Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. The ecumenical patriarchs in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity, in the Middle Ages they played a major role in the affairs of the Eastern Orthodox Church, as well as in the politics of the Orthodox world, and in spreading Christianity among the Slavs. Within the five sees of the Pentarchy, the Ecumenical Patriarch is regarded as the successor of Andrew the Apostle. The current holder of the office is Bartholomew I, the 270th holder of the title, in his role as head of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, he holds the title Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome. The see of Byzantium, whose foundation was ascribed to Andrew the Apostle, was originally a common bishopric. It gained importance when Emperor Constantine elevated Byzantium to a second capital alongside Rome, the sees ecclesiastical status as the second of five Patriarchates were developed by the Ecumenical Councils of Constantinople in 381 and Chalcedon in 451.
The Turkish government recognizes him as the leader of the Greek minority in Turkey. The Patriarch was subject to the authority of the Ottoman Empire after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, according to Turkish law, he is subject to the authority of the state of Turkey and is required to be a citizen of Turkey to be Patriarch. The Patriarch of Constantinople has been dubbed the Ecumenical Patriarch since the 6th century, the monastic communities of Mount Athos are stauropegic and are directly under the jurisdiction of Ecumenical Patriarch, who is the only bishop with jurisdiction thereover. The Ecumenical Patriarch has a role among Orthodox bishops, though it is not without its controversy. He is primus inter pares, as he is senior among all Orthodox bishops and this primacy, expressed in canonical literature as presbeia, grants to the Ecumenical Patriarch the right to preside at pan-Orthodox synods. Additionally, the literature of the Orthodox Church grants to the Ecumenical Patriarch the right to hear appeals in cases of dispute between bishops.
Historically, the Ecumenical Patriarch has heard such appeals and sometimes was invited to intervene in other disputes and difficulties. Even as early as the 4th century, Constantinople was instrumental in the deposition of multiple bishops outside its traditional jurisdiction. This still occurs today, as when in 2006 the patriarchate was invited to assist in declaring the archbishop of the Church of Cyprus incompetent due to his having Alzheimers disease. Additionally, in 2005, the Ecumenical Patriarchate convoked a synod to express the Orthodox worlds confirmation of the deposition of Patriarch Irenaios of Jerusalem. That is, his role is one of promoting and sustaining Church unity. Such a title is acceptable if it refers to this unique role, the five patriarchs of the ancient Pentarchy are to be given seniority of honour, but have no actual power over other bishops other than the power of the synod they are chairing
Leo I the Thracian
Leo I was an Eastern Roman Emperor from 457 to 474. A native of Dacia Aureliana near historic Thrace, he was known as Leo the Thracian, ruling the Eastern Empire for nearly 20 years, Leo proved to be a capable ruler. He oversaw many ambitious political and military plans, aimed mostly for the aid of the faltering Western Roman Empire and he is notable for being the first Eastern Emperor to legislate in Greek rather than Latin. He is commemorated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 20 and he was born Leo Marcellus in Thracia or in Dacia Aureliana province in the year 401 to a Thraco-Roman family. His Dacian origin is mentioned by Candidus Isaurus, while John Malalas believes that he was of Bessian stock and he served in the Roman army, rising to the rank of comes. Leo was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army, Leo became more and more independent from Aspar, causing tension that would culminate in the assassination of the latter.
Leos coronation as emperor on 7 February 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople, Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leos daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, in 469, Aspar attempted to assassinate Zeno and very nearly succeeded. Finally, in 471, Aspars son Ardabur was implicated in a plot against Leo, Leo overestimated his capacities and he made some errors that menaced the internal order of the Empire. There were some raids by the Huns, Leos reign was noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money, the expedition, which cost 130,000 pounds of gold and 700 pounds of silver, consisted of 1,113 ships carrying 100,000 men, but in the end lost 600 ships.
