National Assembly of Quebec
The National Assembly of Quebec is the legislative body of the province of Quebec in Canada. Legislators are called MNAs; the Queen in Right of Quebec, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec and the National Assembly compose the Legislature of Quebec, which operates in a fashion similar to those of other Westminster-style parliamentary systems. The National Assembly was the lower house of Quebec's legislature and was called the Legislative Assembly of Quebec. In 1968, the upper house, the Legislative Council, was abolished and the remaining house was renamed; the office of President of the National Assembly is equivalent to speaker in other legislatures. The Coalition Avenir Québec has the most seats in the Assembly following the Quebec general election, 2018; the Legislative Assembly was created in Lower Canada by the Constitutional Act of 1791. It was abolished from 1841 to 1867 under the 1840 Act of Union, which merged Upper Canada and Lower Canada into a single colony named the Province of Canada.
The Constitution Act, 1867, which created Canada, split the Province of Canada into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada was thus restored as the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Quebec; the original Quebec legislature was bicameral, consisting of the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly. In 1968, Bill 90 was passed by the government of Premier Jean-Jacques Bertrand, abolishing the Legislative Council and renaming the Legislative Assembly the "National Assembly", in line with the more strident nationalism of the Quiet Revolution. Before 1968, there had been various unsuccessful attempts at abolishing the Legislative Council, analogous to the Senate of Canada. In 1978, television cameras were brought in for the first time to televise parliamentary debates; the colour of the walls was changed to suit the needs of television and the salon vert became the salon bleu. Constructed between 1877 and 1886, the Parliament Building features the Second Empire architectural style, popular for prestigious buildings both in Europe and the United States during the latter 19th century.
Although somewhat more sober in appearance and lacking a towering central belfry, Quebec City's Parliament Building bears a definite likeness to the Philadelphia City Hall, another Second Empire edifice in North America, built during the same period. Though the building's symmetrical layout with a frontal clock tower in the middle is typical of legislative institutions of British heritage, the architectural style is believed to be unique among parliament buildings found in other Canadian provincial capitals, its facade presents a pantheon representing significant people of the history of Quebec. Additional buildings were added next to the Parliament Buildings: Édifice André-Laurendeau was added from 1935 to 1937 to house the Ministry of Transport. Édifice Honoré-Mercier was added from 1922 to 1925 to house the Ministries of the Treasury, the Attorney General and the Secretary General of the National Assembly. Édifice Jean-Antoine-Panet was added from 1931 to 1932 for the Ministry of Agriculture.
Édifice Pamphile-Le May added from 1910 to 1915 for the Library of the National Assembly, various other government offices and for the Executive Council. General elections are held every five years or less. Any person holding Canadian citizenship and who has resided in Quebec for at least six months qualifies to be on the electoral list; the leader of the political party with the largest number of elected candidates is asked by the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec to form the government as premier.. Quebec's territory is divided into 125 electoral districts. In each riding, the candidate who receives the most votes is elected and becomes a Member of the National Assembly; this is known as the first-past-the-post voting system. It tends to produce strong disparities in the number of seats won compared to the popular vote best exemplified by the 1966, 1970, 1973, 1998 elections. Quebec elections have tended to be volatile since the 1970s, producing a large turnover in Assembly seats. Existing political parties lose more than half their seats with the rise of new or opposition political parties.
For instance, the 1970 and 1973 saw the demise of the Union Nationale and rise of the Parti Québécois which managed to take power in 1976. The 1985 and 1994 elections saw the Liberals lose power in landslide elections; the 2018 elections saw the rise of the Coalition Avenir Québec which managed to take power for the first time. Cabinet ministers are in bold, party leaders are in italic and the president of the National Assembly is marked with a †. Last update: March 21, 2019 Members of the National Assembly swear two oaths: one to the Canadian monarch as Quebec's head of state, a second one to the people of Quebec. Previous Parti Québécois premier René Lévesque added the second oath. One of the members of the National Assembly is chosen as the President of the Assembly
The Toronto–Dominion Centre, or TD Centre, is a cluster of buildings in downtown Toronto, Ontario owned by Cadillac Fairview. It has a pavilion covered in bronze-tinted glass and black painted steel, it serves as the global headquarters of the Toronto-Dominion Bank, provides office and retail space for many other businesses. About 21,000 people work in the complex; the project was the inspiration of Allen Lambert, former President and Chairman of the Board of the Toronto-Dominion Bank. Phyllis Lambert recommended Ludwig Mies van der Rohe as design consultant to the architects, John B. Parkin and Associates and Bregman + Hamann, the Fairview Corporation as the developer; the towers were completed between 1967 and 1991. An additional building was built outside the campus and purchased in 1998. Part of the complex, described by Philip Johnson as "the largest Mies in the world", was designated under the Ontario Heritage Act in 2003 and received an Ontario Heritage Trust plaque in 2005; as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was given "virtually a free hand to create Toronto-Dominion Centre", the complex, as a whole and in its details, is a classic example of his unique take on the International style and represents the end evolution of Mies's North American period, which began with his 1957 Seagram Building in New York City.
