The Ferrari 348 is a mid-engine V8-powered 2-seat sports car produced by Italian automaker Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 model developed under the direction of Enzo Ferrari before his death, commissioned to production posthumously; the 348, badged 348 TB for the coupé, 348 TS and the 348 SP versions, featured a aspirated 3.4-litre version of the quad-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder V8 engine. As with its predecessors, the model number was derived from this configuration, with the first two digits being the displacement of the engine and the third being the number of cylinders; the engine, which had a power output of 310 PS, was mounted longitudinally and coupled to a transverse manual gearbox, like the Mondial T with which the 348 shared many components. The "T" in the model name 348 TB and TS refers to the transverse position of the gearbox. Overall, 2,895 examples of the 348 TB and 4,230 of the 348 TS were produced; the 348's styling differed from previous models with straked side air intakes and rectangular taillights resembling the Testarossa, stylistic themes reminiscent of the F40, the world’s fastest production car at the time, other prestigious Ferrari models of the past.
The model was the final design overseen by chief stylist Leonardo Fioravanti, known for such designs as the F40, Daytona, 512 Berlinetta Boxer, 288 GTO P5, P6 and others. The F355 that succeeded the 348 returned to the styling cues of the 328 with round tail lights and rounded side air scoops; the 348 was fitted with dual-computer engine management using twin Bosch Motronic ECUs, double-redundant anti-lock brakes, self-diagnosing air conditioning and heating systems. Late versions have Japanese starter motors and Nippondenso power generators to improve reliability, as well as the battery located within the front left fender for better weight distribution. U. S. spec 348's have OBD-I engine management systems, though European variants do not come with the self-test push button installed, needed to activate this troubleshooting feature. Similar to the Testarossa but departing from the 512 BB and 308/328, the oil and coolant radiators were relocated from the nose to the sides, widening the side of the car but making the cabin much easier to cool since hoses routing warm water no longer ran underneath the cabin as in the older front-radiator cars.
This had the side effect of making the doors wide. The 348 was equipped with a dry-sump oil system to prevent oil starvation at high speeds and during hard cornering; the oil level could only be checked on the dipstick when the engine was running due to this setup. The 348 was fitted with adjustable ride-height suspension and a removable rear sub-frame to speed up the removal of the engine for maintenance. Between 1992 and 1993 Ferrari made 100 limited edition units of 348 Serie Speciale of its TB and TS versions, it was only made for the US market. The main technical modifications consisted in a revised engine which produced 316 PS at 7,200 rpm, a wider rear track, a free flow exhaust system, a shorter ratio final drive and Pirelli P Zero tyres. Ferrari indicated a 0-97 km/h acceleration time of 5.3 seconds and a standing ¼ mile of 13.75 seconds. Several modifications were made to the exterior as well: new front spoiler to optimize aerodynamics similar to the F40, new front grille with chrome prancing horse and rocker panels in body colour, engine cover in body colour, modified taillight assembly and new rear grille with chrome prancing horse.
The cars were offered with F40 style sport seats in Connolly leather with the regular seats included as an option. The door panels were modified and made of leather; each car was numbered, with a 348 Serie Speciale plaque on the passenger's side door-post. The Ferrari Challenge was initiated by Ferrari Club Nederland and designated for the Ferrari 348; the engine used in the participating cars was similar to the road car with the only noticeable changes being the slick tyres, new body kit, better brake-pads, roll-bar, smaller battery in a different position and seat belts. In 1994 the G-spec engined cars had to be modified with the H-spec cylinder heads and injection system; the car's final season was replaced subsequently by the F355 Challenge. In late 1993, the 348 was revised, featuring subtle styling changes and more power, this time 312 hp and 324 PS from the same 3.4-litre engine, with an improved engine management system - Bosch Motronic 2.7 and a new exhaust system. The revised cars are called 348 GTB and GTS and were presented to the public as the 348 GT versions, equipped with the F119H engine.