After this defeat, Vandals raided Greek coasts until a peace agreement was signed between Leo and Genseric. Leo became very unpopular in his last days as Emperor for abolishing any non-religious celebration or event on Sundays, Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on 18 January 474. Leo and Verina had three children and their eldest daughter Ariadne was born prior to the death of Marcian. Ariadne had a sister, Leontia. Leontia was first betrothed to Patricius, a son of Aspar, Leontia married Marcian, a son of Emperor Anthemius and Marcia Euphemia. The couple led a revolt against Zeno in 478–479
Julius Nepos was Western Roman Emperor de facto from 474 to 475 and de jure until 480. He was the ruler of Roman Dalmatia from 468 to 480, some historians consider Nepos to be the last Western Roman Emperor, while others consider the western line to have ended with Romulus Augustulus in 476. In contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire and its line of Emperors survived this period of history essentially intact, Nepos was elevated to Western Roman Emperor in 474 by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I in order to replace the usurper Glycerius. Nepos was deposed in 475 by Orestes, who control of the government at Ravenna on August 28,475. Romulus Augustulus was crowned Emperor but was deposed by Odoacer. Nepos continued to reign from Dalmatia as the Emperor of the West recognized by Constantinople, Nepos was assassinated in 480, and Eastern Emperor Zeno formally abolished the Western division of the Empire. Julius Nepos was appointed Western Roman Emperor in early 474 by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I, Nepos was married to Leos niece, hence his agnomen of nepos — nephew.
Leo intended to replace the western emperor Glycerius, who he regarded as a usurper, Glycerius had been raised to the throne by the Burgundian magister militum Gundobad in the western capital of Ravenna. Under Roman law, Leo was the sole legitimate Emperor and had the right to select a new western counterpart. Nepos had been governor of province of Dalmatia, technically a part of the western empire, in June 474 Nepos entered Ravenna, forced Glycerius to abdicate, and secured the western throne for himself. Nepos spared Glycerius life and appointed him bishop of Salona, Nepos ruled briefly over the whole of the remaining Western Roman Empire, centered in Italy, still the Empires heartland, and including his native Dalmatia and the remaining parts of Roman Gaul. Nepos rule in Italy ended in 475, when he was deposed by his magister militum, Orestes, in the same year, Orestes enthroned his own teenage son as the new western emperor with the regnal name Romulus Augustus. The boy was probably around 15 years old when he became Emperor and is known to history as Romulus Augustulus, the reasons for Orestes decision to crown his son as a puppet-emperor, rather than become emperor himself, are somewhat unclear.
However, Romulus position was not constitutional inasmuch as he had not been recognised by the Emperor at Constantinople, Romulus short reign ended on September 4,476, when Odoacer, head of the Germanic Foederati in Italy, captured Ravenna, killed Orestes, and deposed Romulus. Odoacer sent Romulus Augustulus to Campania in exile or retirement, after which he disappears from the historical record, although his successor had been deposed, Nepos never returned to Italy. He continued to reign from Dalmatia as Emperor of the West, patrician rank was granted, but at Zenos insistence Odoacer grudgingly acknowledged Nepos Imperial status, and even issued coinage in Nepos name. In name at least, the Western Roman Empire continued to exist after 476 and this political solution lasted approximately four years. In about 479, Nepos began to plot against Odoacer, hoping to control of Italy for himself
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Basiliscus was Byzantine Emperor from 475 to 476. A member of the House of Leo, he came to power when Emperor Zeno had been forced out of Constantinople by a revolt, Basiliscus was the brother of Empress Aelia Verina, who was the wife of Emperor Leo I. Basiliscus succeeded in seizing power in 475, exploiting the unpopularity of Emperor Zeno, the successor to Leo. Also, his policy of securing his power through the appointment of men to key roles antagonised many important figures in the imperial court. So, when Zeno tried to regain his empire, he found no opposition, triumphantly entering Constantinople. The struggle between Basiliscus and Zeno impeded the Eastern Roman Empires ability to intervene in the fall of the Western Roman Empire, likely of Balkan origin, Basiliscus was the brother of Aelia Verina, wife of Leo I. It has been argued that Basiliscus was uncle to the chieftain of the Heruli and this link is based on the interpretation of a fragment by John of Antioch, which states that Odoacer and Armatus, Basiliscus nephew, were brothers.
