The Muscogee known as the Mvskoke and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke is their autonym, their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Most of the original population of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their native lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory; some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers.
The great majority of Seminoles were later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches and tribes, except one, are all related variants called Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible; the Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids; some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than colonial European-American cities.
Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century; the Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were based on an 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh resisted European-American encroachment.
Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War. Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks; the result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory; the Muscogee Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex; the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 AD; the early historic Muscogee were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee and Alabama. They may have been related to the Tama of central Georgia. Oral traditions passed down by the ancestors of the Creeks have alleged that their nation migrated eastward from places West of the Mississippi River settling on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River.
It was here that they waged war with other bands of Native American Indians, as the Savannas, Wapoos, Yamafees, Icofans
Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park
Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park Ocmulgee National Monument, in present-day Macon, United States, preserves traces of over ten millennia of Southeastern Native American culture. Its chief remains are major earthworks built before 1000 CE by the South Appalachian Mississippian culture These include the Great Temple and other ceremonial mounds, a burial mound, defensive trenches, they represented skilled engineering techniques and soil knowledge, the organization of many laborers. The site has evidence of "17,000 years of continuous human habitation." The 702-acre park is located on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River. Present-day Macon, Georgia developed around the site after the United States built Fort Benjamin Hawkins nearby in 1806 to support trading with Native Americans. For thousands of years, succeeding cultures of prehistoric indigenous peoples had settled on what is called the Macon Plateau at the Fall Line, where the rolling hills of the Piedmont met the Atlantic Coastal Plain.
The monument designation includes the Lamar Mounds and Village Site, located downriver about three miles from Macon. The monument park was designated for federal protection by the National Park Service in 1934 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. In 1997, the NPS designated the monument a Traditional Cultural Property, the first so recognized east of the Mississippi River. While the mounds had been studied by some travelers, professional excavation under the evolving techniques of archeology did not begin until the 1930s, under the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression; the Works Progress Administration sponsored large-scale archaeological digs at the site between 1933 and 1942. Workers excavated portions of eight mounds, finding an array of significant archeological artifacts that revealed a wide trading network and complex, sophisticated culture. On June 14, 1934, the park was authorized by Congress as a National Monument and formally established on December 23, 1936 under the National Park Service.
As an historic unit of the Park Service, the National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. The John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act, signed March 12, 2019. Redesignated it as a national historical park. In the early 1990s, the National Park Service renovated its facilities at the park. In 1997, it designated the Ocmulgee National Monument as a Traditional Cultural Property, the first such site named east of the Mississippi River. Ocmulgee's visitor center includes an archaeology museum, it displays artifacts and interprets the successive cultures of the prehistoric Native Americans who inhabited this site, as well as the historic Muscogee and diverse peoples of the colonial era. The visitor center includes a short orientation film for the monument site and a gift shop, with books related to the park; the large park encompasses 702 acres, has 5 1⁄2 miles of walking trails. Near the visitor center is a reconstructed ceremonial earthlodge, based on a 1,000-year-old structure excavated by archeologists.
Visitors can reach the Great Temple Mound via the park road. Other surviving prehistoric features in the park include a burial mound, platform mounds, earthwork trenches; the historic site of the English colonial Ocumulgee trading post is part of the park. The main section of Ocmulgee National Monument is accessible from U. S. Route 80, off Interstate 16, it is open daily except Christmas New Year's Day. The Lamar Mounds and Village Site is an isolated unit of the monument, located in the swamps about 3 miles south of Macon; the Lamar Site is open on a limited basis. Ocmulgee is a memorial to ancient indigenous peoples in Southeastern North America. From Ice Age hunters to the Muscogee of historic times, the site has evidence of 17,000 years of human habitation; the Macon plateau was inhabited during the Paleoindian and Woodland phases. The major occupation was ca. 950-1150 during the Early Mississippian-culture phase. The people of this sophisticated, stratified culture built the complex, massive earthworks that expressed their religious and political system.
