Leo I was Eastern Roman Emperor from 457 to 474. A native of Dacia Aureliana near historic Thrace, he was known as Leo the Thracian. Ruling the Eastern Empire for nearly 20 years, Leo proved to be a capable ruler, he oversaw many ambitious political and military plans, aimed at aiding the faltering Western Roman Empire and recovering its former territories. He is notable for being the first Eastern Emperor to legislate in Koine Greek rather than Late Latin, he is commemorated with his feast day on 20 January. He was born Leo Marcellus in Thracia or in Dacia Aureliana province in the year 401 to a Thraco-Roman family, his Dacian origin is mentioned by Candidus Isaurus, while John Malalas believes that he was of Bessian stock. He served in the Roman army. Leo was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army, who thought Leo would be an easy puppet ruler. Instead, Leo became more and more independent from Aspar, causing tension that would culminate in the assassination of the latter.
Leo's coronation as emperor on 7 February 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I was thus able to eliminate Aspar; the price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians, who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474. In 469, Aspar attempted to assassinate Zeno and nearly succeeded. In 471, Aspar's son Ardabur was implicated in a plot against Leo but was killed by palace eunuchs acting on Leo's orders. Leo sometimes overestimated his abilities and made mistakes that threatened the internal order of the Empire; the Balkans were ravaged by the Ostrogoths, after a disagreement between the Emperor and the young chief Theodoric the Great, raised at Leo's court in Constantinople, where he was steeped in Roman government and military tactics. There were some raids by the Huns. However, these attackers were unable to take Constantinople thanks to the walls, rebuilt and reinforced in the reign of Theodosius II and against which they possessed no suitable siege engines.
Leo's reign was noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this political achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468, defeated due to the arrogance of Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus; this disaster drained the Empire of men and money. Procopius estimated the costs of the expedition to be 130,000 pounds of gold; the expedition consisted of 1,113 ships carrying 100,000 men. After this defeat, the Vandals raided Greek coasts until a costly peace agreement was signed between Leo and Genseric. Leo became unpopular in his last days as Emperor for abolishing any non-religious celebration or event on Sundays. Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on 18 January 474. Leo and Verina had three children, their eldest daughter Ariadne was born prior to the death of Marcian. Ariadne had Leontia. Leontia was first betrothed to Patricius, a son of Aspar, but their engagement was annulled when Aspar and another of his sons, were assassinated in 471.
Leontia married Marcian, a son of Emperor Anthemius and Marcia Euphemia. The couple led a failed revolt against Zeno in 478–479, they were exiled to Isauria following their defeat. An unknown son was born in 463, he died five months following his birth. The only sources about him are a hagiography of Daniel the Stylite; the Georgian Chronicle, a 13th-century compilation drawing from earlier sources, reports a marriage of Vakhtang I of Iberia to Princess Helena of Byzantium, identifying her as a daughter of the predecessor of Zeno. This predecessor was Leo I, the tale attributing a third daughter to Leo. Cyril Toumanoff identified two children of this marriage: Mithridates of Iberia; this younger Leo was father of Guaram I of Iberia. The accuracy of the descent is unknown. Church of St. Mary of the Spring Life-giving Spring List of Byzantine emperors Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Bury, John Bagnell. History of the Later Roman Empire: from the death of Theodosius I to the death of Justinian.
Dover books. 1. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-20398-0. Friell, Gerard; the Rome That Did Not Fall: The Survival of the East in the Fifth Century. Ancient history. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-15403-1. Meyendorff, John. Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450-680 A. D; the Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3. Thomas F. Madden. Empire of Gold: A History of the Byzantine Empire. Prince Frederick: Recorded Books. ISBN 978-1-4281-3267-2. Profile of Leo in The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire Stephen Williams, Gerard Friell, The Rome that Did Not Fall The Survival of the East in the Fifth Century, Routledge Press, 1999, ISBN 0-415-15403-0 Media related to Flavius Valerius Leo at Wikimedia Commons Leo I Timeline
Hezbollah has a military branch and is the sponsor of a number of lesser-known groups, some of which may be little more than fronts for Hezbollah itself. These groups include the Organization of the Oppressed, the Revolutionary Justice Organization, the Organization of Right Against Wrong, Followers of the Prophet Muhammad. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 called for the disarmament of militia with the Taif agreement at the end of the Lebanese civil war. Hezbollah denounced, protested against, the resolution; the 2006 military conflict with Israel has increased the controversy. Failure to disarm remains a violation of the resolution and agreement according to the Israeli Government. Most of the Shia consider Hezbollah's weaponry a necessary and justified element of resistance, while less than half of the other religious communities support the idea that Hezbollah should keep its weapons after the 2006 Lebanon war; the Lebanese cabinet, under president Michel Suleiman and Prime Minister Fouad Siniora, guidelines state that Hezbollah enjoys the right to "liberate occupied lands."