As with the Seagram Building and a number of Mies's subsequent projects, the Toronto–Dominion Centre follows the theme of the darkly coloured, rigidly ordered and glass edifice set in an open plaza, itself surrounded by a dense and erratic, pre-existing urban fabric. The TD Centre, comprises a collection of structures spread across a granite plinth, all regulated in three dimensions and from the largest scale to the smallest, by a mathematically ordered, 1.5 m2 grid. Three structures were conceived: a low banking pavilion anchoring the site at the corner of King and Bay Streets, the main tower in the centre of the site, another tower in the northwest corner, each structure offset to the adjacent by one bay of the governing grid, allowing views to "slide" open or closed as an observer moves across the court; the rectilinear pattern of Saint-Jean granite pavers follows the grid, serving to organize and unify the complex, the plaza's surface material extends through the glass lobbies of the towers and the banking pavilion, blurring the distinction between interior and exterior space.
The remaining voids between the buildings create space for a formal plaza to the north, containing Al McWilliam's Bronze Arc, an expanse of lawn to the south, featuring Joe Fafard's sculpture The Pasture. Phyllis Lambert wrote of the centre and the arrangement of its elements within the site: With the Toronto-Dominion Centre, Mies realized an architecture of movement, yet at the same time, through proportional relations among parts and whole, through the restrained use of fine materials, this is an architecture of repose; the light as it moves across the building surfaces, playing the mullions like stringed instruments, the orchestration of the various buildings are together paradigmatically symphonic. More towers were added over the ensuing decades, outside the periphery of the original site—as they were not part of Mies's master plan for the TD Centre—but still positioned close enough, in such locations, as to visually impact the sense of space within areas of the centre, forming Miesian western and southern walls to the lawn and a tall eastern flank to the plaza.
The height of each of Mies's two towers is proportioned to its width and depth, though they, as well as those based on his style, are of different heights. All, save for 95 Wellington Street West, are of a similar construction and appearance: the frame is of structural steel, including the core, floor plates are of concrete poured on steel deck; the lobby is a double height space on the ground floor, articulated by large sheets of plate glass held back from the exterior column line, providing for an overhang around the perimeter of the building, behind which the travertine-clad elevator cores are the only elements to touch the ground plane. Above the lobby, the building envelope is curtain wall made of bronze coloured glass in a matte-black painted steel frame, with exposed I-sections attached to the vertical mullions and structural columns. On the topmost accessible floor of the Toronto-Dominion Bank Tower was a large indoor observation platform; as the tower was, when completed, the tallest in the city, this promontory once allowed uninterrupted views of the quickly developing downtown core and of Lake Ontario to the south.
