The Matter Valley is located in southwestern Switzerland, south of the Rhone valley in the canton of Valais. The village of Zermatt is the most important settlement of the valley, located in the Pennine Alps, the Matter Valley is drained by the Matter Vispa, a tributary of the Rhone. The valley itself ends at Stalden where it meets the Saas Valley, the resulting Visp Valley continues for a few kilometres until it reaches the town of Visp on the young river Rhone. The valley starts between the high summits south of Zermatt on the border with Italy. The upper side is glaciated, the second largest glacier of the Alps, around the village of Randa are located the Weisshorn and the Dom. The difference of height between the talweg and the summits on both side reaches over 3 km, the total length of the valley is about 40 km. 5,600 inhabitants, is the largest and highest town in the valley, St. Niklaus follows with 2,400 inhabitants. Between them are located the villages of Täsch and Randa. The villages of Grächen, Embd and Törbel are located above the valley, located at the end of the valley, is the lowest village.
Since the end of the century the upper end of the valley is connected by rail from Visp. If the main road connect Zermatt from Visp, it cannot be used between Täsch and Zermatt, the latter being completely car-free, since 1930 the valley is directly connected to St. Moritz by the Glacier Express panoramic train
The Dom is a mountain of the Pennine Alps, located between Randa and Saas-Fee in the canton of Valais. With its 4,545 m summit it is the third highest mountain in the Alps, the Dom is the main summit of the Mischabel group, which is the highest massif lying entirely in Switzerland. Although Dom is a German cognate for dome, it can mean cathedral and the mountain is named after Canon Berchtold of Sitten cathedral, the first person to survey the vicinity. The former name Mischabel comes from an ancient German dialect term for pitchfork, the chain lies entirely in the district of Visp. The two valleys separated by the range are the Mattertal on the west and the Saastal on the east, the towns of Randa and Saas-Fee lie both six kilometres from the summit. The elevation difference between the summit and the floor is 3,150 metres on the west side and 3,000 metres on the east side. On the Mattertal side, the Dom faces the almost equally high Weisshorn and, on the Saastal side, the Dom is the highest point of the Saastal and the second highest mountain of the Mattertal after Monte Rosa.
Since the Dom is not on the main Alpine chain, the rivers flowing on both the west and east side of the end up in the same major river, the Rhone, through the Mattervispa. The Dom is the highest mountain in the Alps with this peculiarity, the Mischabel group includes many subsidiary summits above 4,000 metres. To the north lies the Nadelgrat, composed of the Lenzspitze, the Nadelhorn, the Stecknadelhorn, the Hohberghorn, the Nadelgrat is easily visible from the north and gives the massif its characteristic pitchfork appearance. The second highest peak of the massif, the Täschhorn to the south, culminates at 4,491 metres, in total, eight summits above 4,000 metres make up the Mischabel massif. Other important peaks of the massif are the Ulrichshorn and the Balfrin, the Dom has a western shoulder and an eastern shoulder. The massif is almost entirely composed of gneiss from the Siviez-Mischabel nappe, the latter is part of the Briançonnais microcontinent and is located in the Penninic nappes.
The Dom is a depositional mountain, the first ascent was made from the Festigrat by the Reverend John Llewelyn-Davies with guides Johann Zumtaugwald, Johann Krönig and Hieronymous Brantschen on 11 September 1858. They traversed the west face to reach the Festigrat before arriving to the summit, the first complete ascent on the western ridge was made in 1882 by Paul Güssfeldt and guides Alexander Burgener and B. The direct route on the west face was first ascended in 1962, the 1000-metre-high east face above Saas-Fee was climbed in 1875 by J. Petrus, A. and W. Puckle and L. Noti. A route on the face was first made in August 1906 by Geoffrey Winthrop Young and R. G. Major. According to Young it was more dangerous than the south-west face of the nearby Täschhorn, which they had climbed two weeks earlier
The Alphubel is a mountain of the Swiss Pennine Alps, located between the valleys of Zermatt and Saas in the canton of Valais. It is part of the Mischabel range, which culminates at the Dom, the summit of the Alphubel consists of a large ice-covered plateau, part of the Fee Glacier on its east side. The west side of the mountain is rocky and much steeper. The nearest settlements are Täsch and Saas-Fee, media related to Alphubel at Wikimedia Commons The Alphubel on SummitPost The Alphubel on Mount Wiki
Embd is a municipality in the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Embd is first mentioned in 1250 as Emeda, in 1330 it was mentioned as Embda and Emda. Embd has an area, as of 2011, of 13.4 square kilometers, of this area,24. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 15. 2% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 5% is settled and 58. 7% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Visp district, on the steep, left side of the Nikolai valley. It consists of a number of scattered settlements including the hamlet of Flue, which serves as the central settlement, Embd has a population of 302. As of 2008,0. 3% of the population are resident foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -13. 6%. It has changed at a rate of -11. 7% due to migration, most of the population speaks German as their first language, French is the second most common and Serbo-Croatian is the third. There is 1 person who speaks Italian, as of 2008, the population was 49. 8% male and 50. 2% female.
