Conrad Anker is an American rock climber and author. He is the team leader of The North Face climbing team. In 1999, he located George Mallory's body on Everest as a member of a search team looking for the remains of the British climber, he lives in Montana. 2010 - David A Brower Award - American Alpine Club 2016 - Golden Pitons: Lifetime Achievement - Climbing Magazine 2017 - University of Utah Honorary Degree Recipient 2018 - Jack Roberts Lifetime Achievements Award - Cody, WY Ice Festival 1987 Southeast Face Gurney Peak, Kichatna Mountains, Alaska Range, United States. First Ascent with Seth'S. T.' Shaw, Robert Ingle and James Garrett. 1989 Northwest Face Mount Hunter, Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. FA with Seth'S. T.' Shaw, summit attained July 3, 1989. 1990 Rodeo Queen, Streaked Wall, Zion National Park, Utah, USA. FA with Mugs Stump. 1992 East Buttress, Middle Triple Peak, Kichatna Spires, Alaska, USA, 2nd ascent with Seth Shaw. 1992 Shunes Buttress, Red Arch Mountain, Zion National Park. FFA with Dave Jones.
1994 Badlands, Southeast Face, Torre Egger, Patagonia. Conrad Anker, Jay Smith and Steve Gerberding, FA 12 December 1994. 1997 The Northwest Face, Peak Loretan, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica Jan 15-16, 1997. 1997 Rakekniven Peak, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, FA with Jon Krakauer. Featured in the cover article of the February 1998 National Geographic Magazine. 1997 Tsering Mosong, Latok II, Karakorum, FA with Thomas Huber and Toni Gutsch. 1997 Continental Drift, El Capitan, Yosemite, CA, USA. FA with Steve Gerberding and Kevin Thaw. 1999 Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, Mount Everest, Nepal / Tibet. 1999 Shishapangma American Ski Expedition, Tibet. Survived a massive avalanche which killed climbing partner Alex Lowe and cameraman David Bridges. 2001 East Face of Antarctica. FA with Jon Krakauer. Featured on PBS series NOVA in February 2003. 2005 Southwest Ridge, Khumbu region, Nepal - summit attained with Kevin Thaw, John Griber, Kris Erickson and Abby Watkins on May 12, 2005. 2007 Leads Altitude Everest Expedition 2007, joined by Leo Houlding, Jimmy Chin and Kevin Thaw, retracing Mallory's last steps on Everest.
2nd summit. First documented free climb of the Second Step. 2011 Shark's Fin, Meru Peak, FA with Renan Ozturk. 2012 Leads "Everest Education Expedition" with National Geographic, The North Face, Montana State University and Mayo Clinic - 3rd summit, this time without oxygen. With Cory Richards, Sam Elias, Kris Erickson, Emily Harrington, Philip Henderson, Mark Jenkins, David Lageson Ph. D, Hilaree O'Neill. Mayo Team - Dr. Bruce Johnson, Landon Bassett, Derek Campbell, Amine Issa. Base Camp Support Andy Bardon, Travis Courthouts, Anjin Herndon, Max Lowe. Anker has climbed notable routes in Yosemite Valley, Zion National Park, Baffin Island, the Ellsworth Mountains in Antarctica. Anker, Conrad. "Gumbies on Gurney". American Alpine Journal. NYC, NY, USA: American Alpine Club. 30: 69–75. ISBN 0-930410-33-5. Anker, Conrad. "Hunter's Northwest Face". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. 42: 36–38. ISBN 0-930410-43-2. Anker, Conrad. "With You in Spirit". American Alpine Journal. American Alpine Club. 40: 140–145.
ISBN 0-930410-78-5. Anker, Conrad; the Lost Explorer: Finding Mallory on Mt. Everest. New York, NY, USA: Simon and Schuster / Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-87151-3. Shackleton's Antarctic Adventure Light of the Himalaya. At the heart of the planet's most formidable mountain range live people who suffer from the highest rates of cataract blindness on the planet; the North Face athletes join eye surgeons from America in hopes of making a difference. The film follows the doctors' work on the Himalayan Cataract Project all the way to the summit of a 21,000-foot Himalayan giant; the Endless Knot. Directed by Michael Brown and produced by David D'Angelo, an HDTV documentary film with Rush HD and The North Face. In October 1999, Alex Lowe and Conrad Anker were buried by an avalanche in the Tibetan Himalaya. Anker survived the avalanche, but was overcome with survivor's guilt. In the months following the tragedy, he worked to comfort Lowe's widow, they unexpectedly found love; the Wildest Dream, IMAX, directed by Anthony Geffen, Altitude Films, US distribution, National Geographic Entertainment releasing.
