The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Homer the Great
"Homer the Great" is the twelfth episode of The Simpsons' sixth season. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on January 8, 1995. In the episode, Homer joins an ancient secret society known as the Stonecutters; the episode was directed by Jim Reardon. Patrick Stewart guest stars as "Number One", the leader of the Springfield chapter of the Stonecutters, it features cultural references to Freemasonry and the films Raiders of the Lost Ark and The Last Emperor. Since airing, the episode has received many positive reviews from fans and television critics and has been called "one of the better episodes of the series" by Warren Martyn and Adrian Wood in their book I Can't Believe It's a Bigger and Better Updated Unofficial Simpsons Guide; the song "We Do" was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Music And Lyrics". Homer notices that his colleagues Lenny and Carl are enjoying inexplicable privileges at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, he discovers. To join, one must either save the life of a Stonecutter.
While extolling the Stonecutters at the dinner table, Homer discovers that his father is a member and is admitted. After the initiations, Homer takes great pleasure in the society's secret privileges. However, during a celebratory dinner with his fellow Stonecutters, he unwittingly destroys their Hallowed Sacred Parchment, he is sentenced to walk home naked. Before he leaves, however, it is discovered that Homer has a birthmark in the shape of the Stonecutter emblem, identifying him as the Chosen One who would lead the Stonecutters to greatness. Homer is crowned the new leader of the Stonecutters. Enjoying himself, Homer soon feels isolated by his power when the other members treat him differently due to his new position, asks Lisa for advice, she suggests. The other Stonecutters take this the wrong way and form a new society, the Ancient Mystic Society of No Homers. Homer becomes despondent about losing his secret club. Marge consoles him by telling him he is a member of a selective club: the Simpson family.
Homer is subsequently paddled on the bottom by Lisa to initiate him. Although "Homer the Great" was written by John Swartzwelder, the story was suggested by executive producer David Mirkin. Mirkin asked Swartzwelder to do it. Mirkin came up with the idea while driving home from a rewrite early in the morning and listened to a religious radio station where they were talking about Freemasonry. Mirkin decided it would make a great episode, where many people in Springfield were members of a Masonic society and Homer was left on the outside and felt neglected; the song "We Do" was suggested by Matt Groening. It was written by the writers' room, who threw in as many things that annoyed them as they could, it was described as "one of the series' best musical numbers" by Colin Jacobson at DVD Movie Guide, was included in the clip show "All Singing, All Dancing". The episode guest stars Patrick Stewart as Number One. Stewart said, "I think my appearance in The Simpsons and an appearance that I did on Sesame Street—in praise of the letter B—were the two most distinguished bits of work that I've done in the US."
Mirkin has said that Patrick Stewart is "one of the best guest performances" because "he was so committed to character". The term "Stonecutters" and the organization's symbol are references to Freemasonry; the Stonecutters are in possession of the Ark of the Covenant and when they burn Homer's underwear in it, souls escape, a reference to Raiders of the Lost Ark. When crowned "The Chosen One", dressed in finery, enters through some curtains, a reference to the 1987 film The Last Emperor. In its original broadcast, "Homer the Great" finished 38th in the ratings for the week of January 2 to January 8, 1995; the episode was the highest rated show on the Fox network that week. Since airing, the episode has received positive reviews from television critics; the authors of the book I Can't Believe It's a Bigger and Better Updated Unofficial Simpsons Guide, Warren Martyn and Adrian Wood, called it "a brilliant crack at freemasonry, with all the secret signs, one-upmanship and unusual membership rules.
Add to this Patrick Stewart's amazing voice and you have one of the better episodes of the series." Patrick Enwright of MSNBC listed "Homer the Great" as his third favorite episode, saying, "as a whole is unsurpassable". Dave Petruska of the Tucson Citizen listed "Homer the Great" as his favorite episode "because it is such a wonderful satire on fraternal organizations and because of Patrick Stewart's hilarious guest-starring role as'Number One'." Total Film's Nathan Ditum ranked Stewart's performance as the ninth best guest appearance in the show's history. TV Squad's Adam Finley said the episode "does a great job of satirizing Freemasons". Colin Jacobson at DVD Movie Guide said in a review of the sixth season DVD: "I think it peters out a bit as it progresses. Nonetheless, it still offers a solid piece of work." In 2010, Michael Moran of The Times ranked the episode as the fifth best in the show's history. John Swartzwelder and Alf Clausen were nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Music And Lyrics" for the song "We Do".
