Ronald McDonald House Charities
Ronald McDonald House Charities is an American independent nonprofit organization whose stated mission is to create and support programs that directly improve the health and well-being of children. Gerald Newman, Chief Accounting Officer for McDonald's Corporation, was one of the founders of Ronald McDonald Children's Charities and was president of RMHC. RMHC has a global network of chapters in 64 countries and regions under three core programs: Ronald McDonald House, Ronald McDonald Family Room and Ronald McDonald Care Mobile. There are 368 Ronald McDonald Houses in 64 countries and regions; these provide a place to stay for families with hospitalized children under 21 years of age, who are being treated at nearby hospitals and medical facilities. Ronald McDonald's Houses provide over 7,200 bedrooms to families around the world each night, with an estimated value of $700 million in lieu of hotel costs. There are 214 Ronald McDonald's Family Rooms in 24 countries and regions; these rooms accommodate over 3,000 families each day who live in the community and don't need or do not meet the prescribed criteria to stay at a Ronald McDonald House.
They provide a safe place for family members to rest, wash clothes, take a shower, or nap near the vicinity of their child. There are 50 Ronald McDonald's Care Mobiles in nine countries and regions; these mobile clinics offer health care for children in their own neighborhoods at no cost to the families. The program serves more than 100,000 children a year, saves families in the U. S. $10 million in medical and dental costs each year. The Ronald McDonald's Learning Program was formed in 1997 to help children who had suffered minor illness and returned to school, its stated mission is to provide "educational support" to these children who have fallen behind in their education. It is the only program of its kind in Australia; the program now works with over 1000 students each week. It was first piloted in 1997 by Tracey Webster; the Ronald McDonald's Learning Program supplies students with a cognitive and educational assessment by an educational psychologist, 40 hours of individual tutoring by a qualified teacher and 10 sessions of speech or occupational therapy, if required.
The first Ronald McDonald House was opened in Philadelphia in 1974. In 1981, the first Ronald McDonald's House outside the United States opened, in Ontario. In 1991, the 150th Ronald McDonald's House opened, in Paris, France On July 25, 2005, the 250th opened, in Caracas, Venezuela; the first in-hospital Ronald McDonald House in APMEA opened at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Thailand, on June 7, 2011. There are 366 Ronald McDonald's Houses in 43 countries; the first Ronald McDonald House in Australia was opened in Camperdown, New South Wales in 1981. The number of Houses has since grown to 15; the program has since helped 100,000 houses up to 260 families per night. Each House is attached to women's hospital; each House has an independent board. Other RMHC Australia activities include Family Rooms in 14 hospitals, they are located at Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT. RMHC Australia operates Family Retreats that enable families of sick children to take a holiday for a week; the retreats are located in Victoria.
The Ronald McDonald Learning Program assists ill children to catch up with missed education while staying in hospital. It provides assessment and tuition to children and training for teachers, it assists over 500 children a week. The Charlie Bell Scholarship Program is named after the first Australian Global McDonald's Corporation CEO; the program provides financial assistance in the form of 11 one-off scholarships a year. It assists with expenses related to vocational or tertiary education for children who have been ill; the Ronald McDonald Care Mobile is a partnership between Royal Far West. It is based in Orange in regional New South Wales and travels throughout rural and remote New South Wales. Ronald McDonald House Charity Australia is the major private donor to cord blood banks in Australia, providing a 10-year $A1 million commitment; the first Ronald McDonald house was opened in 1996 in Hong Kong. On May 21, 2016 Ronald McDonald Barnefond, along with Stine Sofies Stiftelse, opened the world's first camp and learning center for children.