The F119H engine had an increased 10.8:1 compression ratio as compared to the F119D & F119G's 10.4:1 compression ratio, taller intake plenums, a larger intake compensation valve, fuel pressure raised from 3.4 bar to 3.8 bar, different camshaft timing. For these models, both the engine cover and lower body skirts were body-coloured instead of black, the rear track was one inch wider due to the mounting area, on the inside, of the rear wheels being thicker; the suspension geometry was revised which enhanced its handling and body control. The fuel tank was smaller in order to reduce overall weight and provide space to improve chassis rigidity; the 348 Spider variant was introduced, in-line with the phasing out of the Mondial Cabriolet. 1,090 units of t
Dino 206 GT and 246 GT
The Dino 206 GT, 246 GT and 246 GTS are V6 mid-engined sports cars produced by Ferrari and sold under the Dino marque between 1967 and 1974. The Dino 246 was the first automobile manufactured by Ferrari in high numbers, it is lauded by many for groundbreaking design. In 2004, Sports Car International placed the car at number six on its list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s. Motor Trend Classic placed the 206/246 at number seven in their list of the 10 "Greatest Ferraris of all time"; the production Dino 206 GT was designed by Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina and built by Scaglietti. It had the soft edges and curving lines typical of earlier Italian cars, unlike its angular successor, the 308 GT4; the 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 litre all-aluminum, 160 hp at the 8,000 rpm redline, 65-degree V6 engine with dual overhead camshafts and a 9.7:1 compression ratio. Torque was 138 lb⋅ft at 6,500 rpm; the crankshaft featured four main bearings. Induction was via three Weber 40 DCN/4 2-barrel carburetors.
The 206 GT was the first car sold by Ferrari which used an electronic ignition, a Dinoplex C capacitive discharge ignition system, developed by Magneti Marelli for the high revving Dino V6 engine. It was the first Ferrari product to have a direct rack-and-pinion steering; the 206 GT frame featured a light-weight, aluminium body, full independent suspension, all round disc brakes. It had a top speed of 146 mph. 152 were built in total in left hand drive only. The same 2.0 L engine was used in the Fiat Dino Spider, produced during the same period. The conversion of the Dino 196 racing engine for road-going use in the Dino was entrusted by Fiat to Aurelio Lampredi, to whom Ferrari owed so many great engines. Lampredi, interviewed in the early 1980s, noted that, "Things didn't work out as Ferrari had foreseen." Ferrari had counted on building the engines at Maranello, but Fiat's management insisted on taking control of production, to avoid any breaks in the engine supply. Fiat quoted 160 hp DIN for the Fiat Dino and Coupé, in 1967 Ferrari - presenting the first prototype of the Dino 206 GT - claimed 180 hp.
This, was not the case. Both engines were made by Fiat workers in Turin on the same production line, without any discrimination as to their destination, all were the same. 150 units were taken from the first production batch at the beginning of 1968 to power the Dino 206 GTs. Fiat Dinos used the 2.4L engine, although fewer were produced with this engine. Calls for more power were answered with the 2.4 L Dino 246 65° V6 engine, DOHC 2 valves per cylinder 9.0:1 compression ratio, iron block with alloy heads. It produced 195 PS at 226 N ⋅ m. A detuned American version had an exhaust air pump, timing changes which created 175 hp; the GT had 3X2-barrel 40 40 DCNF/7 Weber carburetors. For the 246 a new version of the Dinoplex ignition was deployed, the more compact Magneti Marelli AEC103A system; the 246 Dino GT weighed 2,380 lb. The 246 Dino GTS weighed 2,426 lb; the body was now made of steel to save cost. The 246 Dino had a 2.1-inch longer wheelbase than the 206, at 92.1 inches. The height of the 246 was the same as the 206 at 43.9 inches.
Dino 246 production numbered 2,295 GTs and 1,274 Spyders, the latter being built from 1972 to 1974 only, for a total production run of 3,569. Three series of the Dino were built, with differences in wheels, windshield wiper coverage, engine ventilation; the Series I cars, 357 of which were built until the summer of 1970, used the same center-bolt wheels as did the 206. Series II cars received "clap-hands" wipers; the Series III cars had minor differences to gearing and fuel supply, were built at a much higher rate as sales in the United States commenced with this version. 1,431 Series III coupés and 1,274 GTS cars were built. The 246 had a claimed top speed of 146 mph, although in July 1971 a road test by Britain's Motor magazine reported a top speed of 148 mph, which compared favourably with the 136 mph achieved by a tested Porsche 911S. With a 0 – 50 mph acceleration time of 5.5 seconds the Dino narrowly outperformed the Porsche again, although the Porsche was narrowly the winner on fuel economy.