"Homer the Great" at The Simpsons.com "Homer the Great episode capsule". The Simpsons Archive. "Homer the Great" at TV.com "Homer the Great" on IMDb
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
National Rifle Association
The National Rifle Association of America is a U. S. nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights. Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related legislation since 1934, it has directly lobbied for and against firearms legislation since 1975. Founded to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA continues to teach firearm safety and competency; the organization publishes several magazines and sponsors competitive marksmanship events. According to the NRA, it has nearly 5 million members as of December 2018, although that figure has not been independently confirmed. Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D. C; the NRA Institute for Legislative Action is its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee, the Political Victory Fund. Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, endorsed or opposed various candidates at local and federal levels.
The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, politicians. The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting and the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting. A few months after the Civil War started in 1861, a national rifle association was proposed by Americans in England. In a letter, sent to President Lincoln and appeared in the New York Times, R. G. Moulton and R. B. Perry recommended forming an organization similar to the British National Rifle Association, which had formed a year and a half earlier, they suggested making a shooting range on the base on Staten Island, were offering Whitworth rifles for prizes for the first shooting competition with those rifles. They suggested a provisional committee to start the Association which would include: President Lincoln, Secretary of War and other prominent New Yorkers; the National Rifle Association was first chartered in the State of New York on November 16, 1871 by Army and Navy Journal editor William Conant Church and Captain George Wood Wingate.
On November 25, 1871, the group voted to elect its first corporate officers. Union Army Civil War General Ambrose Burnside, who had worked as a Rhode Island gunsmith, was elected president; when Burnside resigned on August 1, 1872, Church succeeded him as president. Union Army records for the Civil War indicate that its troops fired about 1,000 rifle shots for each Confederate hit, causing General Burnside to lament his recruits: "Out of ten soldiers who are perfect in drill and the manual of arms, only one knows the purpose of the sights on his gun or can hit the broad side of a barn." The generals attributed this to the use of volley tactics, devised for earlier, less accurate smoothbore muskets. Recognizing a need for better training, Wingate sent emissaries to Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany to observe militia and armies' marksmanship training programs. With plans provided by Wingate, the New York Legislature funded the construction of a modern range at Creedmoor, Long Island, for long-range shooting competitions.
The range opened on June 21, 1873. The Central Railroad of Long Island established a railway station nearby, with trains running from Hunter's Point, with connecting boat service to 34th Street and the East River, allowing access from New York City. After beating England and Scotland to win the Elcho Shield in 1873 at Wimbledon a village outside London, the Irish Rifle Team issued a challenge through the New York Herald to riflemen of the United States to raise a team for a long-range match to determine an Anglo-American championship; the NRA organized a team through a subsidiary amateur rifle club. Remington Arms and Sharps Rifle Manufacturing Company produced breech-loading weapons for the team. Although muzzle-loading rifles had long been considered more accurate, eight American riflemen won the match firing breech-loading rifles. Publicity of the event generated by the New York Herald helped to establish breech-loading firearms as suitable for military marksmanship training, promoted the NRA to national prominence.
The NRA organized rifle clubs in other states, many state National Guard organizations sought NRA advice to improve members' marksmanship. Wingate's markmanship manual evolved into the United States Army marksmanship instruction program. Former President Ulysses S. Grant served as the NRA's eighth president and General Philip H. Sheridan as its ninth; the US Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice in 1901 to include representatives from the NRA, National Guard, United States military services. A program of annual rifle and pistol competitions was authorized, included a national match open to military and civilian shooters. In 1907, NRA headquarters moved to Washington, D. C. to facilitate the organization's advocacy efforts. Springfield Armory and Rock Island Arsenal began the manufacture of M1903 Springfield rifles for civilian members of the NRA in 1910; the Director of Civilian Marksmanship began manufacture of M1911 pistols for NRA members in August 1912. Until 1927, the United States Department of War provided free ammunition and targets to civilian rifle clubs with a minimum membership of ten United States citizens at least 16 years of age.