Stine Sofie Stiftelse first joined forces with Ronald McDonald Barnefond in 2015. The initial purpose was to fix houses where children of abuse and their families could stay for a day free of charge. Through the RMHC Pop Tab Collection Program, to date more than $4 million has been generated; the program was established to allow individuals and businesses to collect soda pop tabs from aluminum cans and donate them to their local RMHC chapter or Ronald McDonald's House. Though it differs from program to program, for
History of the Philadelphia Eagles
The history of the Philadelphia Eagles begins in 1933. In their history, the Eagles have appeared in the Super Bowl three times, losing in their first two appearances but winning the third, in 2018, they won the precursor to the Super Bowl, in four appearances. The beginning era of the Eagles history, 1933 to 1939, was influenced by its owner, also coach, Bert Bell. After Bell ostensibly sold the team, to Alexis Thompson in 1940, the second era of the Eagles history was directed by their coach and future Hall of Famer, Greasy Neale. In 1931, Philadelphia's NFL franchise, the Frankford Yellow Jackets, who had won the NFL Championship in 1926, went bankrupt and ceased operations midway through the season. After more than a year searching for a suitable replacement, the NFL granted an expansion franchise to a syndicate headed by former University of Pennsylvania teammates Lud Wray and Bert Bell. In exchange for an entry fee of $2,500, the Bell-Wray group was awarded the assets of the failed Yellow Jackets organization.
Drawing inspiration from the insignia of the centerpiece of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal the National Recovery Act's "blue eagle," Bell and Wray named the new franchise the Philadelphia Eagles, with Bell as president and general manager and Wray as head coach. Neither the Eagles nor the NFL regard the two franchises as the same, citing the aforementioned period of dormancy; the Eagles inherited the NFL rights to the Philadelphia area. Further and Bell assembled an entirely new team; the new team played its first game on October 15, 1933, against the New York Giants at the Polo Grounds in New York City. They lost the game 56-0; the Eagles struggled over the course of their first decade. Their best finish was in 1934, when they finished tied for third in the East. For the most part, the Eagles' early rosters were composed of former Penn and Villanova players who put in a few years before going on to other things. In 1935, Bell proposed an annual college draft to equalize talent across the league.
The draft was a revolutionary concept in professional sports. Having teams select players in inverse order of their finish in the standings, a practice still followed today, strove to increase fan interest by guaranteeing that the worst teams would have the opportunity for annual infusions of the best college talent. Between 1927 and 1934, a triopoly of three teams had won all but one title since 1927. Having finished last in the standings, the Eagles had the first pick in the 1936 draft, an opportunity they used to select University of Chicago's Heisman Trophy-winning back, Jay Berwanger, they traded his rights to the Chicago Bears. Berwanger, who had no interest in playing professional football, elected to go to medical school instead; the Eagles' first major recruiting success would come in 1939, with the signing of Texas Christian's All-America quarterback, Davey O'Brien. That year, the Eagles participated in the first televised football game, against the football Brooklyn Dodgers, at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn.
The 1940s would prove a tumultuous and triumphant decade for the young club. In 1940, the team moved from Philadelphia Municipal Stadium to Shibe Park. Lud Wray's half-interest in the team was purchased by Art Rooney, who had just sold the Pittsburgh Steelers to Alexis Thompson. Soon thereafter, Bell/Rooney and Thompson swapped franchises, but not teams. Bell/Rooney's entire Eagles' corporate organization, including most of the players, moved to Pittsburgh and Thompson's Steelers moved to Philadelphia, leaving only the team nicknames in their original cities. Since NFL franchises are territorial rights distinct from individual corporate entities, the NFL does not consider this a franchise move and considers the current Philadelphia Eagles as a single unbroken entity from 1933. After assuming ownership, Thompson promptly hired Greasy Neale as the team's head coach. In its first years under Neale, the team continued to struggle. In 1943, when manpower shortages stemming from World War II made it impossible to fill the roster, the team temporarily merged with the Steelers to form a team popularly known as the "Steagles."
