A people mover or automated people mover is a type of grade-separated mass transit system. The term was applied to three different systems, developed roughly at the same time. One was Skybus, a mass transit system prototyped by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation beginning in 1964. The second, alternately called the People Mover and Minirail, opened in Montreal at Expo 67, finally the last, called PeopleMover or WEDway PeopleMover, was an attraction that was originally presented by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and that opened at Disneyland in 1967. Now, the people mover is generic, and may use technologies such as monorail, duorail. Propulsion may involve conventional on-board electric motors, linear motors or cable traction, generally speaking, larger APMs are referred to by other names. The most generic is automated guideway transit, which encompasses any automated system regardless of size, some complex APMs deploy fleets of small vehicles over a track network with off-line stations, and supply near non-stop service to passengers.
These taxi-like systems are usually referred to as personal rapid transit. Larger systems, with vehicles with 20 to 40 passengers, are referred to as group rapid transit. Other complex APMs have similar characteristics to mass transit systems, another term Light Metro is applied to describe the system worldwide. One of the first automated systems for human transportation was the screw-driven Never-Stop-Railway, constructed for the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley, London in 1924. This railway consisted of 88 unmanned carriages, on a double track along the northern and eastern sides of the exhibition. The railway ran reliably for the two years of the exhibition, and was dismantled, small sections of this track bed, and a nearby heavy rail track bed, have been proposed for reuse. if Goodyear had ever considered working on People Movers. He felt that with Goodyears ability to move materials in large quantities on conveyor belts they should consider moving batches of people. Four years of engineering design and testing led to a joint patent being issued for three types of people movers, named Speedwalk and Carveyor, Goodyear would sell the concept and Stephens-Adamson would manufacture and install the components.
A Speedwalk consisted of a conveyor belt riding on a series of rollers, or a flat slippery surface. The passengers would walk onto the belt and could stand or walk to the exit point and they were supported by a moving handrail. Customers were expected to include airport terminals, train stations, several manufacturers produce similar units called moving walkways
Dublin Airport, is an international airport serving Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. The airport is located 5.4 nmi north of Dublin in Collinstown, in 2016,27.9 million passengers passed through the airport, making it the airports busiest year on record. It is the 16th busiest airport in Europe, and is the busiest of the states airports by passenger traffic. It has the greatest traffic levels on the island of Ireland, followed by Belfast International Airport, the airport has an extensive short and medium haul network, served by an array of carriers, as well as some intercontinental routes focused in the Middle East and North America. United States border preclearance services are available at the airport for U. S. -bound passengers, Shannon Airport is the only other airport in Europe to offer this facility. A decision was made that an airport should replace Baldonnel as Dublins airport. The townlands of Collinstown and Corballis in the Barony of Coolock were selected as the location for the new civil aerodrome, collinstowns first association with aviation was as a British military air base during World War I.
Construction of the airport was completed in 1919, and at the end of 1922 the land. The airfield quickly fell into disrepair and grass grew on the former runways, work on the new airport began in 1937. By the end of 1939, a grass surface, internal roads, car parks and electrical power. The inaugural flight from Dublin took place on 19 January 1940 to Liverpool, in August 1938, work began on a new airport terminal building. The terminal building was designed by architect Desmond FitzGerald, brother of politician Garret FitzGerald, the terminal building opened in early 1941, with its design heavily influenced by the tiered structure of the luxury ocean liners of the time. The terminal was awarded the Triennial Gold Medal of the Royal Hibernian Institute of Architects in 1942 and is today a listed building. Due to World War II, which was known as The Emergency in the Irish Free State, the only international scheduled route operated during this time was by Aer Lingus to Liverpool. The end of the war meant the beginning of an expansion in services at the airport.
