Corleone is an Italian town and comune of 11,158 inhabitants in the Metropolitan City of Palermo, in Sicily. Several Mafia bosses have come from Corleone, including: Tommy Gagliano, Jack Dragna, Giuseppe Morello, Michele Navarra, Luciano Leggio, Leoluca Bagarella, Salvatore Riina and Bernardo Provenzano, it is the birthplace of several fictional characters in Mario Puzo's novel The Godfather, including the eponymous Vito Corleone. The local mafia clan, the Corleonesi, led the Mafia in the 1980s and 1990s, were the most violent and ruthless group to take control of the organization; the Corleone municipality has an area of 22,912 hectares with a population density of 49 inhabitants per square kilometer. It is located in an inland area of the mountain, in the valley between the Rocca di Maschi, the Castello Soprano and the Castello Sottano. Corleone is located at 542 metres above sea level; the etymology of the name is uncertain, undergoing various modifications from the Ancient Greek Kouroullounè to the Arabic Kurulliùn \ Qurlayun of the Emirate of Sicily, from Latin Curilionum to the Norman Coraigliòn, from the Aragonese Conillon, Coriglione from which the Sicilian Cunigghiuni originated.
The modern name ascends from 1556. Another belief is that the name derives from an Arab fighter named Kurliyun, who conquered it for the Aghlabids in 840; the territory of Corleone has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Recent research has identified several settlements distributed around two main areas: Pietralunga and The Old One; this name refers to a mountain that rises to about 1,000 metres, is about 2 kilometres from today's town. The site of Pietralunga was occupied from the final Neolithic Period to the Bronze Age while the site of The Old One has been inhabited since the Middle Ages. However, the biggest part of the settlement was built in the classical period. "A few materials relating to the Hellenistic period found at the site have supported the identification of the ancient town situated on the Old One with the ancient town of Schera, cited by Cicero and Ptolemy, although the archaeological remains on which this theory is based are still too unstable.. In 840, Corleone was conquered by the North African Aghlabids during the Muslim conquest of Sicily.
It was during the Muslim occupation that it gained economic and strategic importance. In the 1170s it was recorded that the majority of the population of the area was Muslim, including those bearing Arabo-Islamic names derived from Greek. There was a mosque, called Masgid al-Barid, within the town. Following the large-scale anti-Muslim attacks by Lombard settlers in eastern Sicily in 1161 led by future King of Sicily, the town became a refuge for many fleeing Muslims. In 1208, a Muslim uprising succeeded in retaking the town from Christian rule. In 1222, while speaking with the pope, Frederick II of Sicily cited the need to fight the Muslims of Corleone as a reason for his inability to send a large crusader army to Jerusalem. To this day, the rock formation, Castello Soprano, has a Saracen lookout tower on top of it. While the town's other rock formation, Castello Sottano, did not preserve its own Saracen fortification, it is nonetheless still known as Castello di Saraceni. In 1080 the city was conquered by the Normans, in 1095 it was annexed to the Diocese of Palermo.
Nearly a century in 1180, it was enfeoffed to the new diocese of Monreale. In this period, Corleone was repopulated by Ghibellines from Alessandria and elsewhere—"Lombards" led by Oddone de Camerana; the migrations were encouraged by Emperor Frederick II of Sicily, to strengthen his position against the Guelphs. In 1249, however, he revoked the privilege and gave the city to the royal property, though the migration of the inhabitants from the Po Valley continued until the beginning of the Sicilian Vespers in 1282. Another Camerana, named Boniface, distinguished himself in the revolution of the Sicilian Vespers, he led the insurrection against the Angevins with three thousand people from Corleone, in alliance with the city of Palermo. In recognition, the Senate of Palermo called Corleone soror mea. During the reign of Frederick IV of Sicily, called The Simple, the city rebelled against the crown but was recaptured in 1355. Corleone was besieged from Ventimiglia in 1358. During the reign of the four vicars, Corleone became the property of the powerful Chiaramonte family, but in 1391 was donated by Mary Queen of Sicily to Berardo Queralt, canon of Lerida, but he never took possession.