The merger, never intended as a permanent arrangement, was dissolved at the end of the 1943 season. This season saw the team's first winning season in its 11-year history, with a finish of 5-4-1. In 1944, the Eagles experienced good fortune, as they made their finest draft pick to date: running back Steve Van Buren. At last, the team's fortunes were about to change. Led by Van Buren and Neale, the Eagles became a serious competitor for the first time, they had their first winning season as a separate team in 1944. After two more second-place finishes, the Eagles reached the NFL title game for the first time in 1947. Van Buren, end Pete Pihos, Bosh Pritchard fought valiantly, but the young team fell to the Chicago Cardinals 28-21 at Chicago's Comiskey Park. Undeterred, the young squad rebounded and returned to face the Cardinals once more in the 1948 championship. With home-field advantage on their side, the Eagles won their first NFL Championship 7-0. Due to the severity of the weather
The Shamrock Shake is a seasonal green mint flavored milkshake dessert sold at select McDonald's during March to celebrate St. Patrick's Day in the US, Canada and Ireland; the Shamrock Shake was first introduced in 1970. Rogers Merchandising in Chicago created the shake; the shake was lemon/lime flavored with vanilla ice cream, lemon/lime sherbet, vanilla syrup. By 1973, the shake was a green colored vanilla shake, eliminating the lemon/lime sherbet, it is now mint flavored. Shamrock Shakes are sold at select U. S. and Canadian stores during the months of March, as well as in Ireland. During the 1980s, McDonald’s used the Uncle O'Grimacey character to market Shamrock Shakes, a green version of Grimace who came to visit in March. McDonald's has since phased out that character from their mascot lineup. In 1980, McDonald's introduced the Shamrock Sundae which consisted of vanilla ice cream topped with a mint green Shamrock syrup; the product was discontinued after one year due to poor sales. In 2017 McDonald's introduced a few variants of the Shamrock Shake including the Shamrock Chocolate Shake, the Shamrock Chocolate Chip Frappé, the Shamrock Mocha, the Shamrock Hot Chocolate.
In The Simpsons episode "Stop or My Dog Will Shoot", Chief Wiggum and Lou debate whether the Shamrock Shake is just a vanilla shake dyed green, or if it is mint-flavored. Lou insists. In a Family Guy episode where Stewie abducts the entire cast of Star Trek: The Next Generation, he takes them to McDonald's. Jonathan Frakes requests a Shamrock Shake, to which Stewie reacts that they have been discontinued as it is September. In This Is Us season 2 episode 9, Toby makes a healthy shake. In the American Dad! Episode "The Life and Times of Stan Smith", Stan discovers that in heaven, Shamrock shakes are available every third Friday of December. McCafé Shamrock Shake official nutrition page
Sands Hotel and Casino
The Sands Hotel and Casino was a historic hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Nevada, United States, that operated from 1952 to 1996. Designed by the architect Wayne McAllister, with a prominent 56-foot high sign, the Sands was the seventh resort to open on the Strip. During its heyday, the Sands was the center of entertainment and "cool" on the Strip, hosted many famous entertainers of the day, most notably the Rat Pack and Jerry Lewis; the hotel was established in 1952 by Texan oil tycoon Jake Freedman, who bought up the LaRue Restaurant, which had opened two years earlier. The hotel was opened on December 15, 1952 as a casino with 200 rooms, was established less than three months after the opening of another notable landmark, Sahara Hotel and Casino; the hotel rooms were divided into four two-story motel wings, each with fifty rooms, named after famous race tracks. The opening was publicized, every guest was given a Chamois bag with silver dollars. Crime bosses such as Meyer Lansky and Frank Costello acquired shares in the hotel and attracted Frank Sinatra, who made his performing debut at Sands in October 1953.
Sinatra bought a share in the hotel himself. Sinatra and Sammy Davis, Jr. were instrumental throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s in bringing a change in racial policy in Sands, after an incident in 1961, it began employing blacks. In 1960 the classic caper film Ocean's 11 was shot at the hotel, it subsequently attained iconic status, with regular performances by Sinatra, Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis, Sammy Davis Jr. Red Skelton and others, who performed in the hotel's world-renowned Copa Room. Much of the musical success of the Copa Room is credited to the room's band leader and musical conductor Antonio Morelli, whose house orchestra performed in the recording of hundreds of albums over the years. In the mid 1960s, Sands and its adjacent properties were bought by the reclusive businessman Howard Hughes, who built a 500-room tower and modernized the hotel. After the 1970s it fell into decline until its final owner, Sheldon Adelson, made the decision to shut it down and to build a brand new resort.
