Larry Tye is an American non-fiction author and journalist known for his biographies of notable Americans including Edward Bernays Satchel Paige and Bobby Kennedy. From 1986 to 2001, Tye was a reporter at The Boston Globe, he served as the Globe's environmental reporter, roving national writer, investigative reporter and sports writer. Before that, he was the environmental reporter at The Courier-Journal in Louisville and covered government and business at The Anniston Star in Anniston, Alabama. Tye was a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University in 1993–1994 and has won a series of major newspaper awards, including the Livingston Award for Young Journalists and the Edward J. Meeman Award for Environmental Journalism. Two of Tye's books, one on the Pullman porters and another on electroconvulsive therapy, have been adapted into documentary films. Sony and Hulu are making his Bobby Kennedy bio into a limited TV series, with Chris Pine due to play Robert Kennedy. To support his books, Tye has won a Goldsmith Research Prize from Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, an Alicia Patterson Fellowship, a Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Residency, research grants from the Newberry Library and Gilder Lehrman Institute.
His books have won awards, including the National Alliance on Mental Illness's highest honor for one on mental illness co-authored with Kitty Dukakis. Tye's biography of Satchel Paige was named a New York Times Notable Book, won two prizes—the Casey Award and Seymour Medal—as best baseball book of 2009. Tye additionally is director of the Boston-based Health Coverage Fellowship, which each year trains 10 American medical journalists on better covering issues in this field. Tye, who graduated from Brown University, taught journalism at Boston University, Northeastern University and Tufts University; the Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of Public Relations Homelands: Portraits of the New Jewish Diaspora Rising From the Rails: Pullman Porters and the Making of the Black Middle Class Shock: The Healing Power of Electroconvulsive Therapy, co-written by Kitty Dukakis Satchel: The Life and Times of an American Legend (Random House, 2009. ISBN 978-1400066513. Superman: The High-Flying History of America's Most Enduring Hero Bobby Kennedy: The Making of a Liberal Icon 2009 Casey Award for Satchel: The Life and Times of an American Legend 2010 Seymour Medal for Satchel: The Life and Times of an American Legend Interview with Larry Tye about Bobby Kennedy: The making of a liberal icon on NPR's Fresh Air with guest host Dave Davies.
Interview with Larry Tye about Satchel: The Life and Times of an American Legend on NPR's Fresh Air with guest host Dave Davies. Interview with Larry Tye and Kitty Dukakis about Shock: The Healing Power of Electroconvulsive Therapy on NPR's Fresh Air with Terry Gross. Interview with Larry Tye about Rising From the Rails: Pullman Porters and the Making of the Black Middle Class on NPR's Fresh Air with Terry Gross. Appearances on C-SPAN Booknotes interview with Tye on The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays & The Birth of Public Relations, September 20, 1998. Works by Larry Tye in libraries http://www.randomhouse.com/author/results.pperl?authorid=31620 http://www.larrytye.com
Frank N. Wilcox
Frank Nelson Wilcox was a modernist American artist and a master of watercolor. Wilcox is described as the "Dean of Cleveland School painters," though some sources give this appellation to Henry Keller or Frederick Gottwald. Frank Nelson Wilcox, Jr. was born on October 3, 1887 to Frank Nelson Wilcox and Jessie Fremont Snow Wilcox at 61 Linwood Street in Cleveland, Ohio. His father, a prominent lawyer, died at home in 1904 shortly before Wilcox' 17th birthday, his brother and publisher Owen N. Wilcox, was president of the Gates Legal Publishing Company or The Gates Press, his sister Ruth Wilcox was a respected librarian. In 1906 Wilcox enrolled from the Cleveland School of Art under the tutelage of Henry Keller, Louis Rorimer, Frederick Gottwald, he attended Keller's Berlin Heights summer school from 1909. After graduating in 1910, Wilcox traveled and studied in Europe, spending a year at Académie Colarossi where he was influenced by French impressionism, he joined the Cleveland School of Art faculty in 1913.