The NRA formed its Legislative Affairs Division to update members with facts and analysis of upcoming bills, after the National Firearms Act of 1934 became the first federal gun-control law passed in the US. Karl Frederick, NRA president in 1934, during congressional NFA hearings testified "I have never believed in the general practice of carrying weapons. I carry one.... I do not believe in the general promis
Tales from the Public Domain
"Tales from the Public Domain" is the fourteenth episode of The Simpsons’ thirteenth season. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on March 17, 2002, it is the third trilogy episode of the series, which had become annual since the twelfth season's "Simpsons Tall Tales", consisting of three self-contained segments that are based on historical stories. The first segment puts Homer Simpson in the role of Odysseus in the ancient Greek epic poem the Odyssey; the second segment tells the story of Joan of Arc, the third and final segment lampoons William Shakespeare's tragedy Hamlet. The episode was written by Andrew Kreisberg, Josh Lieb and Matt Warburton, Mike B. Anderson served as the director. Show runner and executive producer Al Jean stated that the episode was "very fun for the writers" to do because it "allow them to parody great works of literature." On the other hand, Anderson stated that the episode was "much harder" to direct than others because, like with Treehouse of Horror episodes, the animators had to make as many character designs for one act as they would for one normal episode.
In its original American broadcast, the episode was seen by more than 4% of the population between ages 18 and 49. Following its release on DVD and Blu-ray however, the episode received mixed reviews from critics. Homer is told that he has an overdue book from the library, which he checked out when Bart was a baby, he says that he had intended to read to Bart every day. Before he returns it, he reads from the book. In this story, Homer is Odysseus, delivers the King of Troy a Trojan horse, he and his crew, including Apu, Moe, Professor Frink and Carl, kill all of Troy's citizens and win. However, he refuses to sacrifice a sheep, angering the gods, Zeus and Poseidon. Dionysus tries to destroy Odysseus with a lightning bolt, but misses and instead destroys the island of Atlantis. Poseidon blows Odysseus and his crew to the Sirens and visit Circe, who turns his crew into pigs, whom Odysseus eats. Circe orders Odysseus to go through Hades, crossing the River Styx, in order to go home so he can see Penelope and Telemachus.
When he arrives back to Ithaca, he spears all of the suitors trying to please Penelope. Penelope decides to take him back. Lisa is Joan of Arc, who leads the French against the English in the Hundred Years' War, which Homer implies was called "Operation Speedy Resolution". Despite her family's concern, she joins the army, she meets the King of France. During a battle, the English put her on trial, she is accused of witchcraft, sentenced to death. When Lisa claims that she was following God's will, Groundskeeper Willie reveals that he too was chosen by God, but to lead the English armies against the French. God's voice excuses himself by revealing that the two were never supposed to meet; the use of Groundskeeper Willie and the flag of the English army are obvious inaccuracies, as England and Scotland were not unified and many Scottish fought with France during the Hundred Years' War. As they read the end, Joan of Arc is being burnt at the stake, still waiting for God to save her. Shocked, Lisa asks Homer if she was burned to death.
Marge interrupts, claiming that Joan of Arc was rescued by Sir Lancelot, they get married and live in a spaceship. She rips out the last page and eats it, remarking that it is easier to chew than the video of Bambi. Bart is Prince Hamlet in this Simpsons version of William Shakespeare's classic, his uncle Claudius marries Gertrude after killing King Hamlet by way of poison. The King returns to his son as a ghost, telling him of the betrayal and requesting that his death be avenged. Prince Hamlet, with the help of a professional actor, puts on a play to make Claudius reveal himself to be guilty; because Hamlet knows what he did, Claudius attempts to kill him. Hamlet, aiming to kill Claudius, accidentally kills Polonius, his son, proposes to duel Prince Hamlet for revenge. As his "practice stab," Laertes kills himself, Hamlet proceeds to murder Claudius. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, have been covered in poison and kill each other with a high five. Hamlet walks away to celebrate. Seeing a big mess she does not want to clean up, Gertrude commits suicide by hitting herself in the head with a mace.