However, not all accept this interpretation, since sources do not say anything about the foreign origin of Basiliscus. It is known that Basiliscus had a wife, and at least one son, Basiliscus military career started under Leo I. The Emperor conferred upon his brother-in-law the dignities of dux, or commander-in-chief, in this country Basiliscus led a successful military campaign against the Bulgars in 463. He succeeded Rusticius as magister militum per Thracias, and had several successes against the Goths, basiliscuss value rose in Leos consideration. Verinas intercession in favour of her brother helped Basiliscus military and political career, with the conferral of the consulship in 465, his rise was soon to meet a serious reversal. In 468, Leo chose Basiliscus as leader of the military expedition against Carthage. The plan was concerted between Eastern Emperor Leo, Western Emperor Anthemius, and General Marcellinus, who enjoyed independence in Illyricum and it appears that the combined forces met in Sicily, whence the three fleets moved at different periods.
Ancient and modern historians provided different estimations for the number of ships and troops under the command of Basiliscus, the most conservative estimation for expedition expenses is of 64,000 pounds of gold, a sum that exceeded a whole years revenue. Sardinia and Libya were already conquered by Marcellinus and Heraclius, when Basiliscus cast anchor off the Promontorium Mercurii, now Cap Bon, opposite Sicily, Geiseric requested Basiliscus to allow him five days to draw up the conditions of a peace. During the negotiations, Geiseric gathered his ships and suddenly attacked the Roman fleet, the Vandals had filled many vessels with combustible materials. During the night, these ships were propelled against the unguarded
Consul was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire. The title was used in other city states and revived in modern states. The relating adjective is consular, from the consularis, in modern terminology, a consul is a type of diplomat. The American Heritage Dictionary defines consul as an appointed by a government to reside in a foreign country. Throughout most of southern France, a consul was an equivalent to the échevins of the north. The most prominent were those of Bordeaux and Toulouse, which came to be known as jurats and capitouls, the capitouls of Toulouse were granted transmittable nobility. In many other towns the first consul, was the equivalent of a mayor today, assisted by a variable number of secondary consuls. His main task was to levy and collect tax, the Dukes of Gaeta often used the title of consul in its Greek form Hypatos. The city-state of Genoa, unlike ancient Rome, bestowed the title of consul on various state officials, among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities.
This institution, with its name, was emulated by other powers and is reflected in the modern usage of the word. In reality, the first consul, dominated his two colleagues and held power, soon making himself consul for life and eventually, in 1804. Chief magistrate, an office held for four months by one of the consuls. As noted above, Bologna already had consuls at some parts of its Medieval history, while many cities had a double-headed chief magistracy, often another title was used, such as Duumvir or native styles such as Meddix, but consul was used in some. It was not uncommon for an organization under Roman private law to copy the terminology of state, the founding statute, or contract, of such an organisation was called lex, law. The people elected each year were patricians, members of the upper class. org, see each present country
Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, the change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called Year of the Four Emperors. For political and personal reasons Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Caesar by styling himself simply Imperator Caesar, without any of the other elements of his full name. His successor as emperor, his stepson Tiberius, bore the name as a matter of course, born Tiberius Claudius Nero, he was adopted by Caesar Augustus on June 26,4 AD, as Tiberius Julius Caesar. The precedent was set, the Emperor designated his successor by adopting him, Claudius in turn adopted his stepson and grand-nephew Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, giving him the name Caesar in the traditional way, his stepson would rule as the Emperor Nero. Galba helped solidify Caesar as the title of the heir by giving it to his own adopted heir. Galbas reign did not last long and he was deposed by Marcus Otho.
Otho did not at first use the title Caesar and occasionally used the title Nero as emperor, Otho was defeated by Aulus Vitellius who acceded with the name Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus. Vitellius did not adopt the cognomen Caesar as part of his name, vespasians son, Titus Flavius Vespasianus became Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus. By this point the status of Caesar had been regularised into that of a given to the Emperor-designate. After some variation among the earliest emperors, the style of the Emperor-designate on coins was usually Nobilissimus Caesar Most Noble Caesar, on March 1,293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors. The two coequal senior emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors, as Imperator Caesar NN, pius Felix Invictus Augustus, and were called the Augusti, while the two junior sub-Emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors-designate, as Nobilissimus Caesar.