Archeologists call this society the Macon Plateau culture, a local expression of the Mississippian culture. During this period, an elite society supported by skillful farmers constructed a town. Leaders directed the complex construction of large, earthwork mounds, the central structures on the plateau. Carrying earth by hand in bags, thousands of workers built the 55 ft.-high Great Temple Mound on a high bluff overlooking the floodplain of the Ocmulgee River. Magnetometer scans have revealed the platform mound had a spiraling staircase oriented toward the floodplain; the staircase is unique among any of the Mississippian-culture sites. Other earthworks include at least one burial mound; the people built rectangular wooden buildings to house certain religious ceremonies on the top of the platform mounds. The mounds at Ocmulgee were unusual because they were constructed further from each other than was typical of other Mississippian complexes. Scholars believe. Circular earth lodges were built to serve as places to conduct important ceremonies.
Remains of one of the earth lodges were carbon dated to 1050 CE. This evidence was the basis for the reconstructed lodge which archeologists built at the monument center; the interior features a raised-earth platform, shaped like an eagle with a forked-eye motif. Molded seats on the
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from about 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally. It was composed of a series of urban settlements and satellite villages linked together by a loose trading network; the largest city was Cahokia, believed to be a major religious center. The civilization flourished from the southern shores of the Great Lakes at Western New York and Western Pennsylvania in what is now the Eastern Midwest, extending south-southwest into the lower Mississippi Valley and wrapping easterly around the southern foot of the Appalachians barrier range into what is now the Southeastern United States; the Mississippian way of life began to develop in the Mississippi River Valley. Cultures in the tributary Tennessee River Valley may have begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. All dated Mississippian sites predate 1539–1540, with notable exceptions being Natchez communities that maintained Mississippian cultural practices into the 18th century.
A number of cultural traits are recognized as being characteristic of the Mississippians. Although not all Mississippian peoples practiced all of the following activities, they were distinct from their ancestors in adoption of some or all of these traits; the construction of large, truncated earthwork pyramid mounds, or platform mounds. Such mounds were square, rectangular, or circular. Structures were constructed atop such mounds. Maize-based agriculture. In most places, the development of Mississippian culture coincided with adoption of comparatively large-scale, intensive maize agriculture, which supported larger populations and craft specialization. Women ate more maize, whereas men ate more animal meat. Shell-tempered pottery; the adoption and use of riverine shells as tempering agents in ceramics. Widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico, east to the Atlantic Ocean; the development of the chiefdom or complex chiefdom level of social complexity.
The development of institutionalized social inequality. A centralization of control of combined political and religious power in the hands of few or one; the beginnings of a settlement hierarchy, in which one major center has clear influence or control over a number of lesser communities, which may or may not possess a smaller number of mounds. The adoption of the paraphernalia of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex called the Southern Cult; this is the belief system of the Mississippians. SECC items are found in Mississippian-culture sites from Wisconsin to the Gulf Coast, from Florida to Arkansas and Oklahoma; the SECC was tied into ritual game-playing, as with chunkey. The Mississippians had no writing stone architecture, they worked occurring metal deposits, such as hammering and annealing copper for ritual objects such as Mississippian copper plates and other decorations, but did not smelt iron or practice bronze metallurgy. The Mississippi stage is divided into three or more chronological periods.
Each period is an arbitrary historical distinction varying regionally. At a particular site, each period may be considered to begin earlier or depending on the speed of adoption or development of given Mississippian traits; the "Mississippi period" should not be confused with the "Mississippian culture". The Mississippi period is the chronological stage, while Mississippian culture refers to the cultural similarities that characterize this society; the Early Mississippi period had just transitioned from the Late Woodland period way of life. Different groups abandoned tribal lifeways for increasing complexity, sedentism and agriculture. Production of surplus corn and attractions of the regional chiefdoms led to rapid population concentrations in major centers; the Middle Mississippi period is the apex of the Mississippi era. The expansion of the great metropolis and ceremonial complex at Cahokia, the formation of other complex chiefdoms, the spread and development of SECC art and symbolism are characteristic changes of this period.
The Mississippian traits listed above came to be widespread throughout the region. The Late Mississippi period is characterized by increasing warfare, political turmoil, population movement; the population of Cahokia dispersed early in this period migrating to other rising political centers. More defensive structures are seen at sites, sometimes a decline in mound-building and large-scale, public ceremonialism. Although some areas continued an Middle Mississippian culture until the first significant contact with Europeans, the population of most areas had dispersed or were experiencing severe social stress by 1500. Along with the contemporaneous Ancestral Pueblo peoples, these cultural collapses coincide with the global climate change of the Little Ice Age. Scholars theorize drought and the reduction of maize agriculture, together with possible deforestation and overhunting by the concentrated populations, forced them to move away from major sites; this period ended with European contact in the 16th century.