Bart thinks Hamlet was boring despite every character being murdered, but Homer tells him that the story led to the film Ghostbusters, all the Simpsons dance to the theme. "Tales from the Public Domain" was directed by Mike B. Anderson and written by Andrew Kreisberg, Josh Lieb and Matt Warburton, it aired on March 17, 2002 on the Fox network. "Tales from the Public Domain" is the third trilogy episode produced for the series, the other two being "Simpsons Bible Stories" from season 10, "Simpsons Tall Tales" from season 12. Al Jean
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are studied. Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons. Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields; this includes nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering, radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology. Such applications are studied in the field of nuclear engineering. Particle physics evolved out of nuclear physics and the two fields are taught in close association. Nuclear astrophysics, the application of nuclear physics to astrophysics, is crucial in explaining the inner workings of stars and the origin of the chemical elements; the history of nuclear physics as a discipline distinct from atomic physics starts with the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in 1896, while investigating phosphorescence in uranium salts.
The discovery of the electron by J. J. Thomson a year was an indication that the atom had internal structure. At the beginning of the 20th century the accepted model of the atom was J. J. Thomson's "plum pudding" model in which the atom was a positively charged ball with smaller negatively charged electrons embedded inside it. In the years that followed, radioactivity was extensively investigated, notably by Marie and Pierre Curie as well as by Ernest Rutherford and his collaborators. By the turn of the century physicists had discovered three types of radiation emanating from atoms, which they named alpha and gamma radiation. Experiments by Otto Hahn in 1911 and by James Chadwick in 1914 discovered that the beta decay spectrum was continuous rather than discrete; that is, electrons were ejected from the atom with a continuous range of energies, rather than the discrete amounts of energy that were observed in gamma and alpha decays. This was a problem for nuclear physics at the time, because it seemed to indicate that energy was not conserved in these decays.
The 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Becquerel for his discovery and to Marie and Pierre Curie for their subsequent research into radioactivity. Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 for his "investigations into the disintegration of the elements and the chemistry of radioactive substances". In 1905 Albert Einstein formulated the idea of mass–energy equivalence. While the work on radioactivity by Becquerel and Marie Curie predates this, an explanation of the source of the energy of radioactivity would have to wait for the discovery that the nucleus itself was composed of smaller constituents, the nucleons. In 1906 Ernest Rutherford published "Retardation of the α Particle from Radium in passing through matter." Hans Geiger expanded on this work in a communication to the Royal Society with experiments he and Rutherford had done, passing alpha particles through air, aluminum foil and gold leaf. More work was published in 1909 by Geiger and Ernest Marsden, further expanded work was published in 1910 by Geiger.
In 1911–1912 Rutherford went before the Royal Society to explain the experiments and propound the new theory of the atomic nucleus as we now understand it. The key experiment behind this announcement was performed in 1910 at the University of Manchester: Ernest Rutherford's team performed a remarkable experiment in which Geiger and Marsden under Rutherford's supervision fired alpha particles at a thin film of gold foil; the plum pudding model had predicted that the alpha particles should come out of the foil with their trajectories being at most bent. But Rutherford instructed his team to look for something that shocked him to observe: a few particles were scattered through large angles completely backwards in some cases, he likened it to firing a bullet at tissue paper and having it bounce off. The discovery, with Rutherford's analysis of the data in 1911, led to the Rutherford model of the atom, in which the atom had a small dense nucleus containing most of its mass, consisting of heavy positively charged particles with embedded electrons in order to balance out the charge.
As an example, in this model nitrogen-14 consisted of a nucleus with 14 protons and 7 electrons and the nucleus was surrounded by 7 more orbiting electrons. Around 1920, Arthur Eddington anticipated the discovery and mechanism of nuclear fusion processes in stars, in his paper The Internal Constitution of the Stars. At that time, the source of stellar energy was a complete mystery; this was a remarkable development since at that time fusion and thermonuclear energy, that stars are composed of hydrogen, had not yet been discovered. The Rutherford model worked quite well until studies of nuclear spin were carried out by Franco Rasetti at the California Institute of Technology in 1929. By 1925 it was known that protons and electrons each had a spin of +/-1⁄2. In the Rutherford model of nitrogen-14, 20 of the total 21 nuclear particles should have paired up to cancel each other's spin, the final odd particle should have left the nucleus with a net spin of 1⁄2. Rasetti discovered, that nitrogen-14 had a spin of 1.