Aer Lingus resumed its London service to Croydon in November 1945, in 1947, KLM started the first European flights to Dublin with a service to Amsterdam. Three new concrete runways were completed in 1948, and in 1950 - after ten years in operation - the airport had welcomed a total of 920,000 passengers, throughout the 1950s Dublin Airport expanded with virtually uninterrupted traffic growth. Runway extensions and terminal enhancements were carried out to deal with the influx of traffic, new airlines began serving the airport also
Vueling Airlines, S. A. is a Spanish low-cost airline based at El Prat de Llobregat in Greater Barcelona with hubs in Barcelona–El Prat Airport and Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport in Rome, Italy. Its name comes from the Spanish word vuelo, which means flight, there are thirteen additional bases at A Coruña, Amsterdam, Brussels, Madrid, Málaga, Palma de Mallorca, Paris-Orly, Santiago de Compostela and Valencia. A fifteenth summer seasonal base is located at Ibiza, Vueling serves over 100 destinations in Africa and Europe and is currently the second largest airline in Spain. In 2014, the airline carried more than 17.2 million passengers, Vueling was established in February 2004 and commenced operations on 1 July 2004 with a flight between Barcelona and Ibiza. The initial fleet consisted of two Airbus A320 aircraft, based in Barcelona serving Brussels, Palma de Mallorca, the name Vueling was formed by combining the Spanish word vuelo with the English gerund suffix -ing. Initially, major shareholders of Vueling Airlines were Apax Partners, Inversiones Hemisferio, Vuelings management team, during its nascent stages, the companys general manager was Lázaro Ros, while Carlos Muñoz was CEO.
In November 2007, Vueling appointed managing director of Spanair Lars Nygaard as CEO to replace Carlos Muñoz, Madrid was added as the airlines second base in 2005, followed by its first base outside Spain at Paris Charles de Gaulle in 2007. 2007 was a year for Vueling, Apax Partners sold its then-21% stake in the carrier in June of that year. Two company directors and the chairman resigned shortly before the second warning, citing differences over commercial strategy. Shares in the company were temporarily suspended and this led to Barbara Cassani, former Chief Executive of UK low-cost airline Go, joining Vueling as chairman of the board in September 2007. The airline embarked on an exercise and posted its first profit in mid-2009. In June 2008, Vueling and rival Spanish low cost airline Clickair announced their intention to merge, the merger was designed to create a carrier better able to compete in the competitive Spanish airline market and mitigate high fuel costs with Iberia as the main industrial partner.
While the new company would trade under the Vueling name, Clickairs Alex Cruz was named as chief executive, the deal was subject to scrutiny and approval by European competition regulators, who were concerned that the merged airline would have a significant competitive advantage on around 19 routes. The regulators demanded the release of slots at Barcelona and other European airports as a condition of the merger, on 15 July 2009 the merger of Vueling and Clickair was completed. The new merged airline operates under the Vueling brand, with Clickair flights and it became the second largest Spanish carrier flying 8.2 million passengers in 2009, to almost 50 destinations. In 2009, Vueling for the year running co-operated with MTV during the summer season. Two of Vuelings A320 aircraft were re-painted into MTV liveries with some MTV styling on-board too, the designs of both liveries were created by Custo Dalmau and both liveries were removed at the end of 2009. In November 2010, Vueling announced a new base at Toulouse Airport in France from April 2011, followed in December 2010 by the announcement of a new base in Amsterdam, the Toulouse base opened on 23 April 2011, but has since closed
Guardia di Finanza
The Guardia di Finanza is an Italian law enforcement agency under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance. It is a police force, forming a part of the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Guardia di Finanza is essentially responsible for dealing with crime and smuggling. It maintains over 600 boats and ships and more than 100 aircraft to serve in its mission of patrolling Italys territorial waters. The mission and institutional tasks of Guardia di Finanza are stated in the law 189 of April 23,1959 and 68/2001 and are subdivided into priority ones and contribution ones. The origins of the Guardia di Finanza date back to October 5,1774 and this was the first example in Italy of a special corps established and organized for financial surveillance duties along the borders, as well as for military defense. Once the unification of Italy was completed in 1862, the Customs Guards Corps was set up and its main task was Customs surveillance and co-participation in the Countrys defense during wartime.