The term Middle Mississippian is used to describe the core of the classic Mississippian culture area. This area covers the central Mississippi River Valley, the lower Ohio River Valley, most of the Mid-South area, including western and central Kentucky, western Tennessee, northern Alabama and Mississippi. Sites in this area often
John Chapman Village Site
The John Chapman Village Site is a prehistoric archaeological site located in the Apple River Valley south of Hanover, Illinois. The site includes a platform mound; the village was occupied from 1100 to 1250 A. D. toward the end of the Late Woodland period and the beginning of the Mississippian period. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the site formed part of a trade network between Cahokia and settlements further north, such as Aztalan, as evidenced by the artifacts found at the site; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 10, 2009
The Ochlockonee River is a fast running river, except where it has been dammed to form Lake Talquin in Florida, originating in Georgia and flowing for 206 miles before terminating in Florida. The name is from the Hitchiti language words for yellow river; the Ochlockonee originates south of the town of Sylvester in Worth County in southwest Georgia and empties into Ochlockonee Bay and Apalachee Bay in Florida. The river forms the western boundaries of Leon County and Wakulla County and eastern boundaries of Gadsden County, Liberty County, Franklin County in Florida, it flows through the Red Hills, the Jackson Bluff Dam, Talquin State Forest, Lake Talquin State Park and the Apalachicola National Forest, past Ochlockonee River State Park, where it is tidally influenced and a mixture of fresh and salt water, on the way to its terminus in Ochlockonee Bay, which empties into Apalachee Bay, with tidal influences extending upstream over 15 miles from the river's mouth. When the Spanish arrived in northern Florida, the Ochlockonee River formed the western boundary of the Apalachee Province.
Late 17th century Spanish documents refer to the river as Amarillo. A 1716 Spanish document called it Rio de Lagna. An English map from 1720 shows it as the Yellow River. A 1778 map spells the river's name Okalockney; the modern name derieves from the Hitchiti/Mikasuki Oki and Lagana. About 1840, Fort Stansbury was established on the river by placing a two story home, abandoned by its owner due to Seminole raids during the Second Seminole War; this fort was important in the forced removal of Indians from the area. Boats traveled upriver to collect and move Native Americans down to Gulf of Mexico ports for removal to "Indian Territories." By 1844, Fort Stansbury had been abandoned. From 1839 to 1842, Fort Virginia Braden was established on the river located at Fort Braden in Florida; the fort was named after the commander's wife. The Ochlockonee River saw action during the Civil War. On 15 July 1863, the screw steamer gunboat USS Stars and Stripes and wooden side-wheel steam ferryboat USS Somerset attacked the salt works at Mashes Sands.
On 29 December 1863, Stars and Stripes sank the blockade-running schooner Caroline Gertrude, aground on the sandbar at the mouth of the Ochlockonee. Stars and Stripes captured the blockade-running steamer Laura off the Ochlockonee on 18 January 1864. On 19 and 20 October 1864, Stars and Stripes destroyed an extensive Confederate fishery at Mashes Island and captured the troops stationed there as guards. In 1927 the Jackson Bluff Dam was constructed on the Ochlockonee River to produce hydroelectric power; the waters held back by the dam formed Lake Talquin. The Ochlockonee River corridor is home to many threatened fish and plant species, it has been designated under the State of Florida's Outstanding Florida Waters program and has been identified by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission as a Strategic Habitat Conservation Area. Rare animals that can be found along the Ochlockonee include red-cockaded woodpecker, least tern, the Apalachicola dusky salamander; the river is rich in rare freshwater mussels, including three federally listed endangered species: the Ochlockonee moccasinshell, the Shinyrayed pocketbook, the Oval pigtoe.