Instead, it was occupied by Nicholas Peralta, vicar William's son, but King Martin the Younger returned it to the royal property, confirming its privileges in 1397 and giving it some tax relief. In March 1434, King Alfonso the Magnanimous went to Corleone and conceded some tolls to the city with the aim of restoring the walls and to meet other needs, promising the inalienability of the city to which he gave the title of Animosa Civitas. However, in 1440 Corleone was sold to Federico Ventimiglia for 19,000 florins; this concession was revoked in May 1447 by King Alfonso, to be resold in the same year to a certain John of Bologna. In 1452 the city was granted to attorney James Pilaya. In 1516, Corleone joined the revolutionary movements of Palermo against the Viceroy Moncada; the revolt of Corleone, led by Fabio La Porta, received popular support as its purpose was the request for tax rel
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina, its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, one of the most active in the world 3,329 m high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate; the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, the Emirate of Sicily; the Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou and the House of Habsburg.
It was unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee, since 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture with regard to the arts, literature and architecture, it is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples and Selinunte. Sicily has a triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria. To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, about 16 km wide in the southern part.
The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a straight line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, while the Autonomous Region of Sicily has an area of 27,708 km2; the terrain of inland Sicily is hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the mountain ranges of Madonie, 2,000 m, Nebrodi, 1,800 m, Peloritani, 1,300 m, are an extension of the mainland Apennines; the cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast. In the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains, 1,000 m; the mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century, but have declined since the 1950s. Sicily and its surrounding small islands have some active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions, it stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km; this makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky. Mount Etna is regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily; the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, include Stromboli. The three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is dormant. Off the southern coast of Sicily, the underwater volcano of Ferdinandea, part of the larger Empedocles volcano, last erupted in 1831, it is located between the island of Pantelleria. The autonomous region includes several neighbouring islands: the Aegadian Islands, the Aeolian Islands and Lampedusa; the island is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island.
The Salso flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. To the east, the Alcantara flows through the province of Messina and enters the sea at Giardini Naxos, the Simeto, which flows into the Ionian Sea south of Catania. Other important rivers on the island are the Platani in the southwest. Sicily has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with changeable intermediate seasons. On the coasts the south-western, the climate is affected by the African currents and summers can be scorching. Sicily is seen as an island of warm winters but above all along the Tyrrhenian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate. Snow falls in abundance above 900–1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can carry it in the hills and in coastal cities on the northern coast of the island; the interi
Salvatore "Totò" Riina, called Totò'u Curtu, was an Italian mobster and chief of the Sicilian Mafia, known for a ruthless murder campaign that reached a peak in the early 1990s with the assassinations of Antimafia Commission prosecutors Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, resulting in widespread public outcry and a major crackdown by the authorities. He was known by the nicknames la belva and il capo dei capi. Riina succeeded Luciano Leggio as foremost boss of the Corleonesi criminal organisation in the early 1980s and achieved dominance through a campaign of violence, which caused police to target his rivals; as a fugitive, Riina was less vulnerable to law enforcement's reaction to his methods, as the policing removed many of the established chiefs who had traditionally sought influence through bribery. In violation of established Mafia codes, Riina advocated the killing of women and children, killed blameless members of the public to distract law enforcement agencies. Assassin Giovanni Brusca estimated he murdered between 200 people on behalf of Riina.
Although this scorched-earth policy neutralized any internal threat to Riina's position, he showed a lack of his earlier guile by bringing his organisation into open confrontation with the state. After 23 years living as a fugitive he was captured, provoking a series of indiscriminate bombings of art galleries and churches by his organisation, his lack of repentance subjected him to the stringent Article 41-bis prison regime until his death in the prisoners' ward of a hospital. Riina was born and raised in a poverty-stricken countryside house in Corleone, in the then-province of Palermo; when he was young, in 1943, his family found an unexploded American bomb during World War II: his father Giovanni attempted to open it to sell the powder to hunters, but in doing so he caused it to explode, killing himself and Riina's seven-year-old brother Francesco. Afterwards, Salvatore "Totò" Riina became the effective male head of the family, he joined the local Mafia clan at the age of nineteen by committing a murder on their behalf.