Likewise, the junior sub-Emperors retained the title Caesar upon accession to the senior position, an exceptional case was the conferment of the dignity and its insignia to the Bulgarian khan Tervel by Justinian II who had helped him regain his throne in 705. The title was awarded to the brother of Empress Maria of Alania, according to the Klētorologion of 899, the Byzantine Caesars insignia were a crown without a cross, and the ceremony of a Caesars creation, is included in De Ceremoniis I.43. The title remained the highest in the hierarchy until the introduction of the sebastokratōr by Alexios I Komnenos. The title remained in existence through the last centuries of the Empire, in the late Byzantine hierarchy, as recorded in the mid-14th century Book of Offices of pseudo-Kodinos, the rank continued to come after the sebastokratōr. Pseudo-Kodinos writes that the forms of another form of hat, the domed skaranikon, and of the mantle. In the Middle East, the Persians and the Arabs continued to refer to the Roman and Byzantine emperors as Caesar
Hippodrome of Constantinople
The Hippodrome of Constantinople was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. Today it is a square named Sultanahmet Meydanı in the Turkish city of Istanbul, the word hippodrome comes from the Greek hippos and dromos, path or way. For this reason, it is called Atmeydanı in Turkish. Horse racing and chariot racing were popular pastimes in the ancient world and hippodromes were common features of Greek cities in the Hellenistic, although the Hippodrome is usually associated with Constantinoples days of glory as an imperial capital, it actually predates that era. The first Hippodrome was built when the city was called Bysantium, in AD203 the Emperor Septimius Severus rebuilt the city and expanded its walls, endowing it with a hippodrome, an arena for chariot races and other entertainment. In AD324, the Emperor Constantine the Great decided to move the seat of the government from Rome to Byzantium and this name failed to impress and the city soon became known as Constantinople, the City of Constantine.
Constantine greatly enlarged the city, and one of his major undertakings was the renovation of the Hippodrome and it is estimated that the Hippodrome of Constantine was about 450 m long and 130 m wide. Its stands were capable of holding 100,000 spectators, the race-track at the Hippodrome was U-shaped, and the Kathisma was located at the eastern end of the track. The Kathisma could be accessed directly from the Great Palace through a passage which only the emperor or other members of the family could use. The Hippodrome Boxes, which had four statues of horses in gilded copper on top, stood at the end. The track was lined with bronze statues of famous horses and chariot drivers. Throughout the Byzantine period, the Hippodrome was the centre of the social life. The Reds and the Whites gradually weakened and were absorbed by the two major factions. A total of up to eight chariots, powered by four horses each and these races were not simple sporting events, but provided some of the rare occasions in which the Emperor and the common citizens could come together in a single venue.
Political discussions were made at the Hippodrome, which could be directly accessed by the Emperor through a passage that connected the Kathisma with the Great Palace of Constantinople. The rivalry between the Blues and Greens often became mingled with political or religious rivalries, and sometimes riots, which amounted to civil wars that broke out in the city between them. The most severe of these was the Nika riots of 532, in which an estimated 30,000 people were killed and many important buildings, the current Hagia Sophia was built by Justinian following the Nika Revolt. Constantinople never really recovered from its sack during the Fourth Crusade and even though the Byzantine Empire survived until 1453, by that time, the Hippodrome was used for various occasions such as the lavish and days-long circumcision ceremony of the sons of Sultan Ahmed III
The Byzantine Senate or Eastern Roman Senate was the continuation of the Roman Senate, established in the 4th century by Constantine I. It survived for centuries, but even with its limited power that it theoretically possessed. Constantine offered free land and grain to any Roman Senators who were willing to move to the East, when Constantine founded the Eastern Senate in Byzantium, it initially resembled the councils of important cities like Antioch rather than the Roman Senate. His son Constantius II raised it from the position of a municipal to that of an Imperial body, Constantius II increased the number of Senators to 2,000 by including his friends and various provincial officials. The traditional principles that Senatorial rank was hereditary and that the way of becoming a member of the Senate itself was by holding a magistracy still remained in full force. By the time of the permanent division of the Roman Empire in 395 and their sole duty was to manage the spending of money on the exhibition of games or on public works.