The population was made up of 161 Swiss men and 1 non-Swiss men, there were 162 Swiss women and 1 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality,279 or about 79. 0% were born in Embd and lived there in 2000. There were 33 or 9. 3% who were born in the canton, while 24 or 6. 8% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 23. 2% of the population, while adults make up 58. 6%, as of 2000, there were 146 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 194 married individuals,13 widows or widowers and individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 123 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.7 persons per household. There were 26 households that consist of one person and 9 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 118 apartments were permanently occupied, the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 5. 91%. The historical population is given in the chart, In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 71. 88% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the SVP, the SP and the FDP, in the federal election, a total of 137 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 51. 5%. In the 2009 Conseil dEtat/Staatsrat election a total of 181 votes were cast, the voter participation was 73. 0%, which is much more than the cantonal average of 54. 67%
The Ober Gabelhorn is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland, located between Zermatt and Zinal. The Ober Gabelhorn lies in the Swiss canton of Valais at the end of the Zinal valley. It rises, together with the Dent Blanche and the Zinalrothorn, on the south side lies the Zmutt Glacier in the valley of Zmutt, which extends west of Zermatt. The Ober Gabelhorn has a shape, similar to the nearby Matterhorn. Only the smooth face is completely glaciated, the other faces being mostly rocky. The south-west ridge is called the Arbengrat while the north-north-west ridge is the Arête du Coeur, the south-east ridge looking over the Ober Gabeljoch is the Gabelhorngrat. The Wellenkuppe is a prominence on the north-east ridge, it is usually climbed as part of the normal route. Huts serving the peak are the Rothorn Hut, the Grand Mountet Hut, the first ascent was by A. W. Moore, Horace Walker and Jakob Anderegg on 6 July 1865, via the east face. The second ascent of the peak, and the first by the north-north-west ridge, was one day by Lord Francis Douglas, Peter Taugwalder.
At the time of their ascent they were not aware of Moore and Taugwalder made several attempts before they reached the summit. P. Inäbnit accompanied them on the first attempt from the south-east ridge and they didnt have enough time to go higher than the base of the mountain. On the second attempt they reached the Wellenkuppe on the north-east ridge and they finally reached the summit on their third attempt. They were disconcerted to see some footprints on the east face, not aware of the dangers that might have made the previous expedition turn back, they sat down on the summit to have lunch. Suddenly an avalanche started and everything on the summit began to fall away from them and Taugwalder were swept away, but they were roped to Viennin who was a little distance below the summit. Viennin was able to belay Taugwalder and Douglas with the rope, Francis Douglas returned to Zermatt, and was killed a week on 14 July on the first ascent of the Matterhorn. The Arbengrat was first climbed in 1874 by H. S.
Hoare and E. Hulton with guides J. von Bergen, P. Rubi and J. Moser. The route on the Gabelhorngrat was opened three years by J. Walker Hartley, W. E. Davidson, P. Rubi and J. Juan. The north face, similar to but rather steeper than the north-east face of the Lenzspitze, was first climbed on 30 July 1930 by H. Kiener and they started from Zermatt at midnight and made a direct 2, 000-metre ascent to the Triftjoch
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
The Pennine Alps, known as the Valais Alps, and formerly called Alpes Poeninae, are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland and Italy, the Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea and Toce, tributaries of the Po. The Swiss side is drained by the Rhône, the Great St Bernard Tunnel, under the Great St Bernard Pass, leads from Martigny, Switzerland to Aosta. The main chain runs from west to east on the border between Italy and Switzerland, from Mont Vélan, the first high summit east of St Bernard Pass, the chain rarely goes below 3000 metres and contains many four-thousanders such as Matterhorn or Monte Rosa. Unlike many other ranges, the higher peaks are often located outside the main chain
A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains.
If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport.
The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift
The Swiss Alps extend over both the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps, encompassing an area sometimes called Central Alps. The Swiss Alps comprise almost all the highest mountains of the Alps, such as Dufourspitze, the Dom, the Liskamm, the Weisshorn, the other following major summits can be found in this list of mountains of Switzerland. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Alps played an important role in history, the region north of St Gotthard Pass became the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century. The Alps cover 65% of Switzerlands total 41,285 square kilometres surface area, making it one of the most alpine countries. The glaciers of the Swiss Alps cover an area of 1,220 square kilometres — 3% of the Swiss territory, the Swiss Alps are situated south of the Swiss Plateau and north of the national border. The limit between the Alps and the runs from Vevey on the shores of Lake Geneva to Rorschach on the shores of Lake Constance, passing close to the cities of Thun.
