New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Maurice A. Deane School of Law
The Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University is a law school located in Hempstead, New York on Long Island, affiliated with Hofstra University. Founded in 1970 and accredited by the ABA in 1971, the school offers a JD, a joint JD/MBA degree, LL. M degrees in American Law and Family law; the Law School is on the southern portion of the 244-acre Hofstra University campus, in Hempstead, New York. The school was renamed to the Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University in September 2011. Hofstra Law offers concentration in eight areas of study: Alternative Dispute Resolution, Business Law, Corporate Compliance, Criminal Law and Procedure, Family Law, Health Law, Intellectual Property Law, International Law. In the 2020 U. S. News Rankings for law schools, Hofstra Law ranked 100th nationally; the school was named one of the country's best public interest law schools by preLaw magazine, a national publication aimed at prospective law students. Among the 75 law schools that made the list, Hofstra ranked 11th.
Hofstra Law was ranked the No. 54 school in the country in placing partners in U. S. offices of the 100 largest national law firms in a 2011 study by Theodore P. Seto. According to a 2016 study, by Law School Transparency, Hofstra ranked 35th nationally for employment outcomes and 6th in New York State. Hofstra Law is housed in the original building opened in the 1970s upon the school's inception, although it has undergone several extensive renovations since that time; the lower floors of Kushner Hall are home to the law school's two level Barbara and Maurice A. Deane Law Library; the law building contains both an appellate Moot Courtroom and trial moot courtroom. Access to wireless internet can be found throughout the campus. In the early 1990s, the school added a new building, Joan Axinn Hall, to house its growing clinical programs and the Office of Career Services, it expanded into neighboring Roosevelt Hall in 2006, with new space for its five student-run journals and other student organizations.
In total, the law school operates out of 4 buildings: Koppleman Hall, Kushner Hall, Joan Axinn Hall, Roosevelt Hall. As of 2019, Hofstra Law has 40 full-time faculty members; the faculty includes Nora Demleitner, Alafair Burke, Monroe Freedman, Robert A. Baruch Bush, Eric Lane. According to Hofstra Law's 2018 ABA-required disclosures, 75.95% of the Class of 2017 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. Hofstra's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 10.5%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2017 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time positionFor the July 2018 New York bar exam, 62% of Hofstra Law graduates who were first-time exam takers passed the bar, vs. an 83% average for graduates of New York ABA-accredited schools. Hofstra Law Review Hofstra Labor & Employment Law Journal Hofstra Journal of International Business and Law Family Court Review American College of Trust and Estate Counsel Annual tuition at Hofstra Law for the 2018-2019 academic year is $59,214.
The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $329,392. Matt Ahearn, served in the New Jersey General Assembly from 2002 to 2004 Joseph Borg, the Securities Commissioner of Alabama since 1994 Ann-Margaret Carrozza, the New York State Assembly from 1997 to 2010 Joe Ferriero, the Bergen County Democratic Organization Chairman from 1998 to 2009 Edward P. Mangano, Nassau County Executive since 2010 Jonathan Kaiman, Supervisor of the Town of North Hempstead since 2004 Neil Levin, Executive Director of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, killed during the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center Thomas McKevitt, member of the New York State Assembly since 2006 David Paterson, former Governor of New York, former Lieutenant Governor and minority leader of the New York State Senate Richard Socarides, former White House adviser under President Bill Clinton from 1993 to 1999 Thomas C. Wales, assassinated federal prosecutor David Weprin, member of the New York State Assembly since 2010.