The last dice in the casino was rolled by Bob Stupak just after 6pm on June 30, 1996. On November 26 of that year, it was imploded and demolished, much to the dismay of longtime employees and sentimentalists. Today, The Venetian stands; the LaRue Restaurant was established in December 1950 by Billy Wilkerson. The following year, oil tycoon Jake Freedman of Houston, Texas bought LaRue for $15,000. Freedman's idea was to build the best hotel and casino in Las Vegas to cater to the glamorous Hollywood film stars and executives in a $600,000 project. Numerous sources state that organized crime figures Meyer Lansky, Frank Costello and Joseph "Doc" Stracher and illegal bookmakers like Mike Shapiro, Ed Levinson, Sid Wyman were involved in the financing of Sands and had shares in it. Lansky and his mob assumed ownership of the Flamingo Hotel after the murder of Bugsy Siegel in 1947, Lansky and Costello had business interests in the Thunderbird Hotel and El Cortez Club in Downtown Las Vegas. Construction began on Sands Hotel in early 1952, built to a design by Wayne McAllister.
Freedman had intended naming the hotel "Holiday Inn" after the film of the same name starring Bing Crosby, but after noticing that his socks became so full of sand decided to name it Sands. The tag line would be "A Place in the Sun", named after a released film starring Montgomery Clift and Elizabeth Taylor, quite suitable to the hot desert location of Las Vegas; the hotel was opened on December 15, 1952 as a casino with 200 rooms, was established less than three months after the opening of another prominent landmark, Sahara Hotel and Casino. The opening was publicized, the hotel was visited by some 12,000 people within a few hours. At the inauguration were 146 journalists and special guests such as Arlene Dahl, Fernando Lamas, Esther Williams, Terry Moore; every guest was given a Chamois bag with silver dollars, Sands ended up losing $200,000 within the first eight hours. Danny Thomas, Jimmy McHugh and the Copa Girls, labelled "the most beautiful girls in the world", performed in the Copa Room on opening night, Ray Sinatra and his Orchestra were the initial house band.
Thomas was hired to perform for the first two weeks, but strained his voice on the second night and developed laryngitis, was replaced with performers such as Jimmy Durante, Frankie Laine, Jane Powell, the Ritz Brothers, Ray Anthony. Jack Entratter, in charge of the New York nightclub, the Copacabana, became the hotel's manager. Entratter made many show business friends during his time at the nightclub. Entratter was able to offer entertainers an additional incentive to perform at the Sands. Headlining stars a percentage of ownership in the hotel and casino. Entratter's selected "Copa Girls" wore $12,000 worth of costumes on the hotel's opening night. In the early years and his wife Carolyn were one of its attractions, wearing "matching white, leather outfits, replete with identical cowboy boots and hats". Freedman offered Carolyn's father Nathan a 5% stake in Sands but he declined the offer. Lansky and Costello brought the Sands to Frank Sinatra's attention, he began staying at the hotel and gambling there during breaks from Hollywood, though some sources state that he was not a hardcore gambler.
Sinatra earned a notoriety for "keeping his winnings and ignoring his gambling losses", but the mobsters running the hotel were not too concerned because Sinatra was
Jerry Williams (American football)
Jerome Ralph Williams was an American football player and coach who served as the head coach of two Canadian Football League teams, as well as the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League. Williams was a native of Washington, he attended North Central High School where he was an all-city running back and All-Inland Empire Athlete of the Year as a three-sport athlete. Graduating in 1942, Williams enrolled at the University of Idaho, but with the war efforts building he made the decision to join his older brother, William H. Williams in the United States Army Air Corps. Williams became a fighter pilot flying P-38's in the Pacific theater. One of his most notable missions was as a fighter escort to both Japanese and American dignitaries traveling to Tokyo Bay and the peace signing on the USS Missouri in 1945. Returning from the war efforts, Williams enrolled at Washington State University, where he played both offense and defensive halfback for the Cougars from 1946 to 1948, he set the Pacific Coast Conference kickoff return record and led the Cougars in total offense in his senior season at WSU.