"The Florida maybell tree can be found only along the Chipola Rivers. The Ochlockonee is connected to and a source of water for Lake Iamonia during flooding. Fishing for bass, perch and catfish can be excellent on the Ochlockonee River, a state-designated canoe trail can be found both upstream and downstream of Lake Talquin. Telogia Creek and the Little River near State Road 12 are popular for canoeing; the Florida National Scenic Trail follows the river for two miles. The Ochlockonee is a vital link in the production of seafood to the southwest in Apalachicola Bay. During floods, the river transports organic matter downstream into the estuary of Ochlockonee Bay where the shallows of the bay were created by the great volume of sand and clay brought down by the river; this estuary serves as a nursery for numerous species of fish and shellfish which are the basis for recreational and commercial fishing as well as the Apalachicola seafood that this area is known for. A number of major highways cross the Ochlockonee River along its course, including Interstate 10 and U.
S. highways 19, 27, U. S. Route 84 and 98. South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Ochlockonee River and Bay profile and documents from the Northwest Florida Water Management District U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Ochlockonee River
A platform mound is any earthwork or mound intended to support a structure or activity. The indigenous peoples of North America built substructure mounds for well over a thousand years starting in the Archaic period and continuing through the Woodland period. Many different archaeological cultures of North Americas Eastern Woodlands are well known for using platform mounds as a central aspect of their overarching religious practices and beliefs; these platform mounds are four-sided truncated pyramids, steeply sided, with steps built of wooden logs ascending one side of the earthworks. When European first arrived in North America, the peoples of the Mississippian culture were still using and building platform mounds. Documented uses for Mississippian platform mounds include semi-public chief's house platforms, public temple platforms, mortuary platforms, charnel house platforms, earth lodge/town house platforms, residence platforms, square ground and rotunda platforms, dance platforms. Many of the mounds underwent multiple episodes of mound construction, with the mound becoming larger with each event.
The site of a mound was a site with special significance, either a pre-existing mortuary site or civic structure. This site was covered with a layer of basket-transported soil and clay known as mound fill and a new structure constructed on its summit. At periodic intervals averaged about twenty years these structures would be removed ritually destroyed as part of renewal ceremonies, a new layer of fill added, along with a new structure on the now higher summit. Sometimes the surface of the mounds would get a several inches thick coat of brightly colored clay; these layers incorporated layers of different kinds of clay and sod, an elaborate engineering technique to forestall slumping of the mounds and to ensure their steep sides did not collapse. This pattern could be repeated many times during the life of a site; the large amounts of fill needed for the mounds left large holes in the landscape now known by archaeologists as "borrow pits". These pits were sometimes stocked with fish; some mounds were developed with separate levels and aprons, such as Emerald Mound, one large terrace with two smaller mounds on its summit.
Monks Mound had at least ten separate periods of mound construction over a 200-year period. Some of the terraces and aprons on the mound seem to have been added to stop slumping of the enormous mound. Although the mounds were meant as substructure mounds for buildings or activities, sometimes burials did occur. Intrusive burials occurred when a grave was dug into a mound and the body or a bundle of defleshed, disarticulated bones was deposited into it. Mound C at Etowah has been found to have more than 100 intrusive burials into the final layer of the mound, with many grave goods such as Mississippian copper plates, monolithic stone axes, ceremonial pottery and carved whelk shell gorgets. Interred in this mound was a paired set of white marble Mississippian stone statues. A long-standing interpretation of Mississippian mounds comes from Vernon James Knight, who stated that the Mississippian platform mounds were one of the three "sacra", or objects of sacred display, of the Mississippian religion - see Earth/fertility cult and Southeastern Ceremonial Complex.
His logic is based on analogy to ethnographic and historic data on related Native American tribal groups in the Southeastern United States. Knight suggests a microcosmic ritual organization based around a "native earth" autochthony, agriculture and purification scheme, in which mounds and the site layout replicate cosmology. Mound rebuilding episodes are construed as rituals of burial and renewal, while the four-sided construction acts to replicate the flat earth and the four quarters of the earth; the use of platform mounds is documented elsewhere in the world, including: in Mesoamerica, the Olmec and other groups - see Mesoamerican pyramids the Norte Chico the Hohokam in periods of Ancient China - see Chinese pyramids Artificial dwelling hill Rice, Glenn. "Platform mounds in the Arizona Desert". Expedition. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 35. Pursell, Corin. Geographic distribution and symbolism of colored mound architecture in the Mississippian Southeast. Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
Payne, Claudine. Mississippian capitals: an archaeological investigation of Precolumbian political structure. University of Florida. John H. Blitz. "Sociopolitical implications of Mississippian mound volume". American Antiquity. Steven Porth. Raised ground, Razed structure:Ceramic chronology and chiefly authority on Mound P at Moundville. Pp. 11–12. Kitt Chappell. Cahokia: Mirror of the Cosmos. Pp. 51–65. ISBN 978-0-226-10136-1
The Apalachee are a Native American people who lived in the Florida Panhandle. They lived between the Aucilla River and Ochlockonee River, at the head of Apalachee Bay, an area known to Europeans as the Apalachee Province, they spoke a Muskogean language called Apalachee, now extinct. The Apalachee occupied the site of Velda Mound starting about 1450 CE, but had abandoned it when Spanish started settlements in the 17th century, they first encountered Spanish explorers in 1528. Traditional tribal enemies, European diseases, European encroachment reduced their population; the survivors dispersed, over time many Apalachee integrated with other groups the Creek Confederacy, while others relocated to other Spanish territories, some remained in what is now Louisiana. About 300 descendants in Rapides and Natchitoches parishes assert an Apalachee identity today; the Apalachee spoke a Muskogean language which became extinct. It was documented by Spanish settlers in letters written during the Spanish Colonial period.