Among his students were Lawrence Edwin Blazey, Carl Gaertner, Paul Travis, Charles E. Burchfield. Around this time Wilcox became associated with Cowan Pottery. In 1916 Wilcox married fellow artist Florence Bard, they spent most of their honeymoon painting in Berlin Heights with Keller, they had Mary. In 1918 he joined the Cleveland Society of Artists, a conservative counter to the Bohemian Kokoon Arts Club, would serve as its president, he began teaching night school at the John Huntington Polytechnic Institute at this time, taught at Baldwin-Wallace College. Wilcox died on April 1964, having taught at the Cleveland School of Art for over 40 years. Today CIA awards an annual scholarship prize in his name to students majoring in printmaking. Wilcox was influenced by Keller's innovative watercolor techniques, from 1910 to 1916 they experimented together with impressionism and post-impressionism. Wilcox soon developed his own signature style in the American Scene or Regionalist tradition of the early 20th century.
Wilcox wrote and illustrated Ohio Indian Trails in 1933, favorably reviewed by the New York Times in 1934. This book was reprinted in 1970 by William A. McGill. McGill edited and reprinted Wilcox' Canals of the Old Northwest in 1969. Wilcox wrote and published Weather Wisdom in 1949, a limited edition of twenty-four serigraphs accompanied by commentary "based upon familiar weather observations made by people living in the country." The Cleveland Museum of Art lists 36 Wilcox paintings in its collection. One variant of his 1928 still images Fisherman of Percé, Quebec is reposited with the U. S. Library of Congress. Wilcox displayed over 250 works at Cleveland's annual May Show, he received numerous awards, including the Penton Medal for as The Omnibus, Fish Tug on Lake Erie, Blacksmith Shop, The Gravel Pit. Other paintings include The Trailing Fog, Under the Big Top, Ohio Landscape. American Art historian and Case Western Reserve University professor Dr. Henry Adams has curated and written an exhibit catalog for "A Buckeye Abroad: Frank Wilcox in Paris and Europe 1910-14," a landmark exhibition with 50 watercolors from Wilcox's first years in France and Europe - paintings that were pivotal in establishing the painter's style.
An NPR interview on the exhibit and artist is in External Links below. Frank N. Wilcox: Artist as Historian is an exhibition on Wilcox’s work relating to the history of Cleveland and its surrounding Ohio environs. Curated by William G. Scheele, with the assistance of the Wilcox Estate, the exhibition is open from November 27, 2015 through April 30, 2016 at the Cleveland History Center in University Circle, Ohio. Wilcox came from a large family with New England ancestry on both sides, all of whom played a significant role in settling Ohio’s Western Reserve; the Wilcox and Snow families offered young Frank exposure to both city and country life, reflected in his work and in family photographs. A companion gallery illustrates the rich Wilcox and Snow family history and takes a look at Frank Wilcox, the man. National Public Radio broadcast of an interview featuring Dee Perry talking with Dr. Henry Adams of CWRU about Frank Wilcox "A Buckeye Abroad" Paris, 1910 -'14; the Cleveland Museum of Art The Cleveland Institute of Art Wilcox, Frank Nelson on Ask ART Works of Frank Wilcox at Cleveland Public Library
Elizabeth, New Jersey
Elizabeth is both the largest city and the county seat of Union County, in New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 124,969, retaining its ranking as New Jersey's fourth most populous city, behind Paterson; the population increased by 4,401 from the 120,568 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 10,566 from the 110,002 counted in the 1990 Census. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 130,215, an increase of 4.2% from the 2010 enumeration, ranking the city the 212th-most-populous in the nation. In 2008, Elizabeth was named one of "America's 50 Greenest Cities" by Popular Science magazine, the only city in New Jersey selected. Elizabeth called "Elizabethtown" and part of the Elizabethtown Tract, was founded in 1664 by English settlers; the town was not named for Queen Elizabeth I as many people may assume, but rather for Elizabeth, wife of Sir George Carteret, one of the two original Proprietors of the colony of New Jersey.
She was the daughter of 3rd Seigneur de Sark and Anne Dowse. The town served as the first capital of New Jersey. During the American Revolutionary War, Elizabethtown was continually attacked by British forces based on Manhattan and Staten Island, culminating in the Battle of Springfield which decisively defeated British attempts to gain New Jersey. After independence, it was from Elizabethtown that George Washington embarked by boat to Manhattan for his 1789 inauguration. There are numerous monuments of the American Revolution in Elizabeth. On March 13, 1855, the City of Elizabeth was created by an act of the New Jersey Legislature and replacing both Elizabeth Borough and Elizabeth Township, subject to the results of a referendum held on March 27, 1855. On March 19, 1857, the city became part of the newly created Union County. Portions of the city were taken to form Linden Township on March 4, 1861; the first major industry, the Singer Sewing Machine Company came to Elizabeth and employed as many as 2,000 people.
