The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek name for the Jewish Feast of Weeks. For Christians, this event commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the followers of Jesus Christ, like other forms of evangelical Protestantism, Pentecostalism adheres to the inerrancy of scripture and the necessity of accepting Christ as personal Lord and Savior. It is distinguished by belief in the baptism in the Holy Spirit that enables a Christian to live a Spirit-filled and empowered life and this empowerment includes the use of spiritual gifts such as speaking in tongues and divine healing—two other defining characteristics of Pentecostalism. For this reason, some Pentecostals use the term Apostolic or Full Gospel to describe their movement, Pentecostalism emerged in the early 20th century among radical adherents of the Holiness movement who were energized by revivalism and expectation for the imminent Second Coming of Christ. In 1900, Charles Parham, an American evangelist and faith healer, the three-year-long Azusa Street Revival and led by William J.
While virtually all Pentecostal denominations trace their origins to Azusa Street, an early dispute centered on challenges to the doctrine of the Trinity. As a result, the Pentecostal Movement is divided between trinitarian and non-trinitarian branches, there are over 279 million Pentecostals worldwide, and the movement is growing in many parts of the world, especially the global South. Together and Charismatic Christianity numbers over 500 million adherents, Pentecostalism is an evangelical faith, emphasizing the reliability of the Bible and the need for the transformation of an individuals life through faith in Jesus. Like other evangelicals, Pentecostals generally adhere to the Bibles divine inspiration and inerrancy—the belief that the Bible, Pentecostals emphasize the teaching of the full gospel or foursquare gospel. The central belief of Pentecostalism is that through the death and this is the Gospel or good news. The fundamental requirement of Pentecostalism is that one be born again, the new birth is received by the grace of God through faith in Christ as Lord and Savior.
In being born again, the believer is regenerated, adopted into the family of God, Pentecostal soteriology is generally Arminian rather than Calvinist. The security of the believer is a doctrine held within Pentecostalism, Pentecostals believe in both a literal heaven and hell, the former for those who have accepted Gods gift of salvation and the latter for those who have rejected it. For most Pentecostals there is no requirement to receive salvation. Baptism with the Holy Spirit and speaking in tongues are not generally required, a notable exception is Oneness Pentecostalism, most adherents of which believe both water baptism and Spirit baptism are integral components of salvation. Pentecostals identify three distinct uses of the baptism in the New Testament, Baptism into the body of Christ. Every believer in Christ is made a part of his body, the Holy Spirit is the agent, and the body of Christ is the medium. Baptism with the Holy Spirit, This is an experience distinct from baptism into the body of Christ
Carl Constantin Heinrich Steffeck was a German painter and graphic artist. He was especially known for his paintings of horses and dogs. He was the son of a gentleman of independent means who was interested in art, while he was still in the Gymnasium he sat in on classes at the Prussian Academy of Arts. In 1837, he entered the class of horse painter Franz Krüger and worked in the studios of Carl Joseph Begas. He went to Paris in 1839, where he spent two months studying with Paul Delaroche and was influenced by the work of Horace Vernet, from 1840 to 1842, he lived in Italy. When he returned, he devoted himself primarily to paintings of hunters and his student, Max Liebermann recalled how Steffeck would produce small horse-and-rider portraits, which he sold for six Friedrichsdor each and were taken home by customers while they were still wet. From the early 1850s, he was devoted to teaching. In 1859, he became a Professor at the Prussian Academy and, among his best-known non-animal works are The Execution of Robert Blum in Brigittenau and a cycle of scenes from Prussian history for the Wilhelms-Gymnasium in Königsberg.