This floor has since been converted to leased office space. On the level below is a restaurant on the south side and the Toronto-Dominion Bank corporate offices and boardroom are on the north; the interiors of the latter spaces were designed by Mies and included his signature broad planes of rich, unadorned wood panelling, freestanding cabinets as partitions, wood slab desks, some of his furniture pieces, such as the Barcelona chair, Barcelona ottoman, Brno chair. Adjacent to the main boardroom at the northeast corner of the floor plate and the Thompson Room at the northwest corner, service areas are concealed within the wood panelled walls behind secret panels; the Ernst & Young Tower contains in its base the former Toronto Stock Exchange building, built in 1937. The new edifice deviates from the strict Miesian aesthetic of all the previous
Mordecai Richler, CC was a Canadian writer. His best known works are The Apprenticeship of Barney's Version, his 1970 novel St Urbain's Horseman and 1989 novel Solomon Gursky Was Here were shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize. He is well known for the Jacob Two-Two children's fantasy series. In addition to his fiction, Richler wrote numerous essays about the Jewish community in Canada, about Canadian and Quebec nationalism. Richler's Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!, a collection of essays about nationalism and anti-Semitism, generated considerable controversy. The son of Lily and Moses Isaac Richler, a scrap yard dealer, Richler was born on January 27, 1931, raised on St. Urbain Street in the Mile End area of Montreal, Quebec, he learned English and Yiddish, graduated from Baron Byng High School. Richler did not complete his degree there. Years Richler's mother published an autobiography, The Errand Runner: Memoirs of a Rabbi's Daughter, which discusses Mordecai's birth and upbringing, the sometimes difficult relationship between them.
Richler moved to Paris at age nineteen, intent on following in the footsteps of a previous generation of literary exiles, the so-called Lost Generation of the 1920s, many of whom were from the United States. Richler returned to Montreal in 1952, working at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation moved to London in 1954, he published seven of his ten novels, as well as considerable journalism. Worrying "about being so long away from the roots of my discontent", Richler returned to Montreal in 1972, he wrote about the Anglophone community of Montreal and about his former neighbourhood, portraying it in multiple novels. In England, in 1954, Richler married Catherine Boudreau, a non Jewish French-Canadian divorcee nine years his senior. On the eve of their wedding, he met and was smitten by Florence Mann, another non Jewish young woman married to Richler's close friend, screenwriter Stanley Mann; some years Richler and Mann both divorced their prior spouses and married each other, Richler adopted her son Daniel.
The couple had four other children together: Jacob, Noah and Emma. These events inspired his novel Barney's Version. Richler died of cancer on July 3, 2001 at the age of 70, he was a second cousin of novelist Nancy Richler. Throughout his career, Mordecai wrote journalistic commentary, contributed to The Atlantic Monthly, The New Yorker, The American Spectator, other magazines. In his years, Richler was a newspaper columnist for The National Post and Montreal's The Gazette. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, he wrote a monthly book review for Gentlemen's Quarterly, he was critical of Quebec but Canadian Federalism as well. Another favourite Richler target was the government-subsidized Canadian literary movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Journalism constituted an important part of his career, bringing him income between novels and films. Richler published his fourth novel, The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, in 1959; the book featured a frequent Richler theme: Jewish life in the 1930s and 40s in the neighbourhood of Montreal east of Mount Royal Park on and about St. Urbain Street and Saint Laurent Boulevard.
Richler wrote of the neighbourhood and its people, chronicling the hardships and disabilities they faced as a Jewish minority. To a middle-class stranger, it is true, one street would have seemed as squalid as the next. On each corner a cigar store, a grocery, a fruit man. Outside staircases everywhere. Winding ones, wooden ones and risky ones. Here a prized lot of grass splendidly barbered, there a spitefully weedy patch. An endless repetition of precious peeling balconies and waste lots making the occasional gap here and there. Following the publication of Duddy Kravitz, according to The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature, Richler became "one of the foremost writers of his generation". Many critics distinguished Richler the author from Richler the polemicist. Richler said his goal was to be an honest witness to his time and place, to write at least one book that would be read after his death, his work was championed among others. Admirers praised Richler for daring to tell uncomfortable truths.
Critics cited his repeated themes, including incorporating elements of his journalism into novels. Richler's ambivalent attitude toward Montreal's Jewish community was captured in Mordecai and Me, a book by Joel Yanofsky; the Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz has been performed on film and in several live theater productions in Canada and the United States. Richler's most frequent conflicts were with members of the Quebec nationalist movement. In articles published between the late 1970s and the mid-1990s, Richler criticized Quebec's restrictive language laws and the rise of sovereigntism. Critics took particular exception to Richler's allegations of a long history of anti-Semitism in Quebec. Soon after the first election of the Parti Québécois in 1976, Richler published "Oh Canada! Lament for a divided country" in the Atlantic Monthly to considerable controversy. In it, he claimed the PQ had borrowed the Hitler Youth song "Tomorrow belongs to me..." for their anthem "À partir d'aujourd'hui, demain nous apartient", though he acknowledged his error o
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev
The Paradise Papers are a set of 13.4 million confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investments that were leaked to the German reporters Frederik Obermaier and Bastian Obermayer from the newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung. The newspaper shared them with the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, a network of more than 380 journalists; some of the details were made public on 5 November 2017 and stories are still being released. The documents originate from legal firm Appleby, the corporate services providers Estera and Asiaciti Trust, business registries in 19 tax jurisdictions, they contain the names of companies. Among those whose financial affairs are mentioned are, separately, AIG, Prince Charles and Queen Elizabeth II, President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos, U. S. Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross. At 1.4 terabytes in size, this is second only to the Panama Papers of 2016 as the biggest data leak in history. On 20 October 2017, an anonymous Reddit user hinted at the existence of the Paradise Papers.
