Lady Margaret Boat Club
The Lady Margaret Boat Club is the rowing club for members of St John's College, England. The club is named after founder of the College; the Lady Margaret men's first boat is Head of the River for both Lent Bumps and May Bumps. They are current winners of the Oxford/Cambridge Men's Intercollegiate fixture at the Henley Boat Races, beating Oriel College, Oxford with a verdict of 4 lengths. LMBC was founded in 1825 by twelve members of the College as the first college boat club in Cambridge. In its original rules, the Club was to "consist of eighteen contributing members, besides honorary ones", all members had to be able to row. An early member was Patrick Colquhoun who in 1837 instigated the Colquhoun Sculls, in the year in which he won the Wingfield Sculls; the greatest influence in the 1860s and 1870s was J. H. D. Goldie, who raised LMBC to the "Headship of the River", won the "Colquhoun Sculls", stroked Cambridge four times; the Goldie Boathouse, used by the university crews, commemorates his services to Cambridge rowing as does the name of the university second VIII known as the Goldie Crew and competes annually against Isis just before the University Boat Race.
Another important name in LMBC history is LHK Bushe-Fox who had a long career with LMBC, becoming President of the Club in 1897. One of the greatest influences of this century was Roy Meldrum who established the "Lady Margaret" style, which he detailed in his rowing books; the Boathouse was opened in the May term of 1901. It was extended in the 1970s, was the first boathouse to have a workshop for the boatman. In the early 1980s, when the college began to admit women, further modifications were made upstairs to create the women's changing rooms; the boathouse was extended further in 2000 to create more indoor training space. A shed is now being built to house the club's fours, which are racked outside; the Club's heyday was in the late 1950s. LMBC won the "Ladies Plate" in 1949 with a new course record. In 1950, they made 4 bumps to go "Head of the Mays", stayed "Head" for five years. In 1951, Lady Margaret won the Grand at Henley Royal Regatta and had five members of the successful Cambridge crew, which defeated Harvard and Yale in the United States.
Between 1975 and 1981, Lady Margaret were Head of the Lent Bumps for 26 consecutive days, the longest continuous defence of the Lent Headship. LMBC took the men's May Headship on day 4 of the 2016 races, the first time they have held the Headship since 1989. LMBC retained the Mays headship in 2017 and 2018. In Lent Bumps 2017, LMBC took the men's Lents Headship on day 3, the first time they have held the Headship since 1990. LMBC retained the Lents headship in 2018. In March 2017, Lady Margaret's men's first boat represented the Cambridge colleges in the Men's Intercollegiate fixture at the Henley Boat Races against Oriel College, Oxford. Lady Margaret won with a verdict of 4 lengths. Members of the club are well known for their scarlet jackets, which gave rise to the modern term blazer. Members with "First May Colours" are entitled to wear trim and gold buttons on their blazer, while "First Lent" or "Second May Colours" are entitled to wear silver buttons on their blazer; the club is traditionally strong in the May CUCBC Bumps race.
Due to its affiliation with St. John's College, the club always fields many very successful, boats with first time rowers during the first university term. Club members often go to row with university lightweight and heavyweight crews to compete against Oxford; the club motto has been "Si je puis" since 1825. The boat club song, Viva laeta, has a chorus that goes as follows: Vive laeta, Beatorum insulis. Although the music is printed in the boat club's history and the song is sung at every Boat Club Dinner, few members know the tune. Dinners are known for more controversial songs. St. John's, Cambridge has long had a close rivalry with Cambridge; every year, a strange tradition takes place during the Bumps Weeks in Lent and May term, known as the "Stomp". Crews gather on the College Backs every morning preceding the races. One crew at a time will stop at a lone tree, knock three times on its trunk and shout out the name of the crew that will be starting in front of them that day to be "bumped".