In 1895, it saw one of the first car companies, when Electric Carriage and Wagon Company was founded to manufacture the Electrobat, joined soon by another electric car builder, Andrew L. Riker; the Electric Boat Company got its start building submarines for the United States Navy in Elizabeth, New Jersey, beginning with the launch of USS Holland in 1897. These pioneering naval craft were developed at Lewis Nixon's Crescent Shipyard in Elizabeth between the years 1896–1903. Elizabeth grew in parallel to its sister city of Newark for many years, but has been more successful in retaining a middle-class presence and was spared riots in the 1960s. On September 18, 2016, a backpack holding five bombs was discovered outside NJ Transit's Elizabeth train station. One bomb detonated accidentally when a bomb squad robot failed to disarm the contents of the backpack. Police were unsure if this event was related to bombs in Seaside Park, New Jersey and Manhattan that had exploded the previous day. On September 19, police arrested Ahmad Khan Rahami, a 28-year-old Afghan-born naturalized U.
S. citizen, for questioning in connection with all three incidents. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 13.464 square miles, including 12.319 square miles of land and 1.145 square miles of water. Elizabeth is bordered to the southwest by Linden, to the west by Roselle and Roselle Park, to the northwest by Union and Hillside, to the north by Newark. To the east the city is across the Newark Bay from Bayonne in Hudson County and the Arthur Kill from Staten Island, New York; the borders of Elizabeth and Staten Island meet at one point on Shooters Island, of which 7.5 acres of the island is owned by Elizabeth, though the island is managed by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. The Elizabeth River is a waterway that courses through the city for 4.2 miles and is channelized, before draining into the Arthur Kill. Midtown occasionally known as Uptown, is the main commercial district and a historic section as well, it includes the First Presbyterian Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, its St. John's Episcopal Churchyard.
The First Presbyterian Church was a battleground for the American Revolution. Located here are the 1931 Art Deco Hersh Tower, the Thomas Jefferson Arts Academy, the Ritz Theatre, operating since 1926. Midtown/Uptown includes the area once known as "Brittanville" which contained many English type gardens. Bayway borders the City of Linden. From US 1&9 and Allen Street, between the Elizabeth River and the Arthur Kill, it has maintained a strong Polish community for years. Developed at the turn of the 20th century, many of the area residents once worked at the refinery which straddles both Elizabeth and Linden. There are unique ethnic restaurants and stores along Bayway, a variety of houses of worship. Housing styles are older and well maintained. There are many affordable two to four-family housing units, multiple apartment complexes; the western terminus of the Goethals Bridge, which spans the Arthur Kill to Staten Island can be found here. A small section of the neighborhood was isolated with both the completion of the Goethals Bridge in 1928 and the construction of the New Jersey Turnpike in the 1950s.
This section known as "Relocated Bayway" will soon be a memory and piece of histor
Jerome Siegel, who used pseudonyms including Joe Carter and Jerry Ess, was an American comic book writer. His most famous creation was DC Comics character Superman, which he created in collaboration with his friend Joe Shuster, he was inducted into the comic book industry's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1992 and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1993. Jerry Siegel was born on October 1914, in Cleveland, Ohio, to a Jewish family, his parents were both Jewish immigrants who arrived in New York in 1900, having fled anti-Semitism in their native Lithuania. His father was born Mikhel Iankel Segalovich and his mother was born Sora Meita Khaikels, but they changed their names to Michael and Sarah Siegel after moving to America. Jerry was the last of six children, his father owned a clothing store. On June 2, 1932, Jerry's father was assaulted in his store by a shoplifter and suffered a fatal heart attack. Jerry's mother died of a heart attack on August 17, 1941. Siegel's family moved to the Jewish neighborhood of Glenville in 1928.
He attended Glenville High School in Ohio. At about age 16, while at Glenville, he befriended Joe Shuster. Siegel described his friendship with the shy and bespectacled Shuster: "When Joe and I first met, it was like the right chemicals coming together." They shared a love of science fiction, adventure fiction, movies. Siegel graduated from high school in June 1934. Unable to afford college, he worked all the while courting publishers. In the summer of 1935, still living in Cleveland, he and Shuster began selling comic-book stories to National Allied Publications, the primary precursor of DC Comics, in New York. Siegel and Shuster had been developing the Superman story and character since 1933, hoping to sell it as a syndicated newspaper comic-strip, but after years of fruitless soliciting to the syndicates and Shuster agreed to publish Superman in a comic book. In March 1938, they sold all rights to Superman to the comic-book publisher Detective Comics, Inc. another forerunner of DC, for $130.