Subsequently, the Corps took part in rescue operations during serious natural disasters. The re-organization of the forces in 1919 affected the Royal Guardia di Finanza. In 1923, the Investigative Tax Police was set up as a branch of the Royal Financial Guard. Besides the review of its structure, laid out by the issuance of Presidential Decree Law no.34 dated January 29,1999. The Guardia di Finanza Historical Museum is custodian of the traditions of the Corps and it preserves artifacts of relevance to the Guardia di Finanza and promotes historical research, to aid researchers and military history enthusiasts. In 2005, the Financial Guard was responsible for 77% of the Heroin seizures, 69% of Cocaine seizures and these turned out to be counterfeit. Under the minister of finance and economy, the corps is commanded by a general commander, comando Aeronavale Central ´Aeronaval Operations Command, with one aeromaritime exploration group, and three aeronaval groups. Aviation Center Naval Center Source, Territorial commands Six interregional commands Regional commands, provincial commands, one for each of Italys provinces.
The Guardia di Finanza utilises a rank similar to that of other state police forces in Italy. The Guardia di Finanza has around 68,000 members and its personnel are in service in the Europol and OLAF. Its Latin motto since 1933 has been Nec recisa recedit, there are 3,250 officers in the Guardia di Finanza
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline is an airline that generally has lower fares and fewer comforts. To make up for revenue lost in decreased ticket prices, the airline may charge for extras like food, priority boarding, seat allocating, as of July 2014, the worlds largest low-cost carrier is Southwest Airlines, which operates in the United States and some surrounding areas. The term originated within the airline industry referring to airlines with an operating cost structure than their competitors. Low-cost carrier business model practices vary widely, some practices are more common in certain regions, while others are generally universal. The common theme among all low-cost carriers is the reduction of cost, traditional airlines have reduced their cost using several of these practices. Most low-cost carriers operate aircraft configured with a single passenger class and these airlines tend to operate short-haul flights that suit the range of narrow-body planes. Long-range wide-body aircraft are too expensive for low cost carriers.
In the past, low-cost carriers tended to operate older aircraft purchased second-hand, such as the McDonnell Douglas DC-9, since 2000, fleets generally consist of the newest aircraft, commonly the Airbus A320 and Boeing 737. In 2013, ch-aviation published a study about the strategy of low-cost carriers. They summarized that major LCCs that order aircraft in large numbers get huge discounts and that saves a lot in operative costs. Aircraft often operate with a set of optional equipment, further reducing costs of acquisition and maintenance, as well as keeping the weight of the aircraft lower. Ryanair seats do not recline and do not have pockets, to reduce cleaning. Pilot conveniences, such as ACARS, may be excluded, often, no in-flight entertainment systems are made available, though many US low-cost carriers do offer satellite television or radio in-flight. It is becoming a popular approach to install LCD monitors onto the aircraft and broadcast advertisements on them, most do not offer reserved seating, hoping to encourage passengers to board early and quickly, thus decreasing turnaround times.
Some allow priority boarding for an extra fee instead of reserved seating, like the major carriers, many low-cost carriers develop one or more bases to maximize destination coverage and defend their market. Many do not operate traditional hubs, but rather focus cities, Airlines often offer a simpler fare scheme, such as charging one-way tickets half that of round-trips. Typically fares increase as the plane fills up, which rewards early reservations, in Europe luggage is not transferred from one flight to another, even if both flights are with the same airline. This saves costs and is thought to encourage passengers to take direct flights, tickets are not sold with transfers, so the airline wont need to take responsibility for a delay
Instrument landing system
An instrument landing system enables aircraft to land if the pilots are unable to establish visual contact with the runway. It does this by way of transmitted radio signals, an instrument approach procedure chart is published for each ILS approach to provide the information needed to fly an ILS approach during instrument flight rules operations. A chart includes the frequencies used by the ILS components or navaids. An aircraft approaching a runway is guided by the ILS receivers in the aircraft by performing modulation depth comparisons, many aircraft can route signals into the autopilot to fly the approach automatically. An ILS consists of two independent sub-systems, the localizer provides lateral guidance, the glide slope provides vertical guidance. A localizer is an antenna array normally located beyond the end of the runway. Due to the complexity of ILS localizer and glide slope systems, localizer systems are sensitive to obstructions in the signal broadcast area, such as large buildings or hangars.