The manufacturer's recommended UK retail price of £5,485 was higher than the £5,211 asked for the Porsche. For comparison, the much larger, four-passenger Citroën SM high-performance luxury coupe sold for £4,700; the Dino's 2.4 L V6 was used in a number of other Italian performance cars after its application in the 246, most notably the Lancia Stratos rally car. There were some minor differences in trim for various markets, the most obvious being different marker lights on US market Dinos. Group 4-style flared wheelarches were optional, as were seats from the 365 GTB/4 Daytona, the pair ordered in conjunction with wide, sand-cast Campagnolo alloy wheels. Dino Register Club Dino Italia Ferrari, Lancia Stratos Dino UK Ferrari, Lancia Stratos
Octane is a British car magazine, published monthly, concentrating on classic and performance cars. It was launched in 2003, is now published by Dennis Publishing; the magazine features news, road tests and buyers guides of both classic cars and some modern performance cars. It has an extensive for sale section, showing cars from all around the world, it has a cover price of £4.70 in the United Kingdom, sells an average of 35,000 copies. The Octane office is situated in Northamptonshire. Octane Magazine was launched in May 2003, following a chance meeting between David Lillywhite and Geoff Love, they were invited to a meeting to discuss the launch of a motoring magazine, but came away with the germ of an idea about a classic magazine that focused on the upper end of the market. A team was put together consisting of Robert Coucher editor of Classic Cars during its heyday. Classic & Sportscar and Classic Cars were publishing magazines that targeted a broad range of cars from restoration projects to exotic supercars but there was nothing targeting the serious collector, the historic racing driver or the serious enthusiast.
This was the market opportunity that the team of four identified and where Octane was to launch into. The editorial concept was established and the business plan created. All the team now required was funding. Obtaining finance for a magazine launch is not easy, but Sanjay was a Crystal Palace fan and knew another fan who revealed he had Simon Jordan's phone number on his mobile. In a drunken moment Sanjay challenged his friend to call the Crystal Palace Chairman and see if he wanted to invest in a classic car magazine; as luck would have it, Simon was looking for investments, a couple of weeks the four found themselves in the board room of the Grosvenor House Hotel being grilled by Simon, his tax adviser, financial advisor in a scene reminiscent of the Dragon's Den. During the day, Simon had been presented to by five other potential entrepreneurs, the Octane presentation came at 5.30pm. After an hour of tough questions, Simon agreed to invest the money; that was February 2003, the magazine launched on the 15 May of that year.
The magazine achieved critical acclaim within the market early on, advertisers were prepared to support the magazine. Commercial success was slower to follow; the initial business plan outlined a trade sale within a three to five year period as the most exit strategy for Simon Jordan, it identified Dennis Publishing as the most buyer. It was no coincidence that Octane took evo as its template in terms of production values and physical size. Remarkably, Dennis Publishing made an initial contact to say they liked what Octane was doing within six months of launch, indicated they would be following its progress, they had acquired evo magazine, so Octane would make a good fit in their portfolio. It was three years that Dennis expressed a real interest in the acquisition of Octane magazine, this led to the purchase in May 2007. Since the magazine has gone from strength to strength, with the founding team still at the helm. In addition to the version for the United Kingdom, Octane is now published in Italy, The Netherlands and Sweden.
A Japanese and an Argentine edition launched in 2013. Editor: David Lillywhite International Editor: Robert Coucher Deputy Editor: Mark Dixon Production Editor: Glen Waddington Art Editor: Mark Sommer Designer: Robert Hefferon Staff writer: Matthew Hayward Columnists: Nick Mason, Jay Leno, Brian Johnson, Tony Dron Regular features include: Glossy features on the finest classic and performance cars News and market analysis Icon Gone But Not Forgotten Day in the life of Time with Automobilia Buyer's guides Octane Magazine's new URL Octane Magazine's existing URL Dutch version of Octane Magazine German Octane Magazine
The Ferrari Testarossa is a 12-cylinder mid-engine sports car manufactured by Ferrari, which went into production in 1984 as the successor to the Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer. The Pininfarina-designed car was produced from 1984 to 1991, with two model revisions following the end of Testarossa production dubbed the 512 TR and F512 M, which were produced from 1992 to 1996. 10,000 Testarossas, 512 TRs, F512 Ms were produced, making it one of the mass-produced Ferrari models. The Testarossa is a two-door coupé. All versions of the Testarossa were available with a five-speed manual transmission; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout keeps the centre of gravity in the middle of the car, which increases stability and improves the car's cornering ability, thus results in a standing weight distribution of 40% front: 60% rear. The original Testarossa was re-engineered for 1992 model year and released as the 512 TR, at the Los Angeles Auto Show as a new car, an improved weight distribution of 41% front: 59% rear.