Most notable was a punt return of 97 yards against Oregon in 1947 and kickoff returns of 88 and 87 yards against Montana and California. In Williams' senior season he earned All-Coast honors accumulating 1,500 all-purpose yards, he participated in both the East–West Shrine Game and College All-Star Classic before joining the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League. Drafted in the seventh round of the 1949 NFL Draft by the Los Angeles Rams, Williams played four seasons with the team, seeing most of his action as a defensive back. During his first three seasons the Rams made three consecutive trips to the NFL title game winning the 1951 NFL Championship. In his first season Williams intercepted five passes; the most memorable image of his Rams career however came in the 1951 regular season finale against the Green Bay Packers on December 16. Following a missed Packer field goal Williams returned the attempt 99 yards for a touchdown, a record that stood until the 1971 season when Williams coached, Al Nelson had a 102-yard missed field goal return, when rule changes allowed for missed field goal attempts into the end zone to be returned.
Williams' desire to play on the offensive side of the ball led to his request to be traded and on May 12, 1953, Williams was sent to the Philadelphia Eagles. He proceeded to lead the Eagles in total offense during his first season and in his two years caught 75 passes, rushed for over 500 yards and scored eight touchdowns. Williams served in the capacity of player-coach in 1954 before leaving the playing field for the coaching ranks. Entering the coaching ranks the following year Williams became the head coach at the University of Montana where in three seasons his teams, while known for their competitiveness went 6–21 overall. Football wasn't the only endeavor that led to close calls for Williams as he escaped with his life on two separate occasions during harrowing crash landings of small aircraft. While piloting a private plane on May 24, 1956, Williams and assistant Lauri Niemi were knocked unconscious in a crash near the Idaho/Montana border when they were forced, through bad weather, to attempt a landing on a rural mountain road.
And again on October 3, 1957, Williams with 14 of his players, while en route to Provo, Utah to face the Brigham Young Cougars, were forced down for yet another emergency landing. After the 1957 season Williams returned to Philadelphia to serve as the Philadelphia Eagles defensive back coach under head coach Buck Shaw with the team capturing the 1960 NFL Championship in a thrilling 17–13 victory over Vince Lombardi's Green Bay Packers, it was during this season that Williams came up with one of his most notable contributions to the game devising the "nickel" defensive scheme, a scheme still employed by most football programs today. Shaw retired after the 1960 season but new coach Nick Skorich kept Williams on his staff until their dismissal at the conclusion of the 1963 NFL season. New ownership and the arrival of a new coach and general manager in Joe Kuharich led to Williams accepting an assistant coaching position with the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League. Shortly after the conclusion of the 1964 season Williams was elevated to head coach and compiled a 40–23–1 record over the next four years.
Earning CFL Coach of the Year honors in 1967 William's teams reached the playoffs three times and competed in the 1968 Grey Cup On May 9, 1969, after another ownership change in Philadelphia, Williams was hired as the Eagles new head coach but endured a 7–22–2 record during his short two-year tenure. After dropping the first three games of the 1971 NFL season Williams was released, replaced by Ed Khayat, finished the 1971 season as an assistant with the Cleveland Browns. On January 19, 1972, Williams returned to the CFL when he was named head coach of the Hamilton Tiger-Cats. In just his first season the Ti-Cats reached the pinnacle of Canadian Professional football winning the Grey Cup in a 13–10 thriller over the Western Conference champion Saskatchewan Roughriders. Williams resigned after four seasons with the Tiger-Cats on December 12, 1975 following a 5–10–1 season. In his four years with Hamilton, Williams compiled a 30 -- 29 -- a Grey Cup title. After turning to ranching in Arizona Williams made one last foray into football returning as offensive coordinator with the Calgary Stampeders.
He was promoted to head coach on October 5, 1981 upon the firing of Ardell Wiegandt but once again retired from coaching football following that season, finishing out the 1981 season w
De Benneville "Bert" Bell was the National Football League commissioner from 1945 until his death in 1959. As commissioner, he introduced competitive parity into the NFL to improve the league's commercial viability and promote its popularity, he helped make the NFL the most financially sound sports enterprise and preeminent sports attraction in the United States, he was posthumously inducted into the charter class of the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Bell played football at the University of Pennsylvania, where as quarterback, he led his team to an appearance in the 1917 Rose Bowl. After being drafted into the US Army during World War I, he returned to complete his collegiate career at Penn and went on to become an assistant football coach with the Quakers in the 1920s. During the Great Depression, he was an assistant coach for the Temple Owls and a co-founder and co-owner of the Philadelphia Eagles. With the Eagles, Bell led the way in cooperating with the other NFL owners to establish the National Football League Draft in order to afford the weakest teams the first opportunity to sign the best available players.