Glide slope systems are limited by the terrain in front of the glide slope antennas. If terrain is sloping or uneven, reflections can create an uneven glidepath, since the ILS signals are pointed in one direction by the positioning of the arrays, glide slope supports only straight-line approaches with a constant angle of descent. Installation of an ILS can be costly because of siting criteria, ILS critical areas and ILS sensitive areas are established to avoid hazardous reflections that would affect the radiated signal. The location of these areas can prevent aircraft from using certain taxiways leading to delays in takeoffs, increased hold times. Instrument guidance system - a modified ILS to accommodate a non-straight approach, in addition to the previously mentioned navigational signals, the localizer provides for ILS facility identification by periodically transmitting a 1,020 Hz Morse code identification signal. For example, the ILS for runway 4R at John F. Kennedy International Airport transmits IJFK to identify itself and this lets users know the facility is operating normally and that they are tuned to the correct ILS.
The glide slope station transmits no identification signal, so ILS equipment relies on the localizer for identification and it is essential that any failure of the ILS to provide safe guidance be detected immediately by the pilot. To achieve this, monitors continually assess the characteristics of the transmissions. If any significant deviation beyond strict limits is detected, either the ILS is automatically switched off or the navigation and identification components are removed from the carrier, either of these actions will activate an indication on the instruments of an aircraft using the ILS. Modern localizer antennas are highly directional, usage of older, less directional antennas allows a runway to have a non-precision approach called a localizer back course. This lets aircraft land using the signal transmitted from the back of the localizer array, highly directional antennas do not provide a sufficient signal to support a back course
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Runways may be a surface or a natural surface. Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally the magnetic azimuth of the heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west, when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane would be heading 90°. A runway can normally be used in both directions, and is named for each separately, e. g. runway 33 in one direction is runway 15 when used in the other. The two numbers usually differ by 18, Runway Zero Three Left becomes Runway Two One Right when used in the opposite direction. In some countries, if parallel runways are too close to each other, at large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 10 degrees to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways.
For example, in Los Angeles, this results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, for clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually, runway three six, runway one four, etc. A leading zero, for example in runway zero six or runway zero one left, is included for all ICAO, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero as required by FAA regulation. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield and this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is very common in a such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world, for example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05.
Runway designations change over time because the magnetic poles slowly drift on the Earths surface, depending on the airport location and how much drift takes place, it may be necessary over time to change the runway designation. As runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10 degrees, for example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233 degrees, it would be designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changed downwards by 5 degrees to 228, if on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226, and the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224, the runway should become Runway 22. Because the drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon
Alitalia CityLiner S. p. A. is the regional subsidiary of Alitalia. Alitalia CityLiner was founded as Air One CityLiner S. p. A. in June 2006, as a subsidiary of Air One and its first two legs were Trieste-Rome Fiumicino and Genoa-Naples on 7 June. By November of that year, all of the aircraft in the airlines first order were delivered, in April and May of the next year, the fleet grew to ten aircraft. In February 2007, it started its first international route, Turin-Paris, on 13 January 2009, Air One and Alitalia merged under the Alitalia brand name. As a result, Air One CityLiners aircraft were used on behalf of Alitalia group, on 20 April 2011, the airline was rebranded as Alitalia CityLiner. It became the regional airline of the Alitalia group and has taken up the role of Alitalia Express. A brand new fleet of 20 Embraer 175s and 190s was delivered from September 2011 until March 2013, in March 2012, Alitalia painted one of its Embraer E-190 in a special SkyTeam livery. The Alitalia CityLiner planes operate short-haul domestic as well as routes for Alitalia.