Siegel and Shuster regretted their decision to sell Superman after he became an astonishing success. DC Comics now reaped the royalties. DC Comics retained Siegel and Shuster as the principal writer and artist for the Superman comics, they were well-paid because they were popular with the readers. For instance, in 1942 they together earned $63,776.46. Siegel bought himself a house in a car. Siegel was conscripted into the United States Army on June 28, 1943, his service number was 35067731. He was trained at Fort George G. Meade, where he was trained as an "Airplane Engine Mechanic, a Film Editor, Motion Picture Cutter, Public Relations Man or Playwright or Reporter", he was posted in Honolulu, where he was assigned a writing job at the military newspaper Stars and Stripes. He focused on comedy columns. Siegel was discharged on January 1946, at the rank of Technician 4th Grade. During his service in Hawaii, Siegel learned from his friend Shuster that DC Comics had published a story featuring a child version of Superman called "Superboy", based on an unsold story by Siegel.
Because DC Comics never bought the copyright to Superboy from Siegel, Siegel sued DC Comics for the rights to Superboy. Siegel and Shuster sued for the rights to Superman as well. At the conclusion of the trial and Shuster agreed to relinquish the copyrights of both Superman and Superboy in exchange for a settlement of just over $94,000. Siegel's 1948 divorce papers suggest he was left with $29,000 after paying his court fees but prior to settling his divorce. After the war, Siegel moved to New York. Between 1937 and 1947, Siegel and his friend Shuster had together earned more than $400,000 while working at DC Comics. After leaving DC Comics in late 1947, Siegel and Shuster created the comedic superhero Funnyman, which proved unsuccessful; this was their last collaboration. Siegel took freelance writing jobs; some of them include the newspaper strip Tallulah, Lars of Mars, G. I. Joe; the publisher Ziff-Davis hired him as a comic-book editor in 1951, but its comics division closed after less than a year in business.
Siegel never found steady work, fell upon hard times. By 1959, he and his family were living in a one-bedroom apartment in Great Neck, Long Island, struggled to pay his bills. Siegel returned to DC Comics in 1959 at the prompting of his second wife. Although he did write some Superman stories, he no longer had any creative control, but instead answered to the direction of his editor. During this time, he wrote extensively about the team the Legion of Super-Heroes, adding many enduring characters to its cast. Siegel's contributions during this time are difficult to determine because DC Comics did not give creator bylines, his last work for DC was a short story included in Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #89. DC Comics ceased giving him work in 1966, when the company learned Siegel and Shuster were planning a second lawsuit to reclaim the copyright to Superman, he lost that lawsuit. Siegel again fell into hard financial times after this second dismissal, as he was unable to find regular writing work. In 1975, upon hearing that Warner Bros. was producing a Superman movie, Siegel alerted the press to his condition.
In response, Warner Bros, agreed to give Siegel and Shuster a lifetime stipend of $20,000 a year increased to $30,000, in exchange for never again contesting ownership of the copyright to Superma
Joseph Shuster was a Canadian-American comic book artist best known for co-creating the DC Comics character Superman, with writer Jerry Siegel, in Action Comics #1. Shuster was involved in a number of legal battles over ownership of the Superman character, his comic book career after Superman was unsuccessful, by the mid-1970s Shuster had left the field due to partial blindness. He and Siegel were inducted into both the comic book industry's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1992 and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1993. In 2005, the Canadian Comic Book Creator Awards Association instituted the Joe Shuster Awards, named to honor the Canada-born artist. Joseph Shuster was born in Toronto to a Jewish family, his father, Julius Shuster, an immigrant from Rotterdam, had a tailor shop in Toronto's garment district. His mother, had come from Kiev in Ukraine, his family, including his sister, lived on Bathurst and Borden Streets, Shuster attended Ryerson and Lansdowne Public Schools. One of his cousins was comedian Frank Shuster of the Canadian comedy team Shuster.