He died suddenly, of a stroke, and is buried at the Französischer Friedhof in Berlin, Carl Steffeck, seine Kunst, sein Leben, seine Werke zur Ausstellung aus dem Nachlasse Carl Steffecks Oktober 1913, by Max Liebermann, et al. Cassirer, Berlin Literature by and about Carl Steffeck in the German National Library catalogue ArtNet, Paintings by Steffeck
Battle of Dennewitz
The Battle of Dennewitz took place on 6 September 1813 between the forces of the First French Empire and an army of Prussians and Russians of the Sixth Coalition. It occurred in Dennewitz, a village in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, in late August 1813, Napoleon decided to order a general offensive to take Berlin, the Prussian capital, with the overall goal of knocking the Prussians out of the war. Marshal Oudinots corps advanced towards this objective along three separate roads, the fighting that took place on 23 August was essentially three isolated actions at Blankenfield and Sputendorf. In each case the Allies prevailed and Oudinot retreated to Wittenberg, at this point Napoleon appointed Marshal Michel Ney to command. Ney, with around 58,000 men, renewed the advance on Berlin on 6 September and this was because he mistakenly expected Napoleon, away to the southeast near Dresden, to support him from this direction. He encountered mixed elements of Prussian and Swedish troops under the command of Crown Prince Charles John of Sweden at Dennewitz.
Ney had decided to move his army down a single road and was shadowed to the north by Bülows III Corps. While this allowed Ney to maintain communications with his entire army, as a result, the battle swayed back and forth with the arrival of fresh French and Allied reinforcements throughout its course. The Prussian General Tauentzien was at Juterbog, blocking Neys route to Berlin, Neys troops reached Dennewitz as Bülow was approaching Juterbog along an eastward route to their north. To keep Tuentzien and Bülow from uniting, the French occupied the north of Dennewitz now known as the Denkmalsberg. Despite early damage done to Tauentziens Corps, Bülow saved the situation by taking the hill and this was followed by a charge of the Brandenburg Dragoons down the hill. This gave time for the Prussian units which had earlier wavered to regroup, there were signs that all was not well in the French army at this time. The French empire was short of cavalry troops and mounts since the 1812 Russian campaign.
As a result, there was a lack of screening and reconnaissance, the French command situation was strained, as Oudinot was angered at being placed under Neys command. Marshal Ney was determined to advance with all haste to Berlin, initially forced back, the Prussian elements of Bernadottes army were reinforced by General Bülow and recovered the lost ground. Bülow would now assume command of the side for most of the remainder of the day. A see-sawing battle now developed, but just as the French appeared on the verge of a victory, not helped by a lack of support from Oudinot, made a mistake that swung the battle. Having joined in the fighting personally and being unaware of the situation due to a rainstorm on the battlefield
This conflict paralleled the Third Independence War of Italian unification. It saw the abolition of the German Confederation and its replacement by a North German Confederation that excluded Austria. The war resulted in the Italian annexation of the Austrian province of Venetia, for centuries, Central Europe was split into a few large states and hundreds of tiny entities, each maintaining its independence with the assistance of outside powers, particularly France. After 1815, the German states were again reorganized into a loose confederation. When Austria brought the dispute before the German Diet and decided to convene the Diet of Holstein, when the German Diet responded by voting for a partial mobilization against Prussia, Bismarck claimed that the German Confederation was ended. Crown Prince Frederick was the member of the Prussian Crown Council to uphold the rights of the Duke of Augustenberg. Although he supported unification and the restoration of the medieval empire, the ultimate aim of most German nationalists was the gathering of all Germans under one state.
Two ideas of national unity eventually came to the fore – once including, US newspaper The New York Times summarized its views of German nationalism shortly after the outbreak of the war, There is, in political geography, no Germany proper to speak of. There are Kingdoms and Grand Duchies, and Duchies and Principalities, inhabited by Germans, yet there is a natural undercurrent tending to a national feeling and toward a union of the Germans into one great nation, ruled by one common head as a national unit. Bismarck maintained that he orchestrated the conflict in order to bring about the North German Confederation, the Franco-Prussian War, taylor thinks Bismarck manipulated events into the most beneficial solution possible for Prussia. On 22 February 1866, Count Karolyi, Austrian ambassador in Berlin, sent a dispatch to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, possible evidence can be found in Bismarcks orchestration of the Austrian alliance during the Second Schleswig War against Denmark, which can be seen as his diplomatic masterstroke.