It has operational bases at Rome-Fiumicino and Milan-Linate, the Alitalia CityLiner fleet consists of the following aircraft, Over the years, Alitalia has operated the following aircraft types, Official website
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries. International airports often host domestic flights, such as Frankfurt Airport in Germany are very large, others such as Faaā International Airport in Tahiti, are quite small. Buildings and management have become increasingly sophisticated since the mid 20th century, detailed technical standards have been developed to ensure safety and common coding systems implemented to provide global consistency. The physical structures that serve millions of passengers and flights are among the most complex. In August 1919, Hounslow Heath Aerodrome, in London, England was the first airport to operate scheduled international commercial services and it was closed and supplanted by Croydon Airport in March 1920. In the United States, Douglas Municipal Airport in Arizona became the first international airport of the Americas in 1928, the precursors to international airports were airfields or aerodromes.
In the early days of international flights, there was limited infrastructure, four-engined land planes being unavailable for over-water operations to international destinations, thus/therefore flying boats became part of the solution. At the far end of the longest international route, on-water landing areas were found in such as Surabaya. In Sydney, Rose Bay, New South Wales, was chosen as the landing area. International airports sometimes serve military as well as commercial purposes and their viability is affected by technological developments, other international airports, such as Kai Tak Airport in Hong Kong, have been decommissioned and replaced when they reached capacity or technological advances rendered them inadequate. Airports may be regarded as emblematic of national pride and so the design may be architecturally ambitious, an example is the planned New Mexico City international airport, intended to replace an airport that has reached capacity. Airports can be towered or non-towered, depending on air traffic density, because of high capacity and busy airspace, many international airports have air traffic control located on site.
Construction of the expressway included the construction of two bridges and the Ma Wan viaduct on Ma Wan island to connect the bridges, each bridge carries rail and automobile traffic. International airports have commercial relationships with and provide services to airlines, many serve as hubs, or places where non-direct flights may land and passengers may switch planes, while others serve primarily direct point-to-point flights. This affects airport design factors, including the number and placement of terminals as well as the flow of passengers, an airport specializing in point-to-point transit can have international and domestic terminals, each in their separate building equipped with separate baggage handling facilities. In a hub airport, however and services are shared, technical standards for safety and operating procedures at international airports are set by international agreements. The International Air Transport Association, formed in 1945, is the association of the airline companies, the International Civil Aviation Organization is a body of the United Nations succeeding earlier international committees going back to 1903.
These two organizations served to create regulations over airports which the airports themselves had no authority to debate and this eventually sparked an entire subject of air travel politics
1960 Summer Olympics
The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held from August 25 to September 11,1960, in Rome, Italy. Rome had been awarded the organization of the 1908 Summer Olympics, on June 15,1955, at the 50th IOC Session in Paris, Rome beat out Lausanne, Budapest, Mexico City and Tokyo for the rights to host the Games. Tokyo and Mexico City would eventually host the following 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics, Toronto was initially interested in the bidding, but appears to have been dropped during the final bid process. This is the first of five attempts by Toronto from 1960 to 2001, swedish sprint canoeist Gert Fredriksson won his sixth Olympic title. Fencer Aladár Gerevich of Hungary won his sixth gold medal in the team sabre event The Japanese mens gymnastics team won the first of five successive golds. The United States mens national basketball team—led by future Basketball Hall of Famers Walt Bellamy, Jerry Lucas, Oscar Robertson, danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won his fourth straight gold medal in the Finn class.2 seconds.