He had a brother named Frank. As a youngster, Shuster worked as a newspaper boy for the Toronto Daily Star; the family made ends meet, the budding young artist would scrounge for paper, which the family could not afford. He recalled in 1992, I would go from store to pick up whatever they threw out. One day, I was lucky enough to find a bunch of wallpaper rolls that were unused and left over from some job; the backs were blank, naturally. So it was a goldmine for me, I went home with every roll I could carry. I kept using that wallpaper for a long time. Sometime in 1924, when Shuster was 9 or 10, his family moved to Ohio. There Shuster attended Glenville High School and befriended his collaborator, writer Jerry Siegel, with whom he began publishing a science fiction fanzine called Science Fiction. Siegel described his friendship with the shy and bespectacled Shuster: "When Joe and I first met, it was like the right chemicals coming together."The duo broke into comics at Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson's National Allied Publications, the future DC Comics, working on the landmark New Fun—the first comic-book series to consist of original material rather than using any reprinted newspaper comic strips—debuting with the musketeer swashbuckler "Henri Duval" and the supernatural crime-fighter strip Doctor Occult, both in New Fun #6.
In a 1992 interview, in which he used the fledgling publisher's future name, he said the two sample strips were not the ones published: One was drawn on brown wrapping paper and the other was drawn on the back of wallpaper from Toronto. And DC approved them, just like that! It's incredible! But DC did say,'We like your ideas, we like your scripts and we like your drawings, but please, copy over the stories in pen and ink on good paper.' So I got my mother and father to lend me the money to go out and buy some decent paper, the first drawing paper I had, in order to submit these stories properly to DC Comics. Siegel and Shuster created a bald telepathic villain, bent on dominating the world, as the title character in the short story "The Reign of the Superman", published in Siegel's 1933 fanzine Science Fiction #3; the character was not successful, Siegel devised the more familiar version of the character. Shuster modeled the hero on Douglas Fairbanks Sr. and his bespectacled alter ego, Clark Kent, on a combination of Harold Lloyd and Shuster himself, with the name "Clark Kent" derived from movie stars Clark Gable and Kent Taylor.
Lois Lane was modelled on Joanne Carter, Joe's girlfriend before she became Siegel's wife. Siegel and Shuster began a 6-year quest to find a publisher. Titling it The Superman and Shuster offered it to Consolidated Book Publishing, who had published a 48-page black-and-white comic book entitled Detective Dan: Secret Operative #48. Although the duo received an encouraging letter, Consolidated never again published comic books. Shuster took this to heart and, by varying accounts, either burned every page of the story, with the cover surviving only because Siegel saved it from the fire, or he tore the story to shreds, with only two cover sketches remaining. Siegel and Shuster each compared this character to Slam Bradley, an adventurer the pair had created for Detective Comics #1. In 1938, after that proposal had languished among others at More Fun Comics — published by National Allied Publications, the primary precursor of DC Comics — editor Vin Sullivan chose it as the cover feature for National's Action Comics #1.
The following year, Shuster initiated the syndicated Superman comic strip. As part of the deal which saw Superman published in Action Comics and Shuster sold the rights to the company in return for $130 and a contract to supply the publisher with material. Siegel and Shuster's status as children of Jewish immigrants is thought to have influenced their work. Timothy Aaron Pevey has argued that they crafted "an immigrant figure whose desire was to fit into American culture as an American", something which Pevey feels taps into an important aspect of American identity; when Superman first appeared, Superman's alter ego Clark Kent worked for the Daily Star newspaper, named by Shuster after the Toronto Daily Star, his old employer in Toronto. Shuster said he modeled the cityscape of Superman's home city, Metropolis, on that of his old hometown; when the comic strip received international distribution, the company permanently changed the name to the Daily Planet. In 1946, near the end of their 10-year contract to produce Superman stories, Siegel
The Plain Dealer
The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, United States. It has the largest circulation of any Ohio newspaper and was a top 20 newspaper for Sunday circulation in the United States as of March 2013; as of December 2015, The Plain Dealer had more than 250,000 daily readers and 790,000 readers on Sunday. The Plain Dealer's media market, the Cleveland-Akron DMA, is one of the Top 20 markets in the United States. With a population of 3.8 million people, it is the fourth-largest market in the Midwest, Ohio's largest media market. In April 2013 The Plain Dealer announced it would reduce home delivery to four days a week, including Sunday; this went into effect on August 5, 2013. A daily version of The Plain Dealer is available electronically as well as in print at stores and newsstands; the newspaper was established in 1842, less than 50 years after Moses Cleaveland landed on the banks of the Cuyahoga River in The Flats, is owned by Advance Publications. The Plain Dealer Publishing Company is under the direction of George Rodrigue.
