The gens Cornelia was one of the greatest patrician houses at Rome. For more than seven hundred years, from the early decades of the Republic to the third century AD, the Cornelii produced more eminent statesmen and generals than any other gens. At least seventy-five consuls under the Republic were members of this family, beginning with Servius Cornelius Maluginensis in 485 BC. Together with the Aemilii, Fabii and Valerii, the Cornelii were certainly numbered among the gentes maiores, the most important and powerful families of Rome, who for centuries dominated the Republican magistracies. All of the major branches of the Cornelian gens were patrician, but there were plebeian Cornelii, at least some of whom were descended from freedmen; the origin of the Cornelii is lost to history, but the nomen Cornelius may be formed from the hypothetical cognomen Corneus, meaning "horny", that is, having thick or callused skin. The existence of such a cognomen in early times may be inferred from Corneolus.
Such a derivation implies a Latin origin for the Cornelii, there is no evidence to contradict this, but beyond this no traditions survive relating to the family's beginning. The Cornelii employed a wide variety of praenomina, although individual families tended to favor certain names and avoid others. Servius, Lucius and Gnaeus were common to most branches, while other names were used by individual stirpes. Other names occur infrequently; the Cornelian gens included both patricians and plebeians, but all of its major families were patrician. The surnames Arvina, Cethegus, Cossus, Lentulus, Mammula, Merula, Scapula, Scipio and Sulla belonged to patrician Cornelii, while the plebeian cognomina included Balbus and Gallus. Other surnames are known from freedmen, including Chrysogonus, Culleolus and others. A number of plebeian Cornelii had no cognomen; the first of the Cornelii to appear in history bore the surname Maluginensis. This family seems to have divided into two stirpes in the 430s, the senior line retaining Maluginensis, while the younger branches assumed Cossus.
From their filiations, the first of the Cornelii Cossi would seem to have been younger sons of Marcus Cornelius Maluginensis, a member of the Second Decemvirate in 450 BC. Both families produced a number of consuls and consular tribunes during the fourth and fifth centuries BC; the Maluginenses disappeared before the period of the Samnite Wars, although the Cornelii Scipiones appear to have been descended from this family, while the surname Cossus appears as late as the beginning of the third century. Cossus itself seems to belong to a class of surnames derived from objects or animals, referring to the larva of certain beetles that burrow under the bark of trees; the Cornelii Lentuli subsequently revived Cossus as a surname. The Cornelii Scipiones derived their surname from a legend in which the first of the family served as a staff for his blind father. Since the first of the Scipiones seems to have borne the cognomen Maluginensis, he would seem to have been the son of Publius Cornelius Maluginensis, one of the consular tribunes in 404 BC.
The Scipiones produced numerous consuls and several prominent generals, of whom the most celebrated were Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. Members of this family held the highest offices of the Roman state from the beginning of the fourth century BC down to the second century of the Empire, a span of nearly six hundred years, its members bore a large number of additional surnames, including Barbatus, "bearded", Scapula, "shoulder blade", Asina, "she-ass", Calvus, "bald", Hispallus, "little Spaniard", Nasica, "nosed", Corculum, "little heart", in addition to those derived from their military exploits: Africanus and Asiaticus. The last generations of this great family were adopted from the Salvidieni, so bore the additional names of Salvidienus Orfitus; the Scipiones had a large family sepulchre at Rome, which still exists, having been rediscovered in 1780. The cognomen Lentulus belongs to a class of surnames deriving from the habits or qualities of the persons to whom they were first applied.
An alternative explanation is that the name is a diminutive of lens, a lentil, so belongs to the same class of surnames as Cicero, a chickpea, Caepio, an onion. The Cornelii Lentuli were famed for their pride and haughtiness, so that Cicero uses Lentulitas, "Lentulusness", to describe the most aristocratic of the patricians; the Lentuli appear in history from the time of the Samnite Wars to the first century of the Empire, a period of about four hundred years. Their origin is uncertain. According to Livy, early in the Second Samnite War, Lucius Cornelius Lentulus described his father as the only man who, during the Gallic sack of Rome in 390 BC, had opposed paying a ransom to ensure the departure of the Gauls from the city; the filiations of other early Lentuli suggest that their ancestors used the name Gnaeus, suggesting that they could have been descendants of the Cornelii Cossi. The Lentuli used a number of additional surnames, including Caudinus referring to the Battle of the Caudine Forks, crus, a leg, or the shin, bestowed upon the conqueror of the Gaetuli, Lupus, a wolf, black, Spinther, a bracelet, Sura, the calf.