The following year he killed a man during an argument and served six years in prison for manslaughter. The head of the Mafia family in Corleone was Michele Navarra until 1958, when he was shot dead on the orders of Luciano Leggio, a ruthless 33-year-old Mafioso, who subsequently became the new boss. Together with Totò Riina, Calogero Bagarella and Bernardo Provenzano, Leggio began to increase the power of the Corleonesi; because they hailed from a small town, the Corleonesi were not a major factor in the Sicilian Mafia in the 1950s, compared with the major Mafia families based in the capital, Palermo. In an underestimation of the mobsters from Corleone, the Palermo bosses referred to the Corleonesi as i viddani – "the peasants". In the early 1960s, Leggio and Provenzano, who had spent the previous few years hunting down and killing dozens of Navarra's surviving supporters, were forced to go into hiding due to arrest warrants. Riina and Leggio were tried in 1969 for murders carried out earlier that decade.
They were acquitted because of intimidation of the witnesses. Riina went into hiding that year after he was indicted on a further murder charge and was to remain a fugitive for the next twenty-three years. In 1974, Leggio was imprisoned for the murder of Navarra sixteen years earlier. Although Leggio retained some influence from behind bars, Riina was now the effective head of the Corleonesi, he had close relations with the'Ndrangheta, the Mafia-type association in Calabria. His "compare d’anello" at his wedding in 1974 was Domenico Tripodo, a powerful'Ndrangheta boss and prolific cigarette smuggler. During the 1970s, Sicily became an important location in the international heroin trade with regards to the refining and exporting of the narcotic; the profits to be had from heroin were vast and exceeded those of the traditional activities of extortion and loan-sharking. Totò Riina wanted to take control of the trade and was to do so by planning a war against the rival Mafia families. During the late 1970s, Riina orchestrated the murders of a number of high-profile public officials, such as judges and members of the police and the carabinieri.
As well as intimidating the state, these assassinations helped to frame the Corleonesi's rivals. The Godfathers of many Mafia families were highly visible in their communities, rubbing shoulders with politicians and mayors, protecting themselves with bribes rather than violence. In contrast, Riina and other Corleonesi were fugitives, always in hiding and seen by other mobsters, let alone the public; when a policeman or judge was killed it was the more visible Mafia families who were the subject of official investigations as these assassinations were deliberately carried out in the territory of the Corleonesi's rivals rather than anywhere near the town of Corleone itself. The Corleonesi's primary rivals were Stefano Bontade, Salvatore Inzerillo and Tano Badalamenti, bosses of various powerful Palermo Mafia families. Between 1981 and 1983, Bontade and Inzerillo, together with many associates and members of both their Mafia and blood families, were killed. There were up to a thousand killings during this period as Riina and the Corleonesi, together with their allies, wiped out their rivals.
By 1983, the Corleonesi
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness. Most societies consider murder to be an serious crime, thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder faces a long-term prison sentence a life sentence; the modern English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die". The Middle English mordre is a noun from Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from the Middle English noun.
The eighteenth-century English jurist William Blackstone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England set out the common law definition of murder, which by this definition occurs when a person, of sound memory and discretion, unlawfully kills any reasonable creature in being and under the king's peace, with malice aforethought, either express or implied. The elements of common law murder are: Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought; the Unlawful – This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defence, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation and respiration. With advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life.Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission.of a human – This element presents the issue of when life begins.
At common law, a fetus was not a human being. Life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath.by another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder. The requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate and premeditated killing of another motivated by ill will. Murder required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill; the courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice. All, required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes "malice"; the four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Under state of mind, intent to kill, the deadly weapon rule applies. Thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill.
In other words, "intent follows the bullet". Examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. Under state of mind, an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. In Australian jurisdictions, the unreasonable risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death, as opposed to possibility. Under state of mind, the felony-murder doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape, robbery or kidnapping; the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, otherwise all criminal homicides would be murder as all are felonies. As with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is codified in some form of legislation.
When the legal distinction between murder and manslaughter is clear, it is not unknown for a jury to find a murder defendant guilty of the lesser offence. The jury might sympathise with the defendant, the jury may wish to protect the defendant from a sentence of life imprisonment or execution. Many jurisdictions divide murder by degrees; the distinction between first- and second-degree murder exists, for example, in Canadian murder law and U. S. murder law. The most common division is between first- and second-degree murder. Second-degree murder is common law murder, first-degree is an aggravated form; the aggravating factors of first-degree murder depend on the jurisdiction, but may include a specific intent to kill, premeditation, or deliberation. In some, murder committed by acts such as strangulation, poisoning, or lying in wait are treated as first-degree murder. A few states in the U. S. further distinguish third-degree murder, but they differ in which kinds of murders they classify as second-degree versus third-degree.