Another new revision dubbed. The car dropped the TR initials and added the M which in Italian stood for modificata, or translated to modified, was the final version of the Testarossa, which continued its predecessor's weight distribution improvement of 42% front: 58% rear; the F512 M was Ferrari's last mid-engined 12-cylinder car, it featured the company's last flat-12 engine. The Testarossa was replaced in 1996 by the front-engined 550 Maranello coupé; the Testarossa name paid homage to the famed World Sportscar Champion 1957 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa sports racing car. Testa Rossa, which means "red head" in Italian, refers to the red-painted cam covers sported by both cars' 12-cylinder engines; the Testarossa can trace its roots back to the faults of the 1981 512i BB. The problems that the Testarossa was conceived to fix, included a cabin that got hot from the indoor plumbing that ran between the front-mounted radiator and the midships-mounted engine and a lack of luggage space. To fix these problems Ferrari and Pininfarina designed the Testarossa to be larger than its predecessor, the Berlinetta Boxer.
For instance, at 1,976 mm wide. This resulted in an increased wheelbase that stretched about 64 mm to 2,550 mm, used to accommodate luggage in a carpeted storage space under the front forward-opening hood; the increase in length created extra storage space behind the seats in the cabin. Headroom was increased with a roofline half an inch taller than the Boxer; the design came from Pininfarina. The design team at Pininfarina consisted of Ian Cameron, Guido Campoli, Diego Ottina and Emanuele Nicosia, they were led by design chief Leonardo Fioravanti, who designed many other contemporary Ferraris. The design was originated by Nicosia, but the guidance of Fioravanti was important. Being a trained aerodynamist, Fioravanti applied his know-how to set the aerodynamics layout of the car; this meant the large side intakes were not only a statement of style but functional – they drew clean air to cool the side radiators and went upward and left the car through the ventilation holes located at the engine lid and the tail.
The Testarossa did not need a rear spoiler. The aerodynamic drag coefficient of 0.36 cd was lower than the Lamborghini Countach's 0.42 cd. Pininfarina's body was a departure from the curvaceous boxer -- one; the side strakes sometimes referred to as "cheese graters" or "egg slicers," that spanned from the doors to the rear fenders were needed for rules in several countries outlawing large openings on cars. The Testarossa had twin radiators in the back with the engine instead of a single radiator up-front. In conjunction the strakes provided cool air to the rear-mounted side radiators, thus keeping the engine from overheating; the strakes made the Testarossa wider at the rear than in the front, thus increasing stability and handling. One last unique addition to the new design was a single high mounted side view mirror on the driver's side. On US based cars, the mirror was lowered to a more normal placement in 1987 and joined by a passenger side view mirror for the driver to be able to make safe easy lane changes.
Like its predecessor, the Testarossa used double wishbone front and rear suspension systems. Ferrari improved traction by adding 10-inch-wide alloy rear wheels; the Testarossa drivetrain was an evolution of the BB 512i. Its engine used near identical displacement and compression ratio, but unlike the BB 512i had four-valve cylinder heads that were finished in red; the Testarossa has a aspirated 4,943 cc longitudinally-mounted, rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout 180° flat-12. DOHC 4 valves per cylinder, lubricated via a dry sump system, compression ratio of 9.20:1. These combine to provide a maximum power of 287 kW at 6,300 rpm and maximum torque of 490 N⋅m at 4,500 rpm. Early U. S. versions of the car had the same engine, but had less power, with only 283 kW. The Ferrari Testarossa can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 5.3 seconds and from 0–60 mph in 5.2 seconds and on to 100 mph in 11.4 seconds. It can complete a standing quarter mile ~1⁄4 mi in 13.5 seconds and a standing kilometre in 23.8 seconds.
The top speed of the Testa
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, engineering mathematics, materials science principles to design, analyze and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines; the mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery and cooling systems, transport systems, watercraft, medical devices and others, it is the branch of engineering that involves the design and operation of machinery. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements. It overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology, modelling of biological systems; the application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, Ma Jun invented a chariot with differential gears; the medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks.
He invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms. During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England and Scotland.
This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them; the first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Institute of Mining Engineers; the first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, or Bachelor of Applied Science degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B. Tech. Programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology to ensure similar course requirements and standards a
Ferrari is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. In 2014, Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million. Fiat S.p. A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N. V. announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p. A. from FCA. The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N. V. as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari.
The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins. Ferrari road cars are seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari means "Ferrari Stable" and is used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo. In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milan and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department.
In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari; the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform, it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained since; the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine. The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams. In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.
A.. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari launched before his death that year. In 1989, the company was renamed Ferrari S.p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari, it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made had a price tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record.