That month, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists approached the offshore law firm Appleby with allegations of wrongdoing. Appleby said that some of its data had been stolen in a cyberattack the previous year, denied the ICIJ's allegations. After media outlets started reporting on the documents, the company said that there was "no evidence of wrongdoing", that they "are a law firm which advises clients on legitimate and lawful ways to conduct their business", that they "do not tolerate illegal behaviour". Appleby stated the firm "was not the subject of a leak but of a serious criminal act" and that "this was an illegal computer hack". "Our systems were accessed by an intruder who deployed the tactics of a professional hacker", the company said. The documents were acquired by the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung, which had obtained the Panama Papers in 2016. According to the BBC, the name "Paradise Papers" reflects "the idyllic profiles of many of the offshore jurisdictions whose workings are unveiled", so-called tax havens, or "tax paradises".
The data breach comprises some 13.4 million documents—totaling about 1.4 terabytes—from two offshore service providers and Asiaciti Trust, from the company registers of 19 tax havens. Süddeutsche Zeitung journalists contacted the ICIJ, investigating the documents with 100 media partners; the consortium made the data available to these media partners using Neo4j, a graph-database platform made for connected data, Linkurious, graph-visualization software. This allowed journalists across the globe to undertake collaborative investigative work; the documents were released by the consortium on 5 November 2017. According to the papers, Twitter, Apple Inc; the Walt Disney Company, Nike, Inc. Walmart, Siemens, Global Vantedge, McDonald's, Yahoo! are among the corporations that own offshore companies, as well as Allergan, the manufacturer of Botox. According to The Express Tribune, "Apple and Facebook avoided billions of dollars in tax using offshore companies."Apple criticised the reports as inaccurate and misleading, saying that it is the largest taxpayer in the world and that it "pays every dollar it owes in every country around the world".
Among the Indian companies listed in the papers are Apollo Tyres, the Essel Group, D S Construction, Emaar MGF, GMR Group, Hinduja Group, the Hiranandani Group, Jindal Steel, the Sun Group and Videocon. A great deal of the company's intangible property was exposed around the time of an internal Apple Inc. reorganization of three Irish subsidiaries. The company's 2015 gross domestic product showed a 26% increase, close to $270 billion of intangible assets appeared in Ireland as the year began – more than the entire value of all residential property in Ireland; this may indicate that Apple took advantage of a tax incentive known as a capital allowance, which gives Irish companies generous tax breaks for buying intangible property – intellectual property like patents. In other words, Apple transferred them to a subsidiary located in Ireland for the tax incentives, didn't have to pay any tax on the transaction in Bermuda either, on the value it declared on the property when it sold them to itself.
Following a 2013 US Senate investigation, which featured testimony by CEO Tim Cook, Ireland announced that henceforth Irish companies would be required to declare tax residency somewhere in the world. Apple had been paying a lower rate of corporate taxes in Ireland in a so-called sweetheart deal; this attracted the attention of EU regulators. As the tax break in the Netherlands came to a scheduled end, Apple's law firm, Baker McKenzie, researched island tax havens, asking Appleby officials in numerous jurisdictions to confirm "that an Irish company can conduct management activities... without being subject to taxation in your jurisdiction." Two of the subsidiaries took intellectual property with them. The third is receiving tax breaks in Ireland for buying Apple IP from another Apple subsidiary; the Jersey Financial Services Commission issued a Statement re Apple on 7 November 2017. The JFSC confirmed that the two Apple subsidiaries referred to by the media are not Jersey-registered companies and their understanding is that Apple funds relating to these entities have not been remitted to or held in the Island.