The paper employs over 700 people. The newspaper was sold on March 1, 1967, to S. I. Newhouse's newspaper chain, has been under the control of the Newhouse family since; the paper was held by the trusts of the Holden estate, operated as The Plain Dealer Publishing Company, part of the Forest City Publishing Company, which published the Cleveland News until its purchase and subsequent closing by its major competitor, the Cleveland Press, owned by the E. W. Scripps Company, in 1960. On December 18, 2005, The Plain Dealer ceased publication of its weekly Sunday Magazine, published uninterrupted for over 85 years; the demise of the paper's Sunday Magazine was attributed to the high cost of newsprint and declining revenue, the PD reassigned the editors and reporters to other areas of the newspaper. It assured readers that the stories that would have appeared in the Sunday Magazine would be integrated into other areas of the paper. On the morning of Wednesday, July 31, 2013, nearly a third of the newsroom staff was eliminated through layoffs and voluntary resignations.
The Plain Dealer's corporate owner, New York-based Advance Publications Inc. a private company run by the heirs of S. I. Newhouse, under a strategy to focus more on online news delivery, had been cutting staff and publication schedules. In December 2012, under an agreement with the Newspaper Guild, nearly two dozen union newsroom staff voluntarily accepted severance packages; the July round of layoffs led to accusations by the Guild that management had misled the union by cutting more employees than had been agreed upon. On August 5, 2013, the Northeast Ohio Media Group launched and The Plain Dealer Publishing Company was formed. Northeast Ohio Media Group operates cleveland.com and Sun Newspapers and is responsible for all multimedia ad sales and marketing for The Plain Dealer, Sun News and cleveland.com. It provides content to The Plain Dealer, cleveland.com and Sun News. The Plain Dealer Publishing Company publishes in print seven days a week; the company provides production, finance, information technology and other support services for the Plain Dealer Publishing Co. and Northeast Ohio Media Group.
2006 Missouri Lifestyle Journalism Award 1953 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning. 2005 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary. 2003 Editor & Publisher Editor of the Year Award 12-time Ohio News Photographer's Association Award recipient. Nine-time Ohio Associated Press General Excellence Award winner: 1994 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012 Two-time Ohio Associated Press First Amendment Award recipient Numerous other AP Awards in various individual and specific categories The daily paper costs $1.50 and the Sunday/Thanksgiving Day edition is $2.25 at newsstands/newsracks. The full subscription weekly price is $4.65. These prices only apply to The Plain Dealer's home delivery area, which are the Northeast Ohio counties of Cuyahoga, Geauga, Erie, Summit, Ashtabula and Lorain; the Plain Dealer is available all over the state at select newsstands, including in the state capital and anywhere in the US or world via US mail service, in which prices are higher. The newspaper reported daily readership of 543,110 and Sunday readership of 858,376 as of October, 2013.
Effective August 5, 2013, home delivery was reduced to four days a week. Subscribers to the three premium editions have access to a digital version seven days a week, an exact replica of the morning's paper. A print edition is still available daily at stores and newsstands; the Plain Dealer operated a variety of news bureaus. By the middle of 2014, both the state capital bureau in Columbus and the Washington bureau were shifted to the Northeast Ohio Media Group, as shown by the affiliations of their bureau chiefs; the Plain Dealer is organized depending on the day of the week. The Sunday edition is, as with any major U. S. daily newspaper, the largest edition of the week. The current organization took effect August 5, 2013. Major sections printed in most editions include: News Local, state and international news, editorial/op-ed page, weather Business Local and national business news, bonds. Sports Cleveland and national sports commentary; the sports section focuses its beat reporters on the Browns, Indian
Superman (comic strip)
Superman was a daily newspaper comic strip which began on January 16, 1939, a separate Sunday strip was added on November 5, 1939. These strips ran continuously until May 1966. In 1941, the McClure Syndicate had placed the strip in hundreds of newspapers. At its peak, the strip, featuring Superman, was in over 300 daily newspapers and 90 Sunday papers, with a readership of over 20 million. During the National Comics Publications v. Fawcett Publications court case, the District Court ruled that McClure Syndicate failed to place the copyright notice on some of the strips and thus those strips are in the public domain; the daily strip was host to many storylines, unique from the regular Superman comic series. The early years consisted of Siegel-era Superman stories; the strips contained the first appearance of a bald Lex Luthor, the first appearance of Mr. Mxyzptlk and the first telephone booth costume change in comics. Other stories of note include Superman saving Santa Claus from the Nazis, World War II-era stories of Superman protecting the American home front and Clark Kent marrying Lois Lane.