Meru, a 2015 documentary film about climbing the Shark's fin route National Parks Adventure, a short IMAX film/documentary by MacGillivray Freeman about the National Park Service. Lunag Ri, a documentary film by Joachim Hellinger about the attempted ascend of the Lunag Ri by Conrad Anker and David Lama List of Mount Everest summiters by number of times to the summit Timex Expedition WS4 Conrad Anker's "return to the outdoors" blog Conrad Anker's website Conrad Anker on the North Face website Conrad Anker, Leader of the 2012 Everest Education Expedition Conrad Anker on Altitude Everest Expedition 2007 The Wildest Dream / Official Website The Endless Knot / Official Website Light of the Himalaya / Official Website Dave Reuss, "Gallatin to the Ganges", Outside Bozeman magazine BBC Radio 4: Desert Island Discs / Conrad Anker Conrad Anker on IMDb
Jeremy Charles Robert Clarkson is an English broadcaster and writer who specialises in motoring. He is best known for co-presenting the BBC TV show Top Gear with Richard Hammond and James May from October 2002 to March 2015, he currently writes weekly columns for The Sunday Times and The Sun. From a career as a local journalist in Northern England, Clarkson rose to public prominence as a presenter of the original format of Top Gear in 1988. Since the mid-1990s, he has become a recognised public personality appearing on British television presenting his own shows for BBC and appearing as a guest on other shows; as well as motoring, Clarkson has produced programmes and books on subjects such as history and engineering. In 1998, he hosted the first series of Robot Wars, from 1998 to 2000 he hosted his own talk show, Clarkson. In 2015, the BBC decided not to renew Clarkson's contract with the company after a dispute with a Top Gear producer while filming on location; that year and his Top Gear co-presenters and producer Andy Wilman formed the production company W. Chump & Sons to produce The Grand Tour for Amazon Video.
In 2018, he became the new host of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? for ITV. His opinionated but humorous tongue-in-cheek writing and presenting style has provoked a public reaction, his actions, both and as a Top Gear presenter have sometimes resulted in criticism from the media, pressure groups and the public. He has a significant public following, being credited as a major factor in the resurgence of Top Gear as one of the most popular shows on the BBC. Clarkson was born in Doncaster, West Riding of Yorkshire, the son of Shirley Gabrielle Clarkson, a teacher, Edward Grenville Clarkson, a travelling salesman, his parents, who ran a business selling tea cosies, put their son's name down in advance for private schools, with no idea how they were going to pay the fees. However, shortly before his admission, when he was 13, his parents made two Paddington Bear stuffed toys for each of their children; these proved so popular. Because they were manufacturing and selling the bears without regard to intellectual property rights, upon his becoming aware of the bears Michael Bond took action through his solicitors.
Edward Clarkson duly traveled down to London to meet Bond's lawyer. By coincidence, he met Bond in the lift, the two struck up an immediate rapport. Bond awarded the Clarksons the licensing of the bear rights throughout the world, with the family selling to Britain's leading toystore, Hamleys; the income from this success enabled the Clarksons to be able to pay the fees for Jeremy to attend Hill House School and Repton School. Clarkson has stated he was unhappy at Repton School, saying that he had been a "suicidal wreck" there, having experienced extreme bullying, which he alleged included: being thrown into a cold plunge pool, night time beatings, being forced to lick the lavatories clean, routine damage to his property, defecation in his tuck box, the cutting up of his clothing. According to his own account, he was expelled from Repton School for "drinking and making a nuisance of himself." Clarkson attended Repton alongside Formula One engineer Adrian Newey and former Top Gear Executive Producer Andy Wilman.
Clarkson played the role of a public schoolboy, Atkinson, in a BBC radio Children's Hour serial adaptation of Anthony Buckeridge's Jennings novels until his voice broke. Clarkson's first job was as a travelling salesman for his parents' business, selling Paddington Bear toys, he trained as a journalist with the Rotherham Advertiser, before writing for the Rochdale Observer, Wolverhampton Express and Star, Lincolnshire Life, Shropshire Star and the Associated Kent Newspapers. When writing in 2015 in his final column for Top Gear magazine, he credited the Shropshire Star as his first outlet as a motoring columnist: "I started small, on the Shropshire Star with little Peugeots and Fiats and worked my way up to Ford Granadas and Rovers until, after about seven years, I was allowed to drive an Aston Martin Lagonda... It was 10 years before I drove my first Lamborghini."In 1984, Clarkson formed the Motoring Press Agency, in which, with fellow motoring journalist Jonathan Gill, he conducted road tests for local newspapers and automotive magazines.