Former member of New York City Council, former Deputy Superintendent of the New York State Banking Commission, former Chairman of New York's Securities Industry Association Maryanne Trump Barry, a judge on the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, sister of 45th U. S. President Donald Trump John J. Farley III, former judge of the United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims Sallie Manzanet-Daniels, Associate Justice of the New York Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, First Judicial Department Norm Kent, chairman of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws NORML Charles Kushner, billionaire real estate developer, father of Jared Kushner Katherine Lapp, executive vice president and chief administrative officer of Harvard University Randy Levine, president of the New York Yankees since January 2000 Linda Cahn and president of Pharmacy Benefit Consultants Mary Matalin, political consultant for the Republican Party, advisor to former President George W. Bush Bobby Muller, peace advocate Burton Rocks, sports agent Joel Segal, sports agent David D'Amato, subject of the documentary, Tickled Law of New York Hofstra University Official website
Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world, it is ranked first in the world by the ARWU Shanghai Ranking. Each class in the three-year J. D. program has 560 students, among the largest of the top 150 ranked law schools in the United States. The first-year class is broken into seven sections of 80 students, who take most first-year classes together. Harvard's uniquely large class size and prestige have led the law school to graduate a great many distinguished alumni in the judiciary and the business world. According to Harvard Law's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 95% of the Class of 2014 passed the Bar exam. Harvard Law School graduates have accounted for 568 judicial clerkships in the past three years, including one-quarter of all Supreme Court clerkships, more than any other law school in the United States.
Harvard Law School's founding is traditionally linked to the funding of Harvard's first professorship in law, paid for from a bequest from the estate of Isaac Royall, Jr. a colonial American landowner and a slaveholder. Today, it is home to the largest academic law library in the world; the current dean of Harvard Law School is John F. Manning, who assumed the role on July 1, 2017; the law school has 328 faculty members. Harvard Law School's founding is traced to the establishment of a "law department" at Harvard in 1817. Dating the founding to the year of the creation of the law department makes Harvard Law the oldest continuously-operating law school in the nation. William & Mary Law School opened first in 1779, but closed due to the American Civil War, reopening in 1920; the University of Maryland School of Law was chartered in 1816, but did not begin classes until 1824, closed during the Civil War. The founding of the law department came two years after the establishment of Harvard's first endowed professorship in law, funded by a bequest from the estate of wealthy slaveowner Isaac Royall, Jr. in 1817.
Royall left 1,000 acres of land in Massachusetts to Harvard when he died in exile in Nova Scotia, where he fled as a British loyalist during the American Revolution, in 1781, "to be appropriated towards the endowing a Professor of Laws... or a Professor of Physick and Anatomy, whichever the said overseers and Corporation shall judge to be best." The value of the land, when liquidated in 1809, was $2,938. The Royalls were so involved in the slave trade, that "the labor of slaves underwrote the teaching of law in Cambridge." The dean of the law school traditionally held the Royall chair, deans Elena Kagan and Martha Minow declined the Royall chair due to its origins in the proceeds of slavery. Royall’s legacy at Harvard is lasting, Harvard Law School adopted the Royall family crest as apart of its school crest; that crest features with three bushels of wheat. Until the connection of the seal to the slave owning Royalls was unknown to many. According to The Harvard Crimson "Most Law School alumni and faculty were unaware of the story behind the seal."
In response to its ties to slavery, Harvard Law School decided to stop using the Royalls seal. It has yet to design a replacement seal. Royall's Medford estate, the Isaac Royall House, is now a museum which features the only remaining slave quarters in the northeast United States; the Royall family coat-of-arms, which shows three stacked wheat sheaves, was adopted as the school crest in 1936, topped with the university motto. In March 2016, following requests by students, the school decided to remove the emblem because of its association with slavery. By 1827, the school, with one faculty member, was struggling. Nathan Dane, a prominent alumnus of the college endowed the Dane Professorship of Law, insisting that it be given to Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. For a while, the school was called "Dane Law School." In 1829, John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, accepted a professorship and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his students following him to Harvard.
Story's belief in the need for an elite law school based on merit and dedicated to public service helped build the school's reputation at the time, although the contours of these beliefs have not been consistent throughout its history. Enrollment remained low through the 19th century as university legal education was considered to be of little added benefit to apprenticeships in legal practice. After first trying lowered admissions standards, in 1848 HLS eliminated admissions requirements entirely. In 1869, HLS eliminated examination requirements. In the 1870s, under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell, HLS introduced what has become the standard first-year curriculum for American law schools – including classes in contracts, torts, criminal law, civil procedure. At Harvard, Langdell developed the case method of teaching law, now the dominant pedagogical model at U. S. law schools. Langdell's notion that law could be studied as a "science" gave university legal education a reason for being distinct from vocational preparation.