The whole club strolls through the backs towards arch-rivals Trinity. Once in Trinity College's great court, a standoff between the rival boat clubs occurs followed by a tackling session in which boat club members from each side attempt to "kidnap" members of the opposite club. If captured, one is put to shame by being bought breakfast in the rival college's hall. University rowing Henley Boat Race Rowing Blazers University of Cambridge University of Oxford Durack, John; the Bumps: An Account of the Cambridge University Bumping Races 1827-1999 ISBN 0-9538475-1-9 CUCBC - Lent and May Bumps programmes. Club Website
A bumps race is a form of rowing race in which a number of boats chase each other in single file, each crew attempting to catch and "bump" the boat in front without being caught by the boat behind. The form is used in intercollegiate competitions at the University of Cambridge, since 1827, at the University of Oxford since 1815. Bumps racing in fours is the format of inter-house rowing at Eton College and Shrewsbury School, it is suitable where the stretch of water available is long but narrow, precluding side-by-side racing. Bumps racing gives a sharper feel of immediate competition than a head race, where boats are timed over a fixed course. Few rowers worldwide use rivers as narrow as the Cam or the Isis, but bumps races are contested elsewhere; the first attested bumps race, the first attested race between two clubs anywhere in the world, took place in Oxford in 1815. This was between two eights from Jesus College; the fact the racing was conducted in eight oared boats gave rise to the event being known as Eights.
The practice began with the two colleges racing upstream from Iffley Lock to a finishing line just short of Folly Bridge. Both crews began one behind the other in the lock, with each having to push their way out of the lock before being able to commence racing; this created an inevitable gap between boats, with the one behind trying to bump the one in front to claim victory. The boat in front could claim to be "Head of the River"; as the number of crews contesting races increased, races ceased to start in the lock, instead were started from the bank upstream of the lock. This first occurred in 1825 or 1826. Twelve years after bumps racing began in Oxford, Lent Bumps racing commenced at Cambridge University in 1827. At Oxford, an additional bumping regatta, known as Torpids, was begun in 1838; this regatta was for men who had not rowed in Eights, nor in a University crew. Bumps races are raced in a series over several days; the starting order of each day's race is based on the previous day's results.
Each day the boats line up bow-to-stern along the bank of the river, with a set distance between each boat and the next. The starting positions are marked by a rope or chain attached to the bank, the other end of, held by each boat's cox. Boats wait along the bank, may be poled out just in time for the start, to avoid drifting. At the start signal the cox lets go of the rope and the crew starts to row, attempting to catch and bump the boat in front while being chased by the one behind. A bump is made. Alternatively, if possible, an overtaking-bump occurs when the stern of the chasing boat passes the bow of the boat in front; this is rare because it is easier to make contact with a rival boat than it is to overtake it. A bump of this kind only occurs when a boat crashes. Under the current Cambridge rules, to overtake requires the pursuing boat to draw alongside the other boat's bow ball, and at Oxford during Eights Week, once a bump has occurred both crews pull over to the river bank and take no further part in that race.
At Oxford during Torpids a bumping crew pulls over but the bumped crew must continue racing over the entire course and can be bumped by more than one crew per day. As bumps racing takes place on narrow stretches of water, when contact occurs, two or more boats can become tangled up or not clear the river enough, causing the racing line to be blocked; this can be dangerous and the chance of boats getting damaged is high. To avoid this, the cox of the boat being bumped can concede as soon as slight physical contact occurs or once it is inevitable. Nonetheless, collisions involving several boats are common. Crews in Torpids tend to concede bumps early to avoid being entangled with the crew that caught them: should they be unable to continue, other boats may row past, overtake and'bump' the stationary crew. Any crew, bumped starts the next race behind the boat or boats that caught it. A boat which reaches the finish line without either bumping or being bumped is said to have'rowed over' and stays in the same position.