For example, Minnesota defines third-degree murder as depraved-heart murder, whereas Flori
Filippo Marchese was a leading figure in the Sicilian Mafia and a hitman suspected of dozens of homicides. Marchese was one of the most feared killers working for mafia boss Vincenzo Chiaracane related to the Giuseppe Greco family, in control of the Ciaculli neighbourhood of Palermo, he was the boss of the Mafia family in the Corso dei Mille neighbourhood in Palermo. Marchese ran what became known as the Room of a small apartment along the Piazza Sant Erasmo. Victims who stood in the way of the Corleonesi, the Mafia clan from the town of Corleone, were lured there to be murdered by being garrotted, their bodies dumped out at sea. As many as 100 people – mafiosi who stood in the way of the Corleonesi bosses, Salvatore Riina and Bernardo Provenzano, their associates – were killed there during the Second Mafia War. Like most mafiosi, Filippo Marchese was elusive, the primary source of information about his career in crime comes from Vincenzo Sinagra, an informant. Sinagra was not a member of the Mafia but just a common criminal who, in 1981, made the mistake of stealing from a mafioso.
He was given three choices. He ended up working with Marchese in the Room of Death. Sinagra was arrested on August 11, 1982 when he was caught red-handed carrying out a contract killing, after a year in custody he decided to become an informant and cooperated with the anti-Mafia judge Paolo Borsellino, he testified at the Maxi Trial of 1986-87, along with Tommaso Buscetta. Sinagra claimed at the Maxi Trial that it was invariably his job to hold the feet of those who died in the Room of Death while Marchese strangled them with a length of rope. Sinagra claimed that Marchese masturbated whilst snorting cocaine and watching victims being tortured. By the time of the Maxi Trial, Filippo Marchese was dead. Marchese had been a valuable asset to the Corleonesi during the Second Mafia War in 1981-83. Afterwards his violent nature was of no further use, marked him out as a threat to the leadership of the Corleonesi bosses, Salvatore Riina and Bernardo Provenzano. Sometime around January 1983, Filippo Marchese was garrotted and like so many of his own victims, subsequently dissolved in acid.
He was so elusive that the authorities did not learn of his death until the late 1980s through an informant. The man who killed Marchese was Pino Greco. Greco himself was killed in 1985 by two of his own men on Toto Riina's orders, his underboss Vincenzo Puccio and a lieutenant, Giuseppe Lucchese, who became boss of the Brancaccio-Ciaculli mandamento after Puccio was killed. Filippo Marchese's two nephews and Giuseppe Marchese, subsequently murdered Vincenzo Puccio in 1989 on Riina's orders, but Riina deliberately destroyed their alibi. Giuseppe Marchese became a pentito in September 1992 after he realized his godfather and mentor Riina had betrayed him. Marchese’s niece, Vincenza Marchese, was married to Leoluca Bagarella of the Corleonesi clan and Totò Riina's brother-in-law. Bagarella was rumoured to have killed his wife Vincenza sometime after her brother Giuseppe Marchese co-operated with the government and became a pentito; when Bagarella was arrested on June 24, 1995 – after four years on the run with his wife –there was no sign of Vincenza, just a bunch of flowers in front of her picture on the mantelpiece – a sign of mourning.
However, other sources said that Vincenza had committed suicide after her brother began collaborating with authorities. Another version was, she had left a letter asking her husband for forgiveness. Dickie, John. Cosa Nostra. A history of the Sicilian Mafia, London: Coronet, ISBN 0-340-82435-2 Jamieson, The Antimafia. Italy’s Fight Against Organized Crime, London: MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-80158-X Longrigg, Clare. Mafia Women, London: Vintage ISBN 0-09-959171-5 Stille, Alexander. Excellent Cadavers; the Mafia and the Death of the First Italian Republic, London: Vintage ISBN 0-09-959491-9
The Godfather is a 1972 American crime film directed by Francis Ford Coppola and produced by Albert S. Ruddy, based on Mario Puzo's best-selling novel of the same name, it stars Marlon Al Pacino as the leaders of a fictional New York crime family. The story, spanning 1945 to 1955, chronicles the family under the patriarch Vito Corleone, focusing on the transformation of Michael Corleone from reluctant family outsider to ruthless mafia boss. Paramount Pictures obtained the rights to the novel for the price of $80,000, before it gained popularity. Studio executives had trouble finding a director, they and Coppola disagreed over who would play several characters, in particular and Michael. Filming took place on location around New York and in Sicily, was completed ahead of schedule; the musical score was principally composed with additional pieces by Carmine Coppola. The film was the highest-grossing film of 1972 and was for a time the highest-grossing film made, it won the Oscars for Best Actor and Best Adapted Screenplay.