In 2009, a Hezbollah commander said, "e have far more rockets and missiles than we did in 2006." The strength of Hezbollah's forces are disputed, has been variously estimated as "several thousand" and "several thousand supporters and a few hundred terrorist operatives". The International Institute for Strategic Studies estimates Hezbollah forces to 600–1,000 active fighters, 10,000–15,000 rockets of the Katyusha, Fajr-3 and Fajr-5 type, they estimate a stockpile of 30 missiles of the Zelzal type. As Haaretz reports Hezbollah is not a small guerrilla group, it is a trained, well-organized motivated infantry, equipped with the cream of the crop of modern weaponry from the arsenals of Syria, Iran and the People's Republic of China, and, familiar with the territory on which it is fighting. Hezbollah has military relations with North Korea, which date back to the 1980s. Hezbollah military is considered to be the most capable non-state armed group in the Middle East. According to Jane's Information Group: Islamic Resistance guerrillas are reckoned to be amongst the most dedicated and trained of their kind.
Any Hezbollah member receiving military training is to do so at the hands of IRGC, either in southern Lebanon or in camps in Iran. The sophisticated methods used by IRGC members indicates that they are trained using Israeli and US military manuals. Hezbollah's strength was enhanced by the dispatching of one thousand to fifteen hundred members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards and the financial backing of Iran, it became the main politico-military force among the Shi'a community in Lebanon and the main arm of what became known as the Islamic Resistance in Lebanon. Hezbollah has a military branch known as Al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya and is the possible sponsor of a number of lesser-known militant groups, some of which may be little more than fronts for Hezbollah itself, including the Organization of the Oppressed, the Revolutionary Justice Organization, the Organization of Right Against Wrong, Followers of the Prophet Muhammad. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 called for the disarmament of militia with the Taif agreement at the end of the Lebanese civil war.
Hezbollah denounced, protested against, the resolution. The 2006 military conflict with Israel has increased the controversy. Failure to disarm remains a violation of the resolution and agreement according to the Israeli Government. Most of the Shia consider Hezbollah's weaponry a necessary and justified element of resistance, while less than half of the other religious communities support the idea that Hezbollah should keep its weapons after the 2006 Lebanon war; the Lebanese cabinet, under president Michel Suleiman and Prime Minister Fouad Siniora, guidelines state that Hezbollah enjoys the right to "liberate occupied lands." Hezbollah has been accused of committing a number of kidnappings. Between 1982 and 1986, in the midst of the Lebanese Civil War, 36 suicide attacks were made in Lebanon against American, French and Israeli targets by 41 people of different religions and political ideologies, killing 659 people. Hezbollah has been accused of some or all of these attacks, but responsibility is disputed, Hezbollah has denied being involved in any of them.
These attacks included the April 1983 U. S. Embassy bombing, the attempted bombing of an Israeli airplane in Panama, the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, a spate of attacks on IDF troops and SLA militiamen in southern Lebanon; the period saw the hijacking of TWA Flight 847 in 1985, the Lebanon hostage crisis from 1982 to 1992. Outside of Lebanon, Hezbollah has been accused of the 1992 Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires, the 1994 AMIA bombing of a Jewish cultural centre, both in Argentina. According to Nasrallah, Hezbollah refused any participation in operations outside Lebanese and Israeli lands before 2008. Singapore accused Hezbollah of recruiting Singaporeans in a failed 1990s plot to attack U. S. and Israeli ships in the Singapore Straits. Hezbollah has been involved in several cases of armed conflict with Israel: During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict, Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon, it ended with Israeli withdrawal in accordance with 1978's United Nations Security Council Resolution 425.
"With the collapse of their supposed allies, the SLA, the rapid advance of Hezbolla
FunTech is a British company founded in 1996 which offers extracurricular computer tuition for children aged 5 to 18 years old based in Maidenhead, Berkshire. Courses consist of weekly classes of 6 to 10 students as well as online homework, however one-on-one tuition and holiday courses are available. Subjects range from the basics of computer use and touch typing, through to GCSE, A-Level and Computer Programming. Classes are carried out at the company's Maidenhead centre, although courses have been hosted at other schools. FunTech has been featured on both the BBC as part of the Tomorrow's World Technology Family series and Channel 4 as part of a report on the British Government's decision to provide broadband access for every child During summer 2013 FunTech launched its summer camps offering to children in Maidenhead and Richmond. Courses including Java Coder and Render, Minecraft Secrets and Animation went down well with over 250 students attending over 6 weeks. There are plans for more centers to open in summer 2014.