barone's final two seasons as head coach from 1996 to 1998. From 1998 to 2000, Moser was an assistant coach at Arkansas–Little Rock, under Wimp Sanderson in his first season and Sidney Moncrief in his second. Moser's first head coaching job was with Arkansas–Little Rock from 2000 to 2003. Inheriting a 4-24 team, Moser led the Trojans to an 18-11 record in his first season and finished with an overall 54-34 record. Statistically, the Trojans moved from last to first in the Sun Belt Conference in field goal percentage defense and three-point field goal percentage defense in Moser's first season in 2000–01.
Moser was the head coach at Illinois State from 2003 to 2007. After finishing the 2003-04 season 10-19, Moser led Illinois State to a 17-13 overall record and sixth-place finish in the Missouri Valley Conference. However, Illinois State dropped to 9-19 including a 1 -- 9 finish. Despite an improvement to 15–16 in 2006-07 season, Illinois State lost in the first round of the MVC Tournament for the 3rd consecutive season. Seeking a change "in the overall direction of the program," Illinois State Athletics Director Sheahon Zenger fired Moser and terminated the contracts of Moser's three assistant coaches on March 5, 2007. Ranked in the top 50 Division I assistant coaches by Basketball Times in 2009, Moser was an assistant coach at Saint Louis under Rick Majerus from 2007 to 2011, including as associate head coach from 2008 to 2011. In 2009–10, Saint Louis finished 23-13 and as CBI runners-up. On April 5, 2011, Loyola University Chicago named Moser head coach of the Loyola Ramblers men's basketball team.
Moser's hire followed the firing of Jim Whitesell. In his introductory press conference, Moser said that he aspired to make Loyola–Chicago into a Horizon League contender similar to Butler. Under Moser, Loyola–Chicago went 7–23 in the 2011–12 season and 15–16 in 2012–13 before moving from the Horizon League to the Missouri Valley Conference in 2013. In its first season in the MVC, Loyola–Chicago went 10–22. Moser's fourth season was his first at Loyola–Chicago with a winning record, at 24–13 and the College Basketball Invitational title following a two-game sweep of Louisiana–Monroe. After a 15–17 season in 2015–16, Loyola–Chicago had its second winning season under Moser in 2016–17 with an 18–14 record. Moser had his most successful season at Loyola–Chicago in 2017–18, with a 32–6 record, MVC regular season and tournament titles, appearance in the Final Four as a no. 11 seed. The MVC preseason poll picked Loyola–Chicago to finish third, with one vote picking Loyola–Chicago for first place. On December 6, 2017, Loyola–Chicago beat a top-five team for the first time since the 1984–85 season after a 65-59 away upset of no. 5 Florida.
On March 4, 2018, Loyola–Chicago defeated Moser's former school Illinois State 65-49 in the MVC Tournament final to qualify for the NCAA Tournament for the first time since 1985. Entering the NCAA Tournament as a no. 11 seed, Loyola–Chicago had close upset victories in the first three rounds, 64-62 over no. 6 Miami in the Round of 64, 63-62 over no. 3 Tennessee in the Round of 32, 69-68 over no. 7 Nevada in the Sweet 16. The win over Nevada was the 30th overall win for Loyola–Chicago, enough for the most wins in program history. Loyola–Chicago advanced to its first Final Four since the 1963 national title year, after a 78-62 win over no. 9 Kansas State. Loyola became only the fourth no. 11 seed to reach the Final Four, after LSU in 1986, George Mason in 2006, VCU in 2011. On March 31, Loyola–Chicago lost to no. 3 Michigan 69-57 in their Final Four game held at the Alamodome in San Antonio. Prior to Final Four weekend, Moser expressed hope that his team's run in the tournament would make it easier for other mid-major programs to earn at-large NCAA Tournament bids.
During the 2019 NCAA Tournament, Moser signed on with CBS and Turner as a guest TV studio analyst for the second round of the tournament. Moser has a wife and four children, Jake and Max; the Moser family
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It