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company. In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman. On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari; the aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10% of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015. Ferrari priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015. Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other t
Ferrari 288 GTO
The Ferrari GTO is an exotic homologation of the Ferrari 308 GTB produced from 1984 to 1987 in Ferrari's Maranello factory, designated GT for Gran Turismo and O for Omologata. The Ferrari GTO was built to compete in the new Group B Circuit Race series and a minimum of 200 cars were required for homologation. Due to lackluster participation caused by these regulations, the Group B Circuit series never took off; as a result, the GTO never raced and all 272 cars built remained purely road cars. All of them came in a stock red color, except one, black; some of the GTO's styling features were first displayed on a 308 GTB design exercise by Pininfarina shown at the 1977 Geneva Auto Salon. The 288 GTO started out as a modified version of the 308/328 to hold down costs and to build the car but little of the 308/328 was left when the 288 GTO was finished. Noticeable differences were the GTOs bulging fender flares, larger front/rear spoilers, large "flag-style" outside mirrors and four driving lights at the far sides of the grille.
Retained from the original 250 GTO were slanted air vents, put in the GTO's rear fenders to cool the brakes, as well as the rear wing's design, borrowed from the 250 GTO's original wing. The GTO had wider body panels than the 308's because they had to cover much larger Goodyear tires mounted on racing wheels; the suspension's height could be set lower for racing on tracks. Bodywork material was new and lighter for handling; the GTO's weight was 2,555 lb, compared to 3,085–3,350 lb for the 308/328. Steel was used just for the doors. Kevlar was used for the hood, the roof was made from Kevlar and carbon fiber; the GTO was based on the rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive 308 GTB, which has a 2.9 L V8. The "288" refers to the GTO's 2.8 litre DOHC 4 valves per cylinder V8 engine as it used a de-bored by 1 mm with IHI twin-turbochargers, Behr air-to-air intercoolers, Weber-Marelli fuel injection and a compression ratio of 7.6:1. The 2.85 litre engine capacity was dictated by the FIA's requirement for a turbocharged engine's capacity to be multiplied by 1.4.
This gave the GTO an equivalent engine capacity of 3,997 cc, just under the Group B limit of 4.0 litres. Unlike the 308's 2,927 cc engine, the GTO's 2,855 cc V8 was mounted longitudinally, using the 308's rear trunk space; this was necessary to make room for the twin intercoolers. The racing transmission was mounted to the rear of the longitudinal engine, moving the rear differential and wheels aft; the arrangement let the GTO use a more conventional race-car engine/transmission layout for such things as quick gear-ratio changes for various tracks. As a result, the wheelbase was 110 mm longer at 2,450 mm; the track was widened to accommodate wider wheels and tires to provide increased cornering and braking performance and the ability to apply 400 PS at 7,000 rpm and 496 N⋅m of torque at 3,800 rpm. The GTO could accelerate from 0-60 mph in around 5 seconds and Ferrari claimed 0-125 mph in 15 seconds flat and a top speed of 189 mph, making it one of the fastest street-legal production cars of its time.
Test results by Road & Track: 0–30 mph: 2.3 s 0–50 mph: 4.1 s 0–60 mph: 5.0 s 0–70 mph: 6.2 s 0–80 mph: 7.7 s 0–100 mph: 11.0 s 0–120 mph: 16.0 s Standing 1⁄4 mile: 14.1 s at 113 mph Top Speed: 179 mph Ferrari built six 288 GTO Evoluzione models with more aggressive and aerodynamic body styling and increased power. The Evoluzione, introduced in 1986, was built to race in Group B but when that series was cancelled the project was shelved as it was not fit for any other racing series. Ferrari had planned a production run of 20 cars to comply with Group B homologation requirements for Evolution models; the 288 GTO Evoluzione is powered by an upgraded version of the 2.9 L V8 used in the normal 288 GTO that has twin-turbochargers and produces 650 hp at 7,800 rpm. It can reach a top speed of 225 mph, it features a unique front end designed for aerodynamics with front canards and vents as well as a large carbon fibre rear spoiler and numerous large NACA ducts. Many styling and mechanical elements from the Evoluzione influenced the soon to follow F40.
All six are thought to still be in existence with one owned by the Factory on display in the engine manufacturing facility in Maranello and another suspected to have been used as a prototype during the development of the F40. Several Formula 1 drivers were offered GTOs by Enzo Ferrari; these include Michele Alboreto, Eddie Irvine, Keke Rosberg and Niki Lauda, gifted the last of the 272 units built by Enzo Ferrari himself. In 2004, Sports Car International named this car number two on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s, behind its German rival the Porsche 959. Buckley, Martin. World Encyclopedia of Cars. London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 1-84038-083-7. Ferrari 288 GTO at the Group B Rally Cars