Around 1100 indigenous peoples began to cultivate crops. Agriculture was important in the area, it was part of the Fort Walton Culture, a Florida culture influenced by the Mississippian culture. With agriculture, the people could grow surplus crops, which enabled them to settle in larger groups, increase their trading for raw materials and finished goods, specialize in production of artisan goods. At the time of Hernando de Soto's visit in 1539–1540, the Apalachee capital was Anhaica; the Apalachee lived on individual farmsteads of.5 acres or so. Smaller settlements might have a few houses. Larger towns were chiefdoms, they were organized around earthwork mounds built over decades for ceremonial and burial purposes. Villages and towns were situated by lakes, as the natives hunted fish and used the water for domestic needs and transport; the largest Apalachee community was at Lake Jackson, just north of present-day Tallahassee. This regional center had 200 or more houses; some of the surviving mounds are protected in Lake Jackson Mounds Archaeological State Park, The Apalachee grew numerous varieties of corn and sunflowers.
They gathered wild strawberries, the roots and shoots of the greenbrier vine, greens such as lambsquarters, the roots of one or more unidentified aquatic plants used to make flour, hickory nuts, saw palmetto berries and persimmons. They caught fish and turtles in the lakes and rivers, oysters and fish on the Gulf Coast, they hunted deer, black bears and ducks. The Apalachee were part of an expansive trade network that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Great Lakes, westward to what is now Oklahoma; the Apalachee acquired copper artifacts, sheets of mica and galena from distant locations through this trade. The Apalachee paid for such imports with shells, shark teeth, preserved fish and sea turtle meat and cassina leaves and twigs; the Apalachee made tools from stone and shell. They made pottery, wove cured buckskin, they built the bark of cypress or poplar trees. They stored food in pits in the ground lined with matting, smoked or dried food on racks over fires; the Apalachee men wore a deerskin loincloth.
The women wore a skirt made of other plant fibers. The men painted their bodies with red ochre and placed feathers in their hair when they prepared for battle; the men smoked tobacco including ones for healing. The Apalachee scalped opponents. Taking a scalp was a means of entering the warrior class, was celebrated with a scalp dance; the warriors wore headdresses made of animal fur. The village or clan of a slain warrior was expected to avenge his death; the Apalachee played a ball game, sometimes known as the "Apalachee ball game", described in detail by Spaniards in the 17th century. The fullest description, was written as part of a campaign by Father Juan de Paiva, priest at the mission of San Luis de Talimali, to have the game banned, some of the practices described may have been exaggerated; the game was embedded in ritual practices. He was concerned about the effect of community involvement in the games on the welfare of the villages and Spanish missions. In particular, he worried about towns being left defenseless against raiders when inhabitants left for a game, that field work was being neglected during game season.
Other missionaries had complained about the game. At least, they defended it as a custom that should not be disturbed, that helped keep the Apalachee happy and willing to work in the fields; the Apalachee themselves said that the game was "as ancient as memory", that they had "no other entertainment... or relief from... misery". No indigenous name for the game has been preserved; the Spanish referred to it as el juego de la pelota, "the ballgame." The game involved kicking a hard ball against a single goalpost. The same game was played by the western Timucua, was as significant among them as it was among the Apalachee. A related but d