As the length of the racing course is limited, large regattas are organised into divisions of 12 to 20 boats. Each division races separately, but they are ranked to achieve an overall order of crews: e.g. the top crew in the second division is considered to be one place behind the last crew in the first division. The first day's starting position is based on the final positions from the previous year, though in the bottom divisions the boats may be placed according to qualifying getting/rowing on races held before the event; this allows boat clubs to introduce new crews. On each day of a bumps regatta the division races are rowed in reverse order, i.e. the lowest division first. A crew finishing at the top of a division race goes on to compete in the next-higher division that day. Alternatively, a crew finishing last in a division must race in the next-lower division the following day; this allows crews to move between divisions. A crew may find. Since (except at Oxford during Torp
Downing College Boat Club
Downing College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Downing College, Cambridge. Downing men have not been below the top 9 boats for over 3 decades, on occasion being the only boat club with a second boat in the first division, ahead of other college first boats. Downing men and women have rowed internationally, winning World Rowing Championship medals, Olympic medals. Despite the college admitting undergraduates in 1821, Downing's boat club did not form until 1863, with their first race being in the spring of 1864; the men's 1st VIII did not feature in the 1st division of the Lent and May Bumps until the 1960s. The club first became Head of the Mays in 1982, a position it lost in 1983 and regained in 1984; the head crew was coached by Downing alumnus Graeme Hall, the stroke of the Cambridge crew which won The Boat Race 1969, coached the British Men's VIII to win the silver medal in Rowing at the 1980 Summer Olympics. Downing women formed in 1981 and held their first headship of the Lent Bumps from 2004–2005, regaining it in 2011, attained their first headship of the May Bumps in 2011.
They retained both headships in 2012. The club has now held 15 headships in total, including a double-headship in 1996. In 2018, the first indoor rowing training tank in the East of England was built in the Club's boathouse. CUCBC/ Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Downing College Boat Club
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
First and Third Trinity Boat Club
The First and Third Trinity Boat Club is the rowing club of Trinity College in Cambridge, England. The club formally came into existence in 1946 when the First Trinity Boat Club and the Third Trinity Boat Club merged, although the 2 clubs had been rowing together for several years before that date; the first boat club associated with Trinity was formed in 1825 and came to be known as First Trinity in 1833 when the Third Trinity Boat Club was formed. Membership of Third Trinity was confined to Old Etonians and Old Westminsters. Members of Third Trinity were allowed to be members of First or Second Trinity and were; the boat club gives its name to Trinity college's May Ball, the oldest such event in Cambridge and originates from the club's celebrations after the victories in the May Bumps. In the nineteenth century the various Trinity boat clubs were strong and won events in Cambridge, at various regattas around the country, notably the Henley Royal Regatta, contributed rowers to the Cambridge boat for the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.
Indeed, in the 1849 Boat Race, all members of the crew were from Trinity, seven from Third Trinity and two, the cox included, from First Trinity. Boats from the three clubs could be found at, or near, the top of the Bumps and they sometimes combined their resources in races against the rest of the University. In 1876 Second Trinity was disbanded due to insufficient members. However, a legend claims that during the Bumps in that year, the rowers of Trinity's arch-rivals, St John's College, attached a sword to the front of one of their boats such that if they bumped the boat in front, it would be holed and sink; the plan worked in the sense that the Trinity boat did sink, but in the process the sword hit and killed Second Trinity's cox, which of course wasn't intended So the legend claims that this is the reason why Second Trinity Boat Club was dissolved, why St. John's College is no longer allowed a boat club under its own name. Though a wonderful legend, there is no traceable record of a crew from St. John's attaching a sword to their bow, while a St John's College Boat Club was disbanded in 1876, the original boat club at St. John's was the Lady Margaret Boat Club.
However, a somewhat similar incident occurred in 1888, 12 years after the dissolution of Second Trinity, after which bow balls became mandatory. In his History of the First Trinity Boat Club, Walter Rouse Ball notes: " The third day was the occasion of a sad tragedy. Clare bumped Queens', drew into the bank by Grassy. Behind these boats was the Trinity Hall third boat. This, instead of rounding First Post Corner, ran, by some mishap, across the river, the nose of the boat struck number 4 in the Clare boat just over his heart, killing him on the spot; the further races were at once stopped. Since this dreadful incident small india-rubber knobs have been fixed on the bows of all the racing boats"; the more prosaic explanation for 2nd Trinity's demise is that membership was restricted to Theology scholars, which over time proved to be an unreliable source of oarsmen. In the twentieth century the clubs remained competitive and continued to achieve success in various events; the 2nd World War forced the 2 clubs to combine resources and after the war they formally merged in order to remain competitive with the now larger boat clubs of other colleges.