This developed into articles for publications such as Performance Car. He has written for Top Gear magazine since its launch in 1993. In 1987, Clarkson made articles about Amstrad CPC game reviews. Clarkson writes regular columns in the tabloid newspaper The Sun, for the broadsheet newspaper The Sunday Times, his columns in the Times are republished in The Weekend Australian newspaper. He writes for the "Wheels" section of the Toronto Star. Clarkson has written humorous books about several other subjects. Many of his books are collections of articles. Clarkson's first major television role came as one of the presenters on the British motoring programme Top Gear, from 27 October 1988 to 3 February 2000, in the programme's earlier format. Jon Bentley, a researcher at Top Gear, helped launch his television career. Bentley shortly afterwards became the show's producer, said about hiring Clarkson: "He was just what I was looking for - an enthusiastic motoring writer who could make cars on telly fun, he was irreverent, rather than respectfully po-faced.
The fact that he looked and sounded like a twenty-something ex-public schoolboy didn't matter. Nor did the impression there was a hint of school bully about him. I knew he was th
BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The corporation has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a royal charter since 1927, it produced television programmes from its own studios since 1932, although the start of its regular service of television broadcasts is dated to 2 November 1936. The BBC's domestic television channels have no commercial advertising and collectively they account for more than 30% of all UK viewing; the services are funded by a television licence. As a result of the 2016 Licence Fee settlement, the BBC Television division was split, with in-house television production being separated into a new division called BBC Studios and the remaining parts of television being renamed as BBC Content; the BBC operates several television networks, television stations, related programming services in the United Kingdom. As well as being a broadcaster, the corporation produces a large number of its own programmes in-house and thereby ranks as one of the world's largest television production companies.
John Logie Baird set up the Baird Television Development Company in 1926. Baird used his electromechanical system with a vertically-scanned image of 30 lines, just enough resolution for a close-up of one person, a bandwidth low enough to use existing radio transmitters; the simultaneous transmission of sound and pictures was achieved on 30 March 1930, by using the BBC's new twin transmitter at Brookmans Park. By late 1930, thirty minutes of morning programmes were broadcast from Monday to Friday, thirty minutes at midnight on Tuesdays and Fridays after BBC radio went off the air. Baird's broadcasts via the BBC continued until June 1932; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932. The studio moved to larger quarters in 16 Portland Place, London, in February 1934, continued broadcasting the 30-line images, carried by telephone line to the medium wave transmitter at Brookmans Park, until 11 September 1935, by which time advances in all-electronic television systems made the electromechanical broadcasts obsolete.
After a series of test transmissions and special broadcasts that began in August 1936, the BBC Television Service launched on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of Alexandra Palace in London. "Ally Pally" housed two studios, various scenery stores, make-up areas, dressing rooms and the transmitter itself, which broadcast on the VHF band. BBC television used two systems on alternate weeks: the 240-line Baird intermediate film system and the 405-line Marconi-EMI system; the use of both formats made the BBC's service the world's first regular high-definition television service. The first programme broadcast – and thus the first on a dedicated TV channel – was "Opening of the BBC Television Service" at 15:00; the first major outside broadcast was the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937. The two systems were to run on a trial basis for six months. However, the Baird system, which used a mechanical camera for filmed programming and Farnsworth image dissector cameras for live programming, proved too cumbersome and visually inferior, ended with closedown on Saturday 13 February 1937.
The station's range was a 40 kilometres radius of the Alexandra Palace transmitter—in practice, transmissions could be picked up a good deal further away, on one occasion in 1938 were picked up by engineers at RCA in New York, who were experimenting with a British television set. The service was reaching an estimated 25,000–40,000 homes before the outbreak of World War II which caused the service to be suspended in September 1939. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning. Many of the television service's technical staff and engineers would be needed for the war effort, in particular on the radar programme; the last programme transmitted was a Mickey Mouse cartoon, Mickey's Gala Premier, followed by test transmissions. According to figures from Britain's Radio Manufacturers Association, 18,999 television sets had been manufactured from 1936 to September 1939, when production was halted by the war. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00.
Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying,'Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?'. The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later. Alexandra Palace was the home base of the channel until the early 1950s when the majority of production moved into the newly acquired Lime Grove Studios. Postwar broadcast coverage was extended to Birmingham in 1949 with the opening of the Sutton Coldfield transmitting station, by the mid-1950s most of the country was covered, transmitting a 405-line interlaced image on VHF; when the ITV was launched in 1955, the BBC Television Service showed popular programming, including comedies, documentaries, game shows, soap operas, covering a wide range
Ford Ranger is a nameplate, used on three distinct model lines of vehicles sold by Ford. The name originated in 1958, as the Edsel Ranger was slotted the base sedan of the Edsel model range. From 1965 to 1981, Ranger denoted various trim packages of the Ford F-Series, serving as a mid to top-level trim. For the 1983 model year, the Ford Ranger nameplate was applied to a model range, as Ford introduced its own compact pickup truck, replacing the 1972-1982 Ford Courier in North America. In global markets, Ford began use of the Ranger nameplate in 1998 in place of Courier, with all compact trucks named Ranger by 2006. For 2011, the Ranger was discontinued in the United States and Canada; the same year, Ford commenced production of a mid-size Ford Ranger. For the 1983 model year, Ford introduced the Ranger for the United States and Canada. Replacing the Courier, the Ranger was the first compact pickup truck designed by Ford. Using the same chassis architecture, three generations of the Ranger were produced across its 29-year production run.