In 1932 Chadwick realized that radiation, observed by Walther Bothe, Herbert Becker, Irène and Frédéric Joliot-Curie was due to a neutral particle of about the same mass as the proton, that he called the neutron (following a su
Jack French Kemp was an American politician and a professional player in both American football and Canadian football. A member of the Republican Party from New York, he served as Housing Secretary in the administration of President George H. W. Bush from 1989 to 1993, having served nine terms in the United States House of Representatives from 1971 to 1989, he was the Republican Party's nominee for Vice President in the 1996 election, where he was the running mate of presidential nominee Bob Dole. Kemp had contended for the presidential nomination in the 1988 Republican primaries. Before entering politics, Kemp was a professional quarterback for 13 years, he played in the National Football League and the Canadian Football League, but became a star in the American Football League. He served as captain of both the San Diego Chargers and Buffalo Bills and earned the AFL Most Valuable Player award in 1965 after leading the Bills to a second consecutive championship, he played in the AFL for all 10 years of its existence, appeared in its All-Star game seven times, played in its championship game five times, set many of the league's career passing records.
Kemp co-founded the AFL Players Association, for which he served five terms as president. During the early part of his football career, he served in the United States Army Reserve; as an economic conservative, Kemp advocated low taxes and supply-side policies during his political career. His positions spanned the social spectrum, ranging from his conservative opposition to abortion to his more libertarian stances advocating immigration reform; as a proponent of both Chicago school and supply-side economics, he is notable as an influence upon the Reagan agenda and the architect of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, known as the Kemp–Roth tax cut. After his days in political office, Kemp remained active as commentator, he authored, co-authored, edited several books. He advocated for retired professional football players. Kemp was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009 by President Barack Obama. Born and educated in Los Angeles, Kemp was the third of four sons of Frances Elizabeth and Paul Robert Kemp Sr. Paul turned his motorcycle messenger service into a trucking company that grew from one to 14 trucks.
Frances was Spanish teacher. Kemp grew up in the Jewish Wilshire district of West Los Angeles, but his tight-knit middle-class family attended the Church of Christ, Scientist. In his youth, sports consumed Kemp, who once chose the forward pass as the subject of a school essay on important inventions, although his mother attempted to broaden his horizons with piano lessons and trips to the Hollywood Bowl. Kemp attended Melrose Avenue's Fairfax High School, which was, at the time, known both for its high concentration of Jewish students and concentration of celebrities' children. Over 95% of Kemp's classmates were Jewish, he became a supporter of Jewish causes, his classmates included musician Herb Alpert, baseball pitcher Larry Sherry, academic Judith A. Reisman. During his years in high school, Kemp worked with his brothers at his father's trucking company in downtown Los Angeles. In his spare time, he was a rigorous reader, preferring philosophy books. After graduating from high school in 1953, he attended Occidental College, a founding member of the NCAA Division III Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference.
Kemp selected Occidental because its football team used professional formations and plays, which he hoped would help him to become a professional quarterback. At 5 feet 10 inches and 175 pounds, he considered himself too small to play for the USC Trojans or UCLA Bruins, the major Southern California college football programs. At Occidental, Kemp was a record-setting javelin hurler and played several positions on the football team: quarterback, defensive back, place kicker, punter. Although he was near-sighted, Kemp was tenacious on the field. During his years as starting quarterback the team posted 3 -- 6 records. Kemp was named a Little All-America player one year; that year, he led the nation's small colleges in passing. He and close friend Jim Mora, who became an NFL head coach, were members of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. Another teammate in college was Ron Botchan, an NFL referee for years. Kemp declined to become involved in student government. After graduating from Occidental with a degree in physical education, he pursued postgraduate studies in economics at Long Beach State University and California Western University in San Diego, served in the military from 1958 to 1962.
Kemp graduated from Occidental in 1957 and married Joanne Main, his college sweetheart, after she graduated from Occidental in 1958. Main had grown up in Fillmore and attended Fillmore High School in Ventura County. Kemp's Biblical Literature professor, Keith Beebe, presided over the wedding; the Kemps had two sons. Both were professional football quarterbacks: Jeff Kemp played in the NFL from 1981 to 1991, Jimmy Kemp played in the CFL from 1994 to 2002. For a man with his demanding schedule, Jack never missed one of their games as children or in college, they had two daughters: Jennifer Kemp Andrews and Judith Kemp. In 1976, C. Everett Koop wrote The Right to Live, The Right to Die, setting down his own concerns about abortion and euthanasia. Koop took some time off from his surgical practice t