Critics at first defended the old lecture method because it was faster and cheaper and made fewer demands on faculty and students. Advocates said the case method had a sounder theoretical basis in scientific research and the inductive method. Langdell's graduates became leading professors at other law schools where they introduced the case method; the metho
Yale Law School
Yale Law School is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, United States. Established in 1824, Yale Law offers the J. D. LL. M. J. S. D. M. S. L. and Ph. D. degrees in law. The school's small size and prestige make its admissions process the most selective of any law school in the United States, with an acceptance rate of 6.7% in the 2017-18 cycle. Its yield rate of 85% is the highest of any law school in the United States. Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and World Report every year since the magazine began publishing law school rankings. Considered to be the preeminent law school in the nation, it is one of the most prestigious law schools in the world. Yale Law has produced a significant number of luminaries in law and politics, including United States presidents Gerald Ford, Bill Clinton and former U. S. secretary of state and presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton. Former president William Howard Taft was a professor of constitutional law at Yale Law School from 1913 until he resigned to become chief justice of the United States in 1921.
Alumni include current United States Supreme Court associate justices Clarence Thomas, Samuel Alito, Sonia Sotomayor and Brett Kavanaugh, as well as a number of former justices, including Abe Fortas, Potter Stewart and Byron White. S. senators. Each class in Yale Law's three-year J. D. program enrolls 200 students. Yale's flagship law review is the Yale Law Journal, one of the most cited legal publications in the nation. According to Yale Law School's 2014 ABA-required disclosures, 88.3% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required or JD-advantage employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo practitioners. The institution is known for its scholarly orientation. Another feature of Yale Law's culture since the 1930s, among both faculty and student graduates, has been an emphasis on the importance of spending at least a few years in government service. A similar emphasis has long been placed on service as a judicial law clerk upon graduation, its 7.6:1 student-to-faculty ratio is the third lowest among U.
S. law schools. Yale Law does not have a traditional grading system, a consequence of student unrest in the late 1960s. Instead, it grades first-semester first-year students on a simple Credit/No Credit system. For their remaining two-and-a-half years, students are graded on an Honors/Pass/Low Pass/Fail system; the school does not rank its students. It is notable for having only a single semester of required classes, instead of the full year most U. S. schools require. Unusually, as a result of unique Connecticut State court rules, Yale Law allows first-year students to represent clients through one of its numerous clinics. Students publish nine law journals that, unlike those at most other schools accept student editors without a competition; the only exception is YLS's flagship journal, the Yale Law Journal, which holds a two-part admissions competition each spring, consisting of a four or five-hour "bluebooking exam," followed by a traditional writing competition. Although the Journal identifies a target maximum number of members to accept each year, it is not a firm number.
Other leading student-edited publications include the Yale Journal on Regulation, the Yale Law and Policy Review, the Yale Journal of International Law. In November 2013, it was announced that a $25 million donation would bring student dormitory living back onto campus, with renovations to begin in 2018. Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and World Report in every year in which the magazine has published law school rankings. Among U. S. law schools, Yale has the lowest acceptance rate and the highest yield rate—whereas less than 10% of applicants are admitted, about 80% of those who are accepted enroll, either in the Fall following their acceptance or after a deferral. It is ranked as the second best law school in U. S and fourth in the world by the 2016 QS Rankings; the school saw a greater percentage of its students go on to become Supreme Court clerks between the 2000 and 2010 terms than any other law school, more than double the percentage of the second-highest law school.