The model line underwent major redesigns for 1993 and 1998, a mid-cycle update in 1989, with smaller updates for 2001, 2004, 2006. The Ford Ranger chassis architecture served as the basis for several model ranges over its production; the Ford Bronco II and the 1991-2001 Ford Explorer were derived from the Ranger alongside the 2001-2005 Ford Explorer Sport Trac. Through the use of rebadging, in North America, Mazda sold the Ranger as the Mazda B-Series from 1994-2009. On December 22, 2011, the final Ford Ranger produced for North America rolled off the Twin Cities Assembly assembly line, as the final vehicle assembled at the facility. In 1995, exports of the Ford Ranger began to select South American countries. To accommodate the demand for the vehicle, in 1998, Ford Argentina commenced local production of the Ranger, introducing a four-door cab not sold in North America. During the 2000s, Rangers produced by Ford Argentina shared a common chassis with North American-produced vehicles. For 2010, the Ranger underwent a major revision of the exterior.
Ford Argentina ended production of the compact Ranger following the 2011 model year to expand production of the Ranger T6 mid-size pickup, which remains in production. After an eight-year hiatus, the Ford Ranger returns to the Ford model range in North America for the 2019 model year, with the first example rolling off the assembly line at Michigan Assembly Plant on October 22, 2018; the revived Ranger is the global Ranger T6, adapted to accommodate American government regulations. Similar in size to the Ford Explorer Sport Trac, the 2019 Ranger is the first generation produced as a mid-size pickup for the North American market; the Ranger is sold in SuperCab and SuperCrew. As the 1983–2012 Ranger served as a basis for several Ford/Mercury/Mazda vehicles during its production, the current mid-size Ranger will serve as the basis for the revived Ford Bronco. For markets outside of North America, Ford badge engineered the Japanese-built Mazda B-Series as the Courier starting in 1971, renaming it the Ranger in 1998.
Second-generation Ranger models from 2006 to 2011 were designed by Mazda, being rebadged versions of the successor to the B-Series, the first generation BT-50. Third-generation models, as produced since 2011, were designed and engineered by Ford Australia, with this time the Mazda badged variant being the derivative version of the Ford, offered as the second generation BT-50; this third generation is the basis for the Ford Everest SUV and therefore, the Ranger and the Everest share a number of features. Third generation Ford Ranger and its most expensive flagship version, has vastly increased its presence on the European market, making the Ranger the best selling pickup truck in Europe by 2015. For the 2019 model year, the Ranger T6 commences sales in North America, with several external and internal changes to adapt to government regulations and market demands
Mount Asgard is a twin peaked mountain with two flat-topped, rock towers, separated by a saddle. It is located in Auyuittuq National Park, on the Cumberland Peninsula of Baffin Island, Canada; the peak is named after the realm of the gods in Norse mythology. Mount Asgard is the most famous of the Baffin Mountains. Asgard's higher North Peak was first ascended in 1953 by J. Weber, J. Marmet, H. Röthlisberger, Swiss scientists on the Arctic Institute Baffin Island Expedition, led by the Canadian P. Baird, their route ascended the east side of the north peak, using a climbing traverse across snowfields and rock ribs, to reach the saddle between the two peaks, thence to the top of the North Peak. The route is graded VI, 5.8/5.9 A1. It is still the most-traveled route and is the standard descent route for climbers making harder ascents on other faces; the South Peak was first climbed in 1971 by G. Lee, R. Wood, P. Clanky, J. Pavur, Y. Kamisawa and P. Koch. Since at least 13 routes have been put up on the two peaks, most involving technical free and aid climbing, with lengths varying from 800 m to 1,200 m.
One of the most notable routes was put up in 1975 by Charlie Porter as a solo climb. This was "the first Baffin modern, multi-day, big-wall climb", with 40 pitches rated at Grade VII, 5.10, A4 and it was followed by "a 10-day walk-out to the fjord-head without food". The fact that this was all done solo was "a remarkable achievement". In 1976, stuntman Rick Sylvester performed a BASE jump, skiing off the mountain with a Union Flag parachute for the opening sequence of the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me, although the fictional setting was the Austrian Alps; the stunt team and film crew had reached the summit by helicopter. List of mountains of Canada Peakware World Mountain Encyclopedia: Mount Asgard
Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom are retroactively labeled reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948, is seen as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, first appeared in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and contains the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration. In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce.
In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time showed, in each of its 15 episodes, a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showing an aspiring pop singer trying to enter the music business. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K