Its seven other Oscar nominations included Pacino, James Caan, Robert Duvall, Coppola for Best Director. The Godfather is regarded as one of the greatest films in world cinema and one of the most influential in the gangster genre, it was selected for preservation in the U. S. National Film Registry of the Library of Congress in 1990, being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" and is ranked the second-greatest film in American cinema by the American Film Institute, it was followed by sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III. In 1945, at his daughter Connie's wedding to Carlo Rizzi, Don Vito Corleone hears requests in his role as head of a New York crime family, his youngest son, a Marine during World War II, introduces his girlfriend, Kay Adams, to his family at the reception. Johnny Fontane, a famous singer and Vito's godson, seeks Vito's help in securing a movie role. Woltz refuses. Shortly before Christmas, drug baron Virgil "The Turk" Sollozzo, backed by the Tattaglia crime family, asks Vito for investment in his narcotics business and protection through his political connections.
Wary of involvement in a dangerous new trade that risks alienating political insiders, Vito declines. Suspicious, Vito sends Luca Brasi, to spy on them. Brasi is garroted during his first meeting with Bruno Sollozzo. Sollozzo has Vito gunned down in the street kidnaps Hagen. With Corleone first-born Sonny in command, Sollozzo pressures Hagen to persuade Sonny to accept Sollozzo's deal releases him; the family receives fish wrapped in Brasi's bullet-proof vest, indicating that Luca "sleeps with the fishes." Vito survives, at the hospital Michael thwarts another attempt on his father. Sonny retaliates with a hit on Bruno Tattaglia. Michael plots to murder Sollozzo and McCluskey: on the deception of settling the dispute, Michael meets them in a Bronx restaurant. There, retrieving a planted handgun, he kills both men. Despite a clampdown by the authorities, the Five Families erupt in open warfare and Vito fears for his sons' safety. Michael takes refuge in Fredo is sheltered by Moe Greene in Las Vegas.
Sonny attacks Carlo on the street for abusing Connie, threatens to kill him if it happens again. When it does, Sonny speeds to their home, but is ambushed at a highway toll booth and riddled with submachine gun fire. While in Sicily, Michael meets and marries Apollonia Vitelli, but a car bomb intended for him takes her life. Devastated by Sonny's death and realizing that the Tattaglias are controlled by the now-dominant Don Emilio Barzini, Vito attempts to end the feud, he assures the Five Families that he will withdraw his opposition to their heroin business and forgo avenging Sonny's murder. His safety guaranteed, Michael returns home to enter the family business and marry Kay, promising her that the business will be legitimate within five years. Kay gives birth to two children by the early 1950s, with his father at the end of his career and his brother too weak, Michael takes the family reins, he insists Hagen relocate to Las Vegas and relinquish his role to Vito because Tom is not a "wartime consigliere".
Michael travels to Las Vegas to buy out Greene's stake in the family's casinos. Michael is dismayed to see. In 1955, Vito suffers a fatal heart attack. At the funeral, Tessio, a Corleone capo, asks Michael to meet with Don Barzini, signalling the betrayal that Vito had forewarned; the meeting is set for the same day as the baptism of Connie's baby. While Michael stands at the altar as the child's godfather, Corleone assassins murder the other New York dons and Moe Greene. Tessio is executed for his treachery and Michael extracts Carlo's confession to his complicity in setting up Sonny's murder for Barzini. A Corleone capo, garrotes Carlo with a wire. Connie accuses Michael of the murder. Kay is relieved when Michael denies it, but when the capos arrive, they address her husband as Don Corleone and she watches as they close the door on her; the Corleone FamilyMarlon Brando as Vito Corleone patriarch of the family, born Vito Andolini in Sicil
Giorgio Boris Giuliano was a police chief from Palermo, Sicily. He was the head of Palermo's Flying Squad, he was killed by the Sicilian Mafia while investigating money laundering. Not long before his death he had been one of the first Italian policemen to have attended the FBI academy at Quantico, Virginia, his son Alessandro became head of the Milan Flying Squad and arrested old guard Mafioso Gaetano Fidanzati in 2009. Before becoming a police officer he had many other professions: as a dishwasher in London, where he learned English, while studying at the university in Messina; as a boy he had lived in the Italian colonies of Africa, where his father served as an officer at the Italian Navy. In 1963, after entering the police, Giuliano was assigned, at his request, to the Flying Squad of Palermo; these were the years of what was called the First Mafia War between the Grecos and the brothers Salvatore and Angelo La Barbera. In 1973 he became deputy police chief under Bruno Contrada, who had created the section investigating the Mafia.