In addition to producing the most Supreme Court clerks per capita, Yale saw a greater percentage of its graduates accept federal clerkships among the United States Courts of Appeal and District Courts than any other law school. Additionally, a 2010 survey of "scholarly impact," measured by per capita citations to faculty scholarship, found Yale's faculty to be the most cited law school faculty in the United States; the School began in the New Haven law office of Seth P. Staples in the 1800s, who began training lawyers. By 1810 he was operating a law school, he took on a former student, Samuel J. Hitchcock as a law partner, Hitchcock became the proprietor of the New Haven Law School, joined by David Daggett in 1824. (The Y
A law school is an institution specializing in legal education involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction. To practice in Australia, one needs to graduate with a Bachelor of Laws, Juris Doctor, or Diploma-in-Law issued by the Legal Profession Admission Board, followed by an internship for 12 months or an extra course in practical legal training depending on the jurisdiction and university, be admitted as a lawyer of one of a state's Supreme Court. In Brazil the legal education begins between 1827/28 in Olinda/PE and São Paulo/SP where the first Schools of Law were established by the new Empire using as educational model the Coimbra Faculty of Law. Nowadays the legal education consists in a 5-year-long course in which, the scholar is granted a bachelor's degree. Therefore, it is considered part of the higher education, hence the educational system is regulated as: i) basic education - primary and high school; the practice of law is conditioned upon admission to the bar of a particular state or other territorial jurisdiction.
Public attorneys, public prossecutors and magistrates admission is made through an entrance examination and a constitutional mandatory three years of legal experience. Starting from the second degree courts it is mandatory a 1/5 of its composition to be fulfilled with members of the lawyers/attorneys/barristers association and from federal/state/labour processcutors regarding the court jurisdiction. After achieving the bachelor's degree of laws it is possible to follow an i) specialization or follow ii) academically, in either case it is called postgraduation: i) lato sensu; the postgraduation, stricto sensu, consists in a: a) master's degree, a two-year degree. The oldest civil law faculty in Canada offering law degrees was established in 1848 at McGill University in Montreal, the oldest common law faculty in Canada offering law degrees was established in 1883 at Dalhousie University in Halifax; the typical law degree required to practice law in Canada is now the Juris Doctor, which requires previous university coursework and is similar to the first law degree in the United States.
There is some scholarly content in the coursework. The programs consist of three years, have similar content in their mandatory first year courses. Beyond first year and the minimum requirements for graduation, course selection is elective with various concentrations such as business law, international law, natural resources law, criminal law, Aboriginal law, etc; some schools, have not switched from LL. B. to the J. D. – one notable university that still awards the LL. B is McGill University. Given that the Canadian legal system includes both the French civil law and the Anglo-American common law, some law schools offer both an LL. B. or J. D. and a B. C. L. LL. L. or LL. B. degree, such as McGill University, University of Ottawa and the Université de Montréal. In particular, McGill University Faculty of Law offers a combined civil law and common law program, called "transsystemic." At other faculties, if a person completes a common law degree a civil law degree can be obtained with only an extra year of study.
This is true for civil law graduates who wish to complete a common law degree. Despite changes in designation, schools opting for the J. D. have not altered their curricula. Neither the J. D. or LL. B. alone is sufficient to qualify for a Canadian license, as each Province's law society requires an apprenticeship and successful completion of provincial skills and responsibilities training course, such as the British Columbia Law Society's Professional Legal Training Course, the Law Society of Upper Canada's Skills and Responsibilities Training Program. And the École du Barreau du Québec; the main reason for implementing the J. D. in Canada was to distinguish the degree from the European counterpart that requires no previous post-secondary education, However, in the eyes of the Canadian educational system, the J. D. awarded by Canadian universities has retained the characteristics of the LL. B. and is considered a second entry program, but not a graduate program. Disagreement persists regarding the status of the degrees, such as at the University of Toronto, where the J.
D. degree designation has been marketed by the Faculty of Law as superior to the LL. B. degree designation. Some universities have developed joint Canadian LL. B or J. D. and American J. D programs, such as York University and New York University, the University of Windsor and the University of Detroit Mercy, the University of Ottawa and Michigan State University program. Law school is entered to at the undergraduate level in a university. There is an intermediate bachelor's degree. Once university education is complete, the title of varatuomari is obtained with an one-year externship in a district court; this is the basic qualification to practice law. With further experience, the candidate may be admitted to the Finnish Bar Association and licensed with the protected title asianajaja, similar to barrister. In France, th
Paterson, New Jersey
Paterson is the largest city in and the county seat of Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 146,199, making it New Jersey's third-most-populous city. Paterson has the second-highest density of any U. S. city with over 100,000 people, behind only New York City. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 148,678, an increase of 1.7% from the 2010 enumeration, making the city the 174th-most-populous in the nation. Paterson is known as the "Silk City" for its dominant role in silk production during the latter half of the 19th century, it has since evolved into a major destination for Hispanic immigrants as well as for immigrants from India, South Asia, the Arab and Muslim world. Paterson has the second-largest Muslim population in the United States by percentage; the area of Paterson was inhabited by the Algonquian-speaking Native American Acquackanonk tribe of the Lenape known as the Delaware Indians.