The not well defined regions in Switzerland that lie on the margin of the Alps, the Swiss Prealps are mainly made of limestone and they generally do not exceed 2,500 metres. The Alpine cantons are Valais, Graubünden, Glarus, Ticino, St. Gallen, Obwalden, Schwyz, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Fribourg and Zug. The countries with which Switzerland shares mountain ranges of the Alps are, Italy, the Alps are usually divided into two main parts, the Western Alps and Eastern Alps, whose division is along the Rhine from Lake Constance to the Splügen Pass. The western ranges occupy the greatest part of Switzerland while the more numerous eastern ranges are smaller and are all situated in the canton of Graubünden. The latter are part of the Central Eastern Alps, except the Ortler Alps which belong to the Southern Limestone Alps, the Pennine and Bernina Range are the highest ranges of the country, they contain respectively 38,9 and 1 summit over 4000 metres. The lowest range is the Appenzell Alps culminating at 2,500 metres, Western Alps Eastern Alps The north side of the Swiss Alps is drained by the Rhône, Rhine and Inn while the south side is mainly drained by the Ticino.
The rivers on the empty into the Mediterranean and Black Sea. The major triple watersheds in the Alps are located within the country, they are, Piz Lunghin, Witenwasserenstock, between the Witenwasserenstock and Piz Lunghin runs the European Watershed separating the basin of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The European watershed lies in fact only partially on the main chain, Switzerland possesses 6% of Europes fresh water, and is sometimes referred to as the water tower of Europe. Since the highest dams are located in Alpine regions, many mountain lakes are artificial and are used as hydroelectric reservoirs. Some large artificial lakes can be found above 2,300 m, the melting of low-altitude glaciers can generate new lakes, such as the 0.25 km² large Triftsee which formed between 2002–2003. The following table gives the area above 2000 m and 3000 m
The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, the following sortable table lists the Earths 40 most topographically isolated summits. The nearest peak to Germanys highest mountain, the 2, 962-metre-high Zugspitze, the distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km, the Zugspitze is thus the highest peak for a radius of 25.8 km around. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km, because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, after Mount Everest the Aconcagua, highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains. There is no land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush.
Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps, the geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. The Kukurtlu, which rises near the Elbrus, is the peak for Mont Blanc. com Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia peakbagger. com peaklist. org peakware. com World Mountain Encyclopedia summitpost. org
The Monte Rosa and the lower Gornergrat at 3,090 m. Monte Rosa is one of the high mountains surrounding the 40 km long Matter Valley south of Stalden. On the southwest to west are Liskamm, Zwillinge with Castor and Pollux, the Breithorn and the Matterhorn, on the north are the Weisshorn, there are no convenient mode of subdividing the range. However the natural limits of the district can be defined on the side by the two branches of the Visp torrent. Within the line so traced, exceeding 450 km in length, the direction of the ranges and the depressions offers a marked contrast to that prevailing throughout the adjoining regions of the Alps. Unless in a part of the Italian valleys, the direction here is either parallel or perpendicular to the meridian. The minor ridges on the side of the border are parallel to this latter range, with their corresponding depressions occupied by the glaciers of Gorner. On clear days the mountainous massif of Monte Rosa provides a view from the Po plain, particularly its upper reaches in western Lombardy.
It dominates the horizon, towering between other lesser Alpine peaks as a prominent, multi-pointed, razor-sharp bulge, its permanent glaciers shining under the sun, - John Ball The massif is the border between Switzerland and Italy, though glacial melt has caused some alterations to the border. These changes were ratified by the two countries in 2009 and will continue to be subject to change as melting continues, the entire massif consists mainly of granite and granite gneiss. Rocks in the paragneiss of the Monte Rosa Nappe record eclogite-facies metamorphism, the deformation of the Monte Rosa granites indicates a depth of subduction of about 60 km. They were brought to the surface by uplift, which still continues today. The summit is a sharp, jagged edge of mica schist connected by an arête with the Nordend, being the highest point in Switzerland, Monte Rosa is one of the most extreme places. The average air pressure is about half of that of the sea level, the snow line is located at about 3,000 metres.
The Monte Rosa massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking and snowboarding and it hosts several ski resorts with long pistes. Plateau Rosa, about 3,500 metres high sea level, is a renowned summer ski resort. The Plateau Rosa is connected via aerial tramway to Cervinia and to Zermatt via the Klein Matterhorn, the western fringes of the massif reach the Zermatt ski domain. Gressoney, Alagna Valsesia and Macugnaga are the main mountain, the Tour of Monte Rosa can be effected by trekkers in about 10 days. The circuit follows many ancient trails that have linked the Swiss, the circuit includes larch forests, alpine meadows, balcony trails and a glacial crossing