Wilma Rudolph, US, a polio patient, won three gold medals in sprint events on the track. She was acclaimed as the fastest woman in the world, jeff Farrell, US, won two gold medals in swimming. He underwent an emergency appendectomy six days before the Olympic Trials, abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon bare-footed to become the first black African Olympic champion. Cassius Clay, US, known as Muhammad Ali, won boxings light-heavyweight gold medal, ramon Buddy Carr was one of the coaches that led this team to winning gold. Herb Elliott, AUS, won the mens 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history, rafer Johnson, US, defeated his rival and friend C. K. Yang in one of the greatest Decathlon events in Olympic history. The future Constantine II, last King of Greece won his country a gold in sailing, the Pakistani Mens Field Hockey team broke a run of Indian teams victories since 1928, defeating India in the final and winning Pakistans first Olympic gold medal. Singapore competed for the first time under its own flag, which was to become its national flag after independence, coincidentally, it was the first time an athlete from Singapore won an Olympic medal when Tan Howe Liang won silver in the Weightlifting lightweight category.
Wrestlers Shelby Wilson, and Doug Blubaugh, US, won medals in their respective weight classes. South Africa appeared in the Olympic arena for the last time under its apartheid regime and it would not be allowed to return until 1992, after which apartheid in sport had been abolished. Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed during his race under the influence of Roniacol and it was the second time an athlete died in competition at the Olympics, after the death of Portuguese marathon runner Francisco Lázaro at the 1912 Summer Olympics. Finnish Vilho Ylönen, a shooter, shot a bullseye to a wrong target. Peter Camejo, a 2004 American vice-presidential candidate for the Green Party, the future Queen Sofía of Spain represented her native Greece in sailing events
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forward and these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. English language nicknames for helicopter include chopper, helo, Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936. Some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration. Tandem rotor helicopters are in use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, and compound helicopters are all flying today, quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, and other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones.
The earliest references for vertical flight came from China, since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. This bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor, the spinning creates lift, and the toy flies when released. The 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong reportedly describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft, designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy. It was not until the early 1480s, when Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an aerial screw, that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight. His notes suggested that he built flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight.
In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a spring device. It was powered by a spring, and was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and his writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers
Leonardo da Vinci
He has been variously called the father of palaeontology and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute and tank, many historians and scholars regard Leonardo as the prime exemplar of the Universal Genius or Renaissance Man, an individual of unquenchable curiosity and feverishly inventive imagination. Much of his working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He worked in Rome and Venice, and he spent his last years in France at the home awarded to him by Francis I of France, Leonardo was, and is, renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait, Leonardos drawing of the Vitruvian Man is regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro coin, and T-shirts. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings have survived, Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised flying machines, a type of armoured fighting vehicle, concentrated power, an adding machine.
Some of his inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder. A number of Leonardos most practical inventions are nowadays displayed as working models at the Museum of Vinci. He made substantial discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, Leonardo is widely considered one of the most diversely talented individuals ever to have lived. Leonardo was born on 15 April 1452 at the hour of the night in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci. He was the son of the wealthy Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary, and Caterina. Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense – da Vinci simply meaning of Vinci, his birth name was Lionardo di ser Piero da Vinci, meaning Leonardo. The inclusion of the title ser indicated that Leonardos father was a gentleman, little is known about Leonardos early life. He spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother and his father had married a sixteen-year-old girl named Albiera Amadori, who loved Leonardo but died young in 1465 without children.
When Leonardo was sixteen, his father married again to twenty-year-old Francesca Lanfredini, pieros legitimate heirs were born from his third wife Margherita di Guglielmo and his fourth and final wife, Lucrezia Cortigiani. Leonardo received an education in Latin and mathematics. In life, Leonardo recorded only two childhood incidents, which he regarded as an omen, was when a kite dropped from the sky and hovered over his cradle, its tail feathers brushing his face