He subsequently became sole proprietor of the Eagles. He sold the team and bought a share in the Pittsburgh Steelers. During World War II, Bell astutely argued against the league suspending operations until the war's conclusion. After the war, he was sold his ownership in the Steelers; as commissioner, he implemented a proactive anti-gambling policy, negotiated a merger with the All-America Football Conference, unilaterally crafted the entire league schedule with an emphasis on enhancing the dramatic effect of late-season matches. During the Golden Age of Television, he tailored the game's rules to strengthen its appeal to mass media and enforced a policy of blacking out local broadcasts of home contests to safeguard ticket receipts. Amid criticism from franchise owners and under pressure from Congress, he unilaterally recognized the NFLPA and facilitated in the development of the first pension plan for the players, he survived to oversee the "Greatest Game Ever Played" and to envision what the league would become in the future.
Bell was born de Benneville Bell, on February 25, 1895, in Philadelphia to John C. Bell and Fleurette de Benneville Myers, his father was an attorney. His older brother, John C. Jr. was born in 1892. Bert's parents were wealthy, his mother's lineage predated the American Revolutionary War, his father, a Quaker of the University of Pennsylvania during the early days of American football, accompanied him to his first football game when Bell was six years old. Thereafter, Bell engaged in football games with childhood friends. In 1904, Bell matriculated at the Episcopal Academy, the Delancey School from 1909 to 1911 and the Haverford School until 1914. About this time, his father was installed as athletics director at Penn and helped form the National Collegiate Athletic Association. At Haverford, Bell captained the school's football and baseball teams, "was awarded The Yale Cup'The pupil who has done the most to promote athletics in the school.'" Although he excelled at baseball, his devotion was to football.
His father, named a trustee at Penn in 1911, said of Bell's plans for college, "Bert will go to Penn or he will go to hell." Bell joined Phi Kappa Sigma. In a rare occurrence for a sophomore, he became the starting quarterback for Penn's coach George H. Brooke. On the team, he was as a defender and punt returner. After the team's 3–0 start, Bell temporarily shared possession of his quarterbacking duties until he subsequently reclaimed them in the season, as Penn finished with a record of 3–5–2. Prior to Penn's 1916 season, his mother died, he started the first game for the Quakers under new coach Bob Folwell, but mixed results left him platooned for the rest of the season. Penn finished with a record of 7–2–1. However, the Quakers secured an invitation to the 1917 Rose Bowl against the Oregon Ducks. Although the best offensive gain for Penn during their 20–14 loss to Oregon was a 20-yard run by Bell, he was replaced late in the game at quarterback after throwing an interception. In the 1917 season, Bell led Penn to a 9–2 record.
Afterwards, he registered with a Mobile Hospital Unit of the US Army for World War I and was deployed to France in May 1918. As a result of his unit participating in hazardous duty, it received a congratulatory letter for bravery from General John J. Pershing, Bell was promoted to first sergeant. After the war, Bell returned to the United States in March 1919, he again performed erratically. The Quakers finished 1919 with a 6–2–1 record. Academically, his aversion to attending classes forced him to withdraw from Penn without a degree in early 1920, his collegiate days ended with his having been a borderline All-American, but this period of his life had proven that he "possessed the qualities of a leader." Bell assembled the Stanley Professionals in Chicago in 1920, but he disbanded it prior to playing any games because of negative publicity received by Chicago due the Black Sox Scandal. He joined John Heisman's staff at Penn as an assistant coach in 1920, Bell would remain there for several years.