The JFSC states that it has not seen any of the documentation that the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists claims to hold following the Appleby data breach. If the ICIJ possesses data of a criminal or regulatory nature which relates to business activities in Jersey the JFSC requested
Samuel Bronfman, was a Canadian businessman and philanthropist. He founded Distillers Corporation Limited, is a member of the Canadian Jewish Bronfman family. Samuel Bronfman was born in Soroki, Bessarabia part of Imperial Russia, one of eight children of Mindel and Yechiel Bronfman, he and his parents were Jewish refugees of Czarist Russia's anti-Semitic pogroms, who migrated to Wapella, Saskatchewan. They soon moved to Manitoba. A wealthy family, they were accompanied by two servants. Soon Yechiel learned that tobacco farming, which had made him a wealthy man in his homeland, was incompatible with the cold Canadian climate of that region. Yechiel was forced to work as a laborer for the Canadian Northern Railway, after a short time moved to a better job in a sawmill. Yechiel and his sons started making a good living selling firewood and began a trade in frozen whitefish to earn a winter income, they turned to trading horses, a venture through which they became involved in the hotel and bar business.
In 1903, the family bought a hotel business, Samuel, noting that much of the profit was in alcoholic beverages, set up shop as a liquor distributor. He founded the Distillers Corporation in Montreal in 1924, specializing in cheap whisky, concurrently taking advantage of the U. S. prohibition on alcoholic beverages. The Bronfmans sold liquor to the northern cities of the U. S. such as Boston, New York City and Chicago during the Prohibition era, while operating from the perimeters of Montreal, Quebec where alcohol production was legal. On June 21, 1922, Bronfman married Saidye Rosner, with whom he had four children: Aileen Mindel "Minda" Bronfman de Gunzburg, Phyllis Lambert, Edgar Miles Bronfman, Charles Rosner Bronfman. Bronfman's Distillers Corporation acquired Joseph E. Seagram & Sons of Waterloo, from the heirs of Joseph Seagram in 1928. Bronfman built an empire based on the appeal of brand names developed by Seagram—including Calvert and Seven Crown—to higher-level consumers, his sales were boosted during the United States' abortive experiment with prohibition, he was able to do so while staying within the confines of both Canadian law, where prohibition laws had been repealed, American law.
His renamed company, Seagram Co. Ltd. became an international distributor of alcoholic beverages, a diversified conglomerate which included an entertainment branch. Because of changes to US tax law in the Lyndon Johnson administration, it became advantageous for Bronfman to purchase an oil company, which he did with the purchase of Texas Pacific Coal and Oil Company in 1963 for $50 million. In 1980, the Bronfman heirs sold the Texas Pacific Oil holdings to Sun Oil Co. for $2.3 billion. The Seagram assets have since been acquired by other companies, notably The Coca-Cola Company and Pernod Ricard. In 1952, he established The Samuel and Saidye Bronfman Family Foundation, one of Canada's major private granting foundations. Bronfman was President of the Canadian Jewish Congress from 1939 to 1962, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada in 1967. In 1971, he helped to establish the Bronfman Building at McGill University, which houses the Desautels Faculty of Management; the building was named in his honour as appreciation for his donation to the university.
The Bronfman family has continued its support of the university. The Bronfman Archaeology Wing of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, Israel, is named for Bronfman and his wife; the Samuel Bronfman Chair in Management was established at McGill University in January 1942. The current holder is Nancy J. Adler, a professor of organizational behavior in the Desautels Faculty of Management. Mordecai Richler's 1989 novel Solomon Gursky Was Here is based on the life of Samuel Bronfman. History of the Jews in Canada Christopher G. Curtis, "Bronfman Family", The Canadian Encyclopedia: Year 2000 Edition - ISBN 0-7710-2099-6 Michael R. Marrus, Mr. Sam: The Life and Times of Samuel Bronfman - ISBN 0-87451-571-8 Peter C. Newman, Bronfman Dynasty: The Rothschilds of the New World ISBN 0-7710-6758-5 Seagram Museum collection at Hagley Museum and Library Seagram Museum Collection Brock University Library Digital Repository
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is