The Praetorship was a position to hold as Praetors were expected to possess a treasury from which they could draw funds for their municipal duties. There are known to have been eight Praetors in the Eastern Roman Empire who shared the burden between them. The Emperor or the Senate itself could issue a decree to grant a man not born into the Senatorial order a seat in the Senate, exemption from the expensive position of praetor would often be conferred on such persons that had become Senators in this way. The senatorial families in Constantinople tended to be less affluent and less distinguished than those in the West, some aristocrats attempted to become senators in order to escape the difficult conditions that were imposed on them by late Roman Emperors such as Diocletian. The Senate was led by the Prefect of the City, who conducted all of its communications with the Emperor and it was composed of three orders, the illustres and clarissimi. The members of the illustres were those who held the highest offices in Eastern Rome, such as the Master of Soldiers, the spectabiles formed the middle class of the Senate and consisted of important statesmen such as proconsuls and military governors of the provinces.
The clarissimi was the class of the senate and was attached to the governors of the provinces. Members of the two orders were permitted to live anywhere within the Empire and were generally inactive Senators. The majority of members in the Senate were the illustres, whose important offices were usually based in Constantinople. By the end of the 5th century the two classes were completely excluded from sitting in the Senate. As a result, a new order, the gloriosi, was created to accommodate the highest ranking senators, whilst the powers of the Senate were limited, it could pass resolutions which the Emperor might adopt and issue in the form of edicts. It could thus suggest Imperial legislation, and it acted from time to time as a consultative body, some Imperial laws took the form of Orations to the Senate, and were read aloud before the body
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Theophanes the Confessor
Saint Theophanes the Confessor was a member of the Byzantine aristocracy, who became a monk and chronicler. He is venerated on March 12 in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Theophanes was born in Constantinople of wealthy and noble iconodule parents, imperial governor of the islands of the Black Sea, and Theodora, of whose family nothing is known. His father died when Theophanes was three years old, and the Byzantine Emperor Constantine V Copronymus subsequently saw to the boys education, Theophanes would hold several offices under this patron. He was married at the age of twelve, but convinced his wife to lead a life of virginity, in 799, after the death of his father-in-law, they separated with mutual consent to embrace the religious life. She chose a convent on an island near Constantinople, while he entered the Polychronius Monastery, located in the district of Sigiane, later, he built a monastery on his own lands on the island of Calonymus. After six years he returned to Sigriano, where he founded an abbey known by the name of the great acre and governed it as abbot.
In this position of leadership, he was present at the Second General Council of Nicaea in 787, when Emperor Leo V the Armenian resumed his iconoclastic warfare, he ordered Theophanes brought to Constantinople. The Emperor tried in vain to induce him to condemn the same veneration of icons that had been sanctioned by the council, Theophanes was cast into prison and for two years suffered cruel treatment. After his release, he was banished to Samothrace in 817 and he is credited with many miracles that occurred after his death, which most likely took place on 12 March, the day he is commemorated in the Roman Martyrology. The language occupies a place midway between the ecclesiastical and the vernacular Greek. The work consists of two parts, the first giving the history, arranged according to years, the other containing chronological tables, full of inaccuracies. It seems that Theophanes had only prepared the tables, leaving vacant spaces for the proper dates, This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Francis.
This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Endnotes, Editions of the Chronicle, Editio princeps, Jacques Goar J. P. Migne, Patrologia Graeca, J. Classen in Bonn Corpus Scriptorum Hist. Editions of the Continuation in J. P. Migne, Pair, on both works and Theophanes generally, see, C. Der Wissenschaften, Gibbons Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, who Wrote the Chronicle of Theophanes. Byzantium and its Image, London 1984, — An editions of the Chronicle with annotations and corrections. The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor and Near Eastern History AD 284–813, translated by Mango, Scott, Roger