The Lentuli revived several
Spartacus is a 1960 American epic historical drama film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Dalton Trumbo, based on the novel of the same title by Howard Fast. It is inspired by the life story of Spartacus, the leader of a slave revolt in antiquity, the events of the Third Servile War, stars Kirk Douglas in the title role, Laurence Olivier as Roman general and politician Marcus Licinius Crassus, Peter Ustinov, who won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, as slave trader Lentulus Batiatus, John Gavin as Julius Caesar, Jean Simmons as Varinia, Charles Laughton as Sempronius Gracchus, Tony Curtis as Antoninus. Douglas, whose company Bryna Productions was producing the film, removed original director Anthony Mann after the first week of shooting. Kubrick, with whom Douglas had worked before, was brought on board to take over direction, it was the only film directed by Kubrick. Screenwriter Dalton Trumbo was blacklisted at the time as one of the Hollywood Ten. Douglas publicly announced that Trumbo was the screenwriter of Spartacus, President-elect John F. Kennedy crossed American Legion picket lines to view the film, helping to end blacklisting.
The film won four Academy Awards and became the biggest moneymaker in Universal Studios' history, until it was surpassed by Airport. In 2017, it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". In the 1st century BC, the Roman Republic has slid into corruption, its menial work done by armies of slaves. One of these, a proud and gifted Thracian named Spartacus, is so uncooperative in his position in a mining pit that he is sentenced to death by starvation. By chance, he is displayed to unctuous Roman businessman Lentulus Batiatus, who - impressed by his ferocity - purchases Spartacus for his gladiatorial school, where he instructs trainer Marcellus to not overdo his indoctrination because he thinks "he has quality". Amid the abuse, Spartacus forms a quiet relationship with a serving woman named Varinia, whom he refuses to rape when she is sent to "entertain" him in his cell. Spartacus and Varinia are subsequently forced to endure numerous humiliations for defying the conditions of servitude.
Batiatus receives a visit from the immensely wealthy Roman senator Marcus Licinius Crassus, who aims to become dictator of the stagnant republic. Crassus buys Varinia on a whim, for the amusement of his companions arranges for Spartacus and three others to fight in pairs; when Spartacus is disarmed, his opponent, an African named Draba, spares his life in a burst of defiance and attacks the Roman audience, but is killed by an arena guard and Crassus. The next day, with the ludus' atmosphere still tense over this episode, Batiatus takes Varinia away to Crassus's house in Rome. Spartacus kills Marcellus, taunting him over his affections, their fight escalates into a riot; the gladiators overwhelm their guards and escape into the Italian countryside. Spartacus is elected chief of the fugitives and decides to lead them out of Italy and back to their homes, they plunder Roman country estates as they go, collecting enough money to buy sea transport from Rome's foes, the pirates of Cilicia. Countless other slaves join the group.
One of the new arrivals is Varinia. Another is a slave entertainer named Antoninus, who fled Crassus's service. Spartacus feels mentally inadequate because of his lack of education during years of servitude. However, he proves an excellent leader and organizes his diverse followers into a tough and self-sufficient community. Varinia, now his informal wife, becomes pregnant by him, he comes to regard the spirited Antoninus as a sort of son; the Roman Senate becomes alarmed as Spartacus defeats the multiple armies it sends against him. Crassus's populist opponent Gracchus knows that his rival will try to use the crisis as a justification for seizing control of the Roman army. To try and prevent this, Gracchus channels as much military power as possible into the hands of his own protege, a young senator named Julius Caesar. Although Caesar lacks Crassus's contempt for the lower classes of Rome, he mistakes the man's rigid outlook for nobility. Thus, when Gracchus reveals that he has bribed the Cilicians to get Spartacus out of Italy and rid Rome of the slave army, Caesar regards such tactics as beneath him and goes over to Crassus.