At Penn, he was well regarded as a football coach, after its 1924 season, he drew offers for, but declined, head-coaching assignments at other universities. At least as early as 1926, his avocation was socializing and frequenting Saratoga Race Course, where he coun
The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference West division. Founded on January 30, 1960, they played their first regular season game on September 11, 1960, as a charter member of the American Football League which merged with the NFL in 1970; the Raiders' off-field fortunes have varied over the years. The team's first three years of operation were marred by poor on-field performance, financial difficulties, spotty attendance. In 1963, the Raiders' fortunes improved with the introduction of head coach Al Davis. In 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time; the team would go on to win its first AFL Championship that year. Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, four AFC Championships, one AFL Championship, three Super Bowl Championships. At the end of the NFL's 2018 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime regular season record of 466 wins, 423 losses, 11 ties.
The team departed Oakland to play in Los Angeles from the 1982 season until the 1994 season before returning to Oakland at the start of the 1995 season. Al Davis owned the team from 1972 until his death in 2011. Control of the franchise was given to Al's son Mark Davis. On March 27, 2017, NFL team owners voted nearly unanimously to approve the Raiders' application to relocate from Oakland to Las Vegas, Nevada, in a 31–1 vote at the annual league meetings in Phoenix, Arizona; the Raiders plan to remain in the Bay Area through 2019, relocate to Las Vegas in 2020, pending the completion of the team's planned new stadium. The Raiders are known for distinctive team culture; the Raiders have 14 former members. They have played at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, Candlestick Park in San Francisco, Frank Youell Field in Oakland, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum in Oakland; the Oakland Raiders were going to be called the "Oakland Señors" after a name-the-team contest had that name finish first, but after being the target of local jokes, the name was changed to the Raiders before the 1960 season began.
Having enjoyed a successful collegiate coaching career at Navy during the 1950s, San Francisco native Eddie Erdelatz was hired as the Raiders' first head coach. On February 9, 1960, after rejecting offers from the NFL's Washington Redskins and the AFL's Los Angeles Chargers, Erdelatz accepted the Raiders' head coaching position. In January 1960, the Raiders were established in Oakland, because of NFL interference with the original eighth franchise owner, were the last team of eight in the new American Football League to select players, thus relegated to the remaining talent available; the 1960 Raiders 42-man roster included 28 rookies and only 14 veterans. Among the Raiders rookies were future Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee center Jim Otto, a future Raiders head coach, quarterback Tom Flores. In their debut year under Erdelatz the Raiders finished with a 6–8 record. Ownership conflicts prevented the team from signing. On September 18, 1961, Erdelatz was dismissed after the Raiders were outscored 77–46 in the first two games of the season.
On September 24, 1961, after the dismissal of Erdelatz, management named Los Angeles native and offensive line coach Marty Feldman as the Raiders head coach. The team finished the 1961 season with a 2–12 record. Feldman began the 1962 season as Raiders head coach but was fired on October 16, 1962 after an 0–5 start. From October 16 through December, the Raiders were coached by Oklahoma native and former assistant coach Red Conkright. Under Conkright, the Raiders went 1–8, finishing the season with 1–13 record. Following the 1962 season the Raiders appointed Conkright to an interim mentor position as they looked for a new head coach. After the 1962 season, Raiders managing general partner F. Wayne Valley hired Al Davis as Raiders head coach and general manager. At 33, he was the youngest person in professional football history to hold the positions. Davis began to implement what he termed the "vertical game", an aggressive offensive strategy inspired by the offense developed by Chargers head coach Sid Gillman.
Under Davis the Raiders improved to 10–4 and he was named the AFL's Coach of the Year in 1963. Though the team slipped to 5–7–2 in 1964, they rebounded to an 8–5–1 record in 1965; the famous silver and black Raider uniform debuted at the regular season opening game on September 8, 1963. Prior to this, the team wore a combination of black and white with gold trim on the pants and oversized numerals. In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner, promoting assistant coach John Rauch to head coach. Two months the league announced its merger with the NFL; the leagues would retain separate regular seasons until 1970. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part-owner of the team, he purchased a 10% interest in the team for $18,000, became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations. Under Rauch, the Raiders matched their 1965 season's 8–5–1 record in 1966 but missed the pl