They were dubbed ` Bruno and Boris. Together, they changed radically changed investigating methods: two meetings per day with all the officials to take stock of the ongoing investigations and share information.. Giuliano was involved in the investigation in the disappearance of journalist Mauro De Mauro in September 1970, he focused on the lead of De Mauro's investigations into the death of ENI president Enrico Mattei, prompted by the disappearance a few pages of notes and a tape with the last speech given by Mattei from De Mauro's office. The investigations were hampered due to deviations by people within the Italian police forces and secret services. According to Giuliano there was "someone at the ministry in Rome that does not want to go to the bottom of the death of De Mauro." An order to scale down the investigation was issued by the head of the secret service, Vito Miceli involved in the neo-fascist Borghese coup. In 1976 he became the head of Palermo's Flying Squad. During the late 1970s he was investigating drug trafficking by various members of the Sicilian Mafia including the boss Stefano Bontade, as well as a series of armed robberies linked to Corso dei Mille boss Filippo Marchese.
Bontade was linked to the Spatola-Inzerillo-Gambino network involved in heroin trafficking since the mid-1970s until the mid-1980s when US and Italian law enforcement were able to reduce the heroin supply of the Sicilian Mafia. The Bontade-Spatola-Inzerillo traffickers supplied the Gambino Family – through John Gambino – in New York City with heroin, refined in laboratories on the island from Turkish morphine base; the investigation started when Giuliano found a suitcase at Palermo's Punta Raisi Airport with half a million dollars neatly wrapped in freshly laundered pizza aprons. According to Giovanni Falcone, the investigating magistrate, the group had made about US$600 million; the proceeds were re-invested in real estate through the banker Michele Sindona. Giuliano discovered cheques and other documents which indicated that Sindona through the Vatican Bank had been recycling the proceeds from heroin sales by the Mafia to his Amincor Bank in Switzerland, he coordinated his investigations with the lawyer Giorgio Ambrosoli, appointed as liquidator of Sindona's banks, declared insolvent due to mismanagement and fraud, involving losses in foreign currency speculation and poor loan policies.
Ambrosoli was murdered on July 1979 in Milan. Ten days on July 21, 1979 Giuliano was shot dead in the Lux Bar in Palermo taking a cappuccino while waiting for his car to take him to work early in the morning; the material killer was Corleonesi boss Leoluca Bagarella. Bagarella shot Giuliano in the neck three times and, standing over the body, fired four bullets into Giuliano's back before making his escape. Giuliano was investigating Bagarella. Bagarella had managed to escape in time, but inside Giuliano discovered weapons, four kilogrammes of heroin and false documents with photographs depicting Bagarella. Bagarella, arrested in June 1995, received a life sentence for the killing; the murder was sanctioned by the Sicilian Mafia Commission. List of victims of the Sicilian Mafia Il Capo dei Capi Sterling, Claire. Octopus. How the long reach of the Sicilian Mafia controls the global narcotics trade, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-73402-4 Stille, Alexander. Excellent Cadavers; the Mafia and the Death of the First Italian Republic, New York: Vintage ISBN 0-09-959491-9 "Culture of Lawlessness: The Role of the Mass Media".
Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 2014-02-21. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown has a chapter on Giulano's murder Boris Giuliano: "un eroe semplice e allegro" Obituary on the site of the Italian State Police Boris Giuliano, un poliziotto all'antica, by Saverio Lodato, l'Unità, June 25, 2005