Crassus uses a bribe of his own to make the pirates abandon Spartacus and has the Roman army secretly force the rebels away from the coastline towards Rome. Amid panic that Spartacus means to sack the city, the Senate gives Crassus absolute power. Now surrounded by Romans, Spartacus convinces his men to die fighting. Just by rebelling and proving themselves human, he says that they have struck a blow against slavery. In the ensuing battle, after breaking the ranks of Crassus's legions, the slave army ends up trapped between Crassus and two other forces advancing from behind, most of them are massacred. Afterward, the Romans try to locate the rebel leader for special punishment by offering a pardon if the men will identify Spartacus, living or dead; every surviving man responds by shouting "I'm Spartacus!". As a result, Crassus has them all sentenced to death by crucifixion along the Via Appia between Rome and Capua, where the revolt began. Meanwhile, Crassus has found Varinia and Sp
Spartacus: Gods of the Arena
Spartacus: Gods of the Arena is a television miniseries broadcast by American cable TV Starz, as a prequel to Spartacus, which premiered January 21, 2011. The series follows the character Gannicus, the first gladiator representing Lentulus Batiatus to become Champion of Capua. Cast members and characters reprised from the original series include John Hannah as Batiatus, Lucy Lawless as Lucretia, Peter Mensah as Oenomaus, Nick E. Tarabay as Ashur, Lesley-Ann Brandt as Naevia, Antonio Te Maioha as Barca, Manu Bennett as Crixus; the miniseries aired in Canada on Movie Central and The Movie Network, on Sky1 in the United Kingdom and on FX in Latin America. Slaves Dustin Clare as Gannicus – a Celtic gladiator, the champion of the Batiatus' ludus. Peter Mensah as Oenomaus/Doctore – an African gladiator who becomes the doctore of Batiatus' gladiators. Marisa Ramirez as Melitta – Lucretia's body slave, the wife of Oenomaus and the secret lover of Gannicus. Manu Bennett as Crixus – a new Gallic gladiatorial recruit.
Nick E. Tarabay as Ashur – a new Syrian gladiatorial recruit. Shane Rangi as Dagan – a gladiatorial recruit who cannot speak Latin, fellow Syrian to Ashur. Antonio Te Maioha as Barca – a Carthaginian gladiator. Josef Brown as Auctus – a gladiator and Barca's lover. Temuera Morrison as Ulpius/Doctore – Oenomaus' predecessor as the trainer of Batiatus' gladiators. Lesley-Ann Brandt as Naevia – a young house-slave. Jessica Grace Smith as Diona - a house-slave and Naevia's friend who loses her virginity at the whim of Cossutius. Romans John Hannah as Quintus Lentulus Batiatus – a lanista Lucy Lawless as Lucretia – Batiatus' wife. Jaime Murray as Gaia – a social climber and Lucretia's friend. Craig Walsh Wrightson as Marcus Decius Solonius – Batiatus' close friend who has aspirations of becoming a lanista himself. Jeffrey Thomas as Titus Lentulus Batiatus – Quintus Batiatus' father and the pater familias of the House of Batiatus. Stephen Lovatt as Tullius – Batiatus' brutal business rival. Gareth Williams as Vettius – owner of a rival ludus.
Jason Hood as Cossutius – a wealthy man who lives outside of Capua. The opportunity to produce Gods of the Arena emerged when the second season of Spartacus was halted while lead actor Andy Whitfield battled Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Series creator and executive producer Steven S. DeKnight expanded a single flashback episode for the second season into a six-part mini-series. Production for Gods of the Arena began in New Zealand in August 2010. Official website Spartacus: Gods of the Arena on IMDb Spartacus: Gods of the Arena at TV.com
Spartacus is a 2004 North American miniseries directed by Robert Dornhelm and produced by Ted Kurdyla from a teleplay by Robert Schenkkan. It aired over two nights on the USA Network, stars Goran Visnjic, Alan Bates, Angus Macfadyen, Rhona Mitra, Ian McNeice, Ross Kemp and Ben Cross, it is based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast. The plot and costumes are nearly identical to those of the Stanley Kubrick 1960 version; the miniseries is shown as a story a woman narrates to her son, who are revealed to be Spartacus' wife and son. A notable piece of dramatic license has Spartacus' son born at the moment Spartacus dies in battle; as Marcus Crassus and Pompey Magnus are being proclaimed co-consuls, the announcer calls Rome an Empire, when it was still a Republic at the time. The Gaul woman Varinia and her village are attacked by the Romans, her entire village is taken into slavery, she is sold to Lentulus Batiatus. Spartacus, a Thracian slave condemned to the mines, attempts to protect another slave.