The artwork includes runs by famed Superman artists Wayne Curt Swan. Mr. Mxyzptlk was first created to appear in the Superman #30 story, "The Mysterious Mr. Mxyztplk", but due to the publishing lag time, the daily strip team of writer Whitney Ellsworth and artist Wayne Boring saw what had been created for issue #30, were able to use him first in the daily strip story “The Mischievous Mr. Mxyzptlk” published from February 21, 1944 to July 19, 1944. So Mr. Mxyzptlk was not created for, and while published second, Mr. Mxyztplk was first created for Superman issue #30 and first written by Jerry Siegel and drawn and inked by Ira Yarborough. Superman appeared in the newspapers again in 1978, with the newspaper strip The World's Greatest Superheroes, retitled in his name in 1982 and lasted until 1985. Between these two comic strip series, Superman appeared in 12,000 unique newspaper strips. Over the years, there have been a number of different writers and artists on the Superman newspaper strips; the strip was drawn by Joe Shuster.
As Superman became more and more popular and the workload kept increasing, Shuster turned over many duties to his studio assistants. Paul Cassidy was the first in a line of ghost artists on the strip and took over the inking and detail work in 1939. In September 1940, Leo Nowak replaced Cassidy on the strip. Other assistants during this time included Dennis Neville, John Sikela, Ed Dobrotka, Paul J. Lauretta, Jack Burnley. Sikela and Dobrotka traded penciling and inking duties between each other. Lauretta inked and did backgrounds on the strips. Burnley left to work on his own comic book, but did return to pencil the Superman Sundays in 1943; the Superman strips during this early period of shop work was a team effort with multiple artists working on different parts of the same strip. This early period ended with the start of World War II. Jerry Siegel, the main writer, was drafted in 1943. Early that same year, Leo Nowak and John Sikela were drafted as well. In 1943, Stan Kaye took over the inking.
Wayne Boring, another early assistant to Joe Shuster, left the Shuster studio in 1942 to directly draw the daily strip for DC. Boring and Kaye dominated the daily strip’s artwork throughout most of the 1940s; the two provided art for the Sunday strip between 1940 and 1966. In the middle of 1949, Win Mortimer took over the daily strip from Wayne Boring. Stan Kaye continued inking Mortimer’s work until Kaye temporarily left, Mortimer inked his own work until he left DC in 1956 to publish his David Crane strip. Curt Swan took over the daily strip on June 1956, along with Stan Kaye. Swan continued on the strip until November 12, 1960; as for the stories in the Superman strips, Jerry Siegel wrote them until he was drafted in 1943. Whitney Ellsworth, who had begun on the strip in 1941, continued until 1945. Jack Schiff began his writing on the strip in 1942 and worked on the strip off and on until 1962. Alvin Schwartz first started writing for the Superman strip in October 1944. Between 1947 and 1951, Schwartz was the only writer on the Superman strip, he continued on the strip until 1958.
Bill Woolfolk wrote one story for the dailies in 1953. In 1959, Bill Finger started scripting stories, he worked through the series' end in 1966. During this final period, Jerry Siegel resumed his duties writing some stories. Lois Lane, Girl Reporter was a newspaper comic strip and topper to the Superman comic strip, featuring Superman's supporting character Lois Lane. Lois Lane accompanied the Superman Sunday strip in the Cleveland Plain Dealer, running irregularly between October 24, 1943, February 27, 1944. McClure Syndicate and fearing newspapers would cancel the popular Superman strip if it could not appear and on time, appealed to DC to instead create a spin-off strip, Lois Lane, Girl Reporter, for McClure to use as a filler material for newspaper syndication. In 2013 The Library of American Comics started to collect all the Superman comic strips and Sundays published between 1939-1966 in six sub set hardcover collections, see Superman: The Complete Comic Strips 1939-1966; the Speeding Bullet: Archive of Superman newspaper strips Supermanartists.com: Who Drew Superman?
Artist Biographies: Curt Swan After the Golden Age with Alvin Schwartz James Winslow Mortimer Superman Supersite: Win Mortimer Curt Swan: A Superman Walked Among US