In the same year First and Third won the Visitors' Challenge Cup at the Henley Royal Regatta and the following year won the Ladies' Challenge Plate. They repeated this feat by winning the Ladies Plate again in 1954 and 1967, the last year that a college crew from either Cambridge or Oxford has won the event; the difference in the standard of rowing between Oxbridge colleges and non-University clubs has changed over the twentieth century due to standards within college clubs falling or to the quality of rowing in other clubs improving, but a combination of the two. For example and Third, like all other Oxbridge college crews, now have difficulty achieving a standard of rowing to qualify for events at the Henley Royal Regatta, let alone to win these events. In spite of this, rowing within Cambridge remains popular and the Bumps, the main inter-college event, see well over a thousand students competing around a hundred from Trinity; the Trinity Boat Club, the original rowing club of Trinity College, dates from 1825 and was called First Trinity Boat Club after 1833.
It was open to all members of the College. In 1946, the club amalgamated with the other remaining boat club of the College, Third Trinity Boat Club, to form First and Third Trinity Boat Club, in this form continues to compete today; the Club was successful throughout its history, but in the 19th century. Its early history is well covered by Walter Rouse Ball's 1908 book, A History of The First Trinity Boat Club, available online in its entirety. Of particular note is that in 1839 First Trinity won the Grand Challenge Cup in the first Henley Regatta; the crew rowed in a boat named the Black Prince, the bow section of, still owned by the First and Third Trinity Boat Club but, on loan to the River & Rowing Museum in Henley. They defeated the other three entries, who were Wadham College Oxford, Brasenose College Oxford and the Oxford Etonian Club. First and Third Trinity Boat Club still names its higher quality men's eight-oared boats as'Black Prince'; as new boats are purchased, older boats are demoted to lower boat use and are referred to as'Black Prince II','Black Prince III' and
Rowing referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat; the sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain. Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School. Clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815.
At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University; the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations. Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics: Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships; the European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions exist for racing between clubs and universities in each nation. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward; this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength and cardiovascular endurance. Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition; these include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing: In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands; this is done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, the starboard side as bow side. In sculling each rower has two oars, one in each hand. Sculling is done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles; the oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port, the oar in the left hand extends to starboard. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points; the catch, placement of the oar blade in the water, the extraction known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water; the point of placement of the blade in the water is a fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest; the hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm. At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface; the recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move th
Emmanuel Boat Club
Emmanuel Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. The men's 1st VIII has stayed in the first division of the Lent and May Bumps for the last half-century, but fell as low as 21st in the May Bumps in the 1930s, has been as low as 28th in the Lent Bumps towards the end of the 19th century. In the Lent Bumps, Emmanuel men gained the headship in 1930, although they reached 1st position in Lent Bumps 2001, they were not awarded the headship, since the last two days of the races were not completed due to an outbreak of foot and mouth disease in the United Kingdom. Emmanuel did bumping Caius on the second day; the women's side of the club have been successful in recent years, achieving the headship of the Lent Bumps 11 times. Emmanuel's 1st women's VIII did not drop out of the top 3 crews at Lent Bumps between 1988 and 2005, nor the top 2 places in the May Bumps between 1994 and 2004. In 2018 Emmanuel's first women and men will start second and seventh on the river as a result of both crews earning their blades in 2017.
It was the second time in the club's history that the first men and women both earned blades in the same year. The first men have been no higher than 7th in May bumps since 2003. CUCBC/ Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Emmanuel Boat Club