Spartacus is nearly crucified. Spartacus and a handful of other slaves are brought to Batiatus' ludus to be trained as gladiators. Spartacus and the other slaves are brought to the Gladiators to eat, where he meets Nardo and David, before a fight breaks out between Draba and Gannicus, they are stopped by their trainer Cinna. Goran Višnjić as Spartacus Alan Bates as Antonius Agrippa Angus Macfadyen as Marcus Crassus Rhona Mitra as Varinia, Spartacus' wife Ian McNeice as Lentulus Batiatus Paul Kynman as Crixus Paul Telfer as Gannicus James Frain as David Henry Simmons as Draba Chris Jarman as Nordo Ross Kemp as Cinna Ben Cross as Titus Glabrus, based on Gaius Claudius Glaber Niall Refoy as Publius Maximus, based on Publius Varinius George Calil as Pompey Magnus Richard Dillane as Julius Caesar List of historical drama films List of films set in ancient Rome List of films featuring slavery Third Servile War 1st century BC Quotations related to Spartacus at Wikiquote Spartacus on IMDb Spartacus at AllMovie
Third Servile War
The Third Servile War called by Plutarch the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus, was the last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Servile Wars. The Third was the only one directly to threaten the Roman heartland of Italia, it was alarming to Rome because its military seemed powerless to suppress it. The revolt began in 73 BC, with the escape of around 70 slave-gladiators from a gladiator school in Capua. Within two years, they had been joined by some 120,000 men and children; the slaves wandered throughout Italia, raiding estates and towns with relative impunity, sometimes dividing their forces into separate but allied bands under the guidance of several leaders, including the famous gladiator-general Spartacus. The Roman Senate grew alarmed at the slave-army's depredations and continued military successes. Rome fielded an army of eight legions under the harsh but effective leadership of Marcus Licinius Crassus; the war ended in 71 BC when, after a long and bitter fighting retreat before the legions of Crassus, the realization that the legions of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus were moving in to entrap them, the armies of Spartacus launched their full strength against Crassus' legions and were utterly defeated.
Of the survivors, some 6,000 were crucified along the Appian Way. Plutarch's account of the revolt suggests that the slaves wished to escape to freedom, leave Roman territory by way of Cisalpine Gaul. Appian and Florus describe the revolt as a civil war, in which the slaves intended to capture the city of Rome itself; the Third Servile War had far-reaching effects on Rome's broader history. Pompey and Crassus exploited their successes to further their political careers, using their public acclaim and the implied threat of their legions to sway the consular elections of 70 BC in their favor, their subsequent actions as Consuls furthered the subversion of Roman political institutions and contributed to the eventual transition of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. To varying degrees throughout Roman history, the existence of a pool of inexpensive labor in the form of slaves was an important factor in the economy. Slaves were acquired for the Roman workforce through a variety of means, including purchase from foreign merchants and the enslavement of foreign populations through military conquest.
With Rome's heavy involvement in wars of conquest in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, tens if not hundreds of thousands of slaves at a time were imported into the Roman economy from various European and Mediterranean acquisitions. While there was limited use for slaves as servants and personal attendants, vast numbers of slaves worked in mines and on the agricultural lands of Sicily and southern Italy. For the most part, slaves were oppressively during the Roman republican period. Under Republican law, a slave was not considered property. Owners could abuse, injure or kill their own slaves without legal consequence. While there were many grades and types of slaves, the lowest—and most numerous—grades who worked in the fields and mines were subject to a life of hard physical labor; this high concentration and oppressive treatment of the slave population led to rebellions. In 135 BC and 104 BC, the First and Second Servile Wars erupted in Sicily, where small bands of rebels found tens of thousands of willing followers wishing to escape the oppressive life of a Roman slave.
While these were considered serious civil disturbances by the Roman Senate, taking years and direct military intervention to quell, they were never considered a serious threat to the Republic. The Roman heartland had never seen a slave uprising, nor had slaves been seen as a potential threat to the city of Rome; this would all change with the Third Servile War. In the Roman Republic of the 1st century BC, gladiatorial games were one of the more popular forms of entertainment. In order to supply gladiators for the contests, several training schools, or ludi, were established throughout Italy. In these schools, prisoners of war and condemned criminals—who were considered slaves—were taught the skills required to fight in gladiatorial games. In 73 BC, a group of some 200 gladiators in the Capuan school owned by Lentulus Batiatus plotted an escape; when their plot was betrayed, a force of about 70 men seized kitchen implements, fought their way free from the school, seized several wagons of gladiatorial weapons and armor.
Once free, the escaped gladiators chose leaders from their number, selecting two Gallic slaves—Crixus and Oenomaus—and Spartacus, said either to be a Thracian auxiliary from the Roman legions condemned to slavery, or a captive taken by the legions. There is some question as to Spartacus's nationality. A Thraex was a type of gladiator in Rome, so "Thracian" may refer to the style of gladiatorial combat in which he was trained; these escaped slaves were able to defeat a small force of troops sent after them from Capua, equip themselves with captured military equipment as well as their gladiatorial weapons. Sources are somewhat contradictory on the order of events following the escape, but they agree that this band of escaped gladiators plundered the region surrounding Capua, recruited many other slaves into their ranks, retired to a more defensible position on Mount Ves