The land was known as the Lenapehoking. The Dutch claimed the land as New Netherlands the British as the Province of New Jersey. In 1791 Alexander Hamilton, first United States Secretary of the Treasury, helped found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures, which helped encourage the harnessing of energy from the Great Falls of the Passaic River to secure economic independence from British manufacturers; the society founded Paterson. Paterson was named for William Paterson, signer of the Constitution and Governor of New Jersey, who signed the 1792 charter that established the Town of Paterson. Architect and city planner Pierre Charles L'Enfant, who had earlier developed the initial plans for Washington, D. C. was the first planner for the S. U. M. Project, his plan proposed to harness the power of the Great Falls through a channel in the rock and an aqueduct. The society's directors felt he was taking too long and was over budget, he was replaced by Peter Colt, who used a less complicated reservoir system to get the water flowing to factories in 1794.
Colt's system developed some problems and a scheme resembling L'Enfant's original plan was used after 1846. Paterson was formed as a township from portions of Acquackanonk Township on April 11, 1831, while the area was still part of Essex County, it became part of newly created Passaic County on February 7, 1837, was incorporated as a city on April 14, 1851, based on the results of a referendum held that day. The city was reincorporated on March 14, 1861; the industries developed in Paterson were powered by the 77-foot-high Great Falls and a system of water raceways that harnessed the falls' power, providing power for the mills in the area until 1914 and fostering the growth of the city around them. The district included dozens of mill buildings and other manufacturing structures associated with the textile industry and the firearms and railroad locomotive manufacturing industries. In the latter half of the 19th century silk production became the dominant industry and formed the basis of Paterson's most prosperous period, earning it the nickname "Silk City."In 1835 Samuel Colt began producing firearms in Paterson, but within a few years he moved his business to Hartford, Connecticut.
In the 19th century Paterson was the site of early experiments with submarines by Irish-American inventor John Philip Holland. Two of Holland's early models—one found at the bottom of the Passaic River—are on display in the Paterson Museum, housed in the former Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works near the Passaic Falls. Behind Newark and New York, the brewing industry was booming in Paterson in the late 1800s. Braun Brewery, Sprattler & Mennell, Graham Brewery, The Katz Brothers, Burton Brewery merged in 1890 to form Paterson Consolidated Brewing Company. Hinchliffe Brewing and Malting Company, founded in 1861, produced 75,000 barrels a year from its state-of-the-art facility at 63 Governor Street. All the breweries closed after Prohibition; the city was a mecca for immigrant laborers, who worked in its factories Italian weavers from the Naples region. Paterson was the site of historic labor unrest that focused on anti-child labor legislation, the six-month-long Paterson silk strike of 1913 that demanded the eight-hour day and better working conditions.
It was defeated with workers forced to return under pre-strike conditions. Factory workers labored long hours for low wages under dangerous conditions and lived in crowded tenement buildings around the mills; the factories moved to the South, where there were no labor unions, still moved overseas. In 1919 Paterson was one of eight locations bombed by self-identified anarchists. In 1932 Paterson opened Hinchliffe Stadium, a 10,000-seat stadium named in honor of John V. Hinchliffe, the city's mayor at the time. Hinchliffe Stadium served as the site for high school and professional athletic events. From 1933 to 1937 and 1939 to 1945, it was the home of the New York Black Yankees, from 1935 to 1936 the home of the New York Cubans of the Negro National League; the ballpark was a venue for professional football games and field events, boxing matches, auto and motorcycle racing. The comedy team of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello performed at Hinchliffe. Hinchliffe is one of only three Negro League stadiums left standing in the United States and is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Paterson Public Schools acquired the stadium in 1963 and used it for public school events until 1997, but it is now in di
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art