It was in the Prussian interest to gain an alliance with Austria to defeat Denmark and settle the issue of the duchies of Schleswig, the alliance can be regarded as an aid to Prussian expansion, rather than a provocation of war against Austria. Many historians believe that Bismarck was simply a Prussian expansionist, rather than a German nationalist and it was at the Gastein Convention that the Austrian alliance was set up to lure Austria into war. The timing of the declaration was perfect, because all other European powers were bound by alliances that forbade them from entering the conflict. Britain had no stake economically or politically in war between Prussia and Austria, the details of the discussion are unknown but many historians think Bismarck was guaranteed French neutrality in the event of a war. Italy was already allied with Prussia, which meant that Austria would be fighting both with no major allies of its own, Bismarck was aware of his numerical superiority but still he was not prepared to advise it immediately even though he gave a favourable account of the international situation.
When the Prussian victory became clear, France attempted to extract concessions in the Palatinate. Naturally I was not doubtful of the answer for a second, I answered him, its war
Eduard von Bonin
Eduard von Bonin was a Prussian general officer who served as Prussian Minister of War from 1852–54 and 1858-59. Bonin of the Bonin noble family of Pomerania and East Prussia was born in Stolp in Farther Pomerania, in 1806 he entered the regiment of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. During the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon Bonaparte, he participated in Gebhard Leberecht von Blüchers retreat to Lübeck, released after giving his word of honor, Bonin studied at the gymnasium in the garrison town of Prenzlau. In August 1809, Bonin entered the 1st Garderegiment as a Fähnrich, promoted to Leutnant in 1810, he was made an Adjutant of the Gardebrigade during the battles of 1813 and 1814. At Paris, he received the Iron Cross, 1st Class, Bonin was successively promoted to Hauptmann in 1817, Major of the Alexanderregiment in 1829, Oberst in 1842, and Commanding Officer of the 16th Infantry Brigade in 1848. Bonin took command of the Prussian Brigade of the Line on 26 March 1848 and he distinguished himself in battles at Schleswig and Düppel.
After the armistice of Malmö, Bonin was named commanding officer of the army of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. He fought successfully at Kolding on 20 April and 23 April 1849, after the second armistice between Prussia and Denmark, Bonin resigned his command of the Schleswig-Holstein army and returned to the Prussian Army in April 1850. At first the commander of Berlin, Bonin became the officer of the 16th Division in Trier. Bonin was promoted to Generalleutnant and named Minister of War in March 1852 and he advocated greater tactical mobility for infantry, which he provided with improved weapons. Bonin presided over the merger of the Landwehr with front-line troops through the creation of mixed line and he tried to improve the organization of the Landwehr cavalry. He received command of the 12 and he became Vice-Governor of Mainz on 20 March 1856. After the ministry of Otto von Manteuffel was dismissed on 6 November 1858, Bonin thus joined a more liberal ministry opposed to the reactionary politics of the previous eight years.
He was more favorable to constitutional politics than many high-ranking officers, rather than directly confronting Roon, Bonin tried to delay Roons plan through procrastination and appeals to William. However, concerned about war in Italy, William wanted to expand, influenced by Bonins rival, Edwin von Manteuffel, William hand-picked a special military commission led by Roon to draft a reform bill in September 1859. Furious that the Ministry of War was bypassed by Williams actions, Bonin criticized the proposed reforms, realizing that William had lost patience with him, Bonin resigned in November. He was replaced as Minister of War a month by Roon, Bonin was subsequently made commanding general of the VIII. Armeekorps in Koblenz, where he died, the Politics of the Prussian Army,1640 –1945
Generalfeldmarschall was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire, in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used. The rank was the equivalent to Großadmiral in the Kaiserliche Marine and Kriegsmarine, the title of Kaiserlich-Königlicher Feldmarschall is used in statutes of the Holy Roman Empire to describe senior military officials. The rank existed in the Austrian Empire as Kaiserlicher Feldmarschall and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire as Kaiserlicher und königlicher Feldmarschall, both were based on usage in the Holy Roman Empire. The monarch held the ex officio, other officers were promoted as required. Between 1914 and 1918, ten men attained this rank, of four were members of the reigning Habsburg dynasty. The equivalent of colonel-general in the German Navy was the rank of Generaladmiral, in 1870 Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia and Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm—who had commanded armies during the Franco-Prussian War—became the first Prussian princes appointed as field marshals.
Not even such well-known German commanders as Erich Ludendorff and Erich von Falkenhayn received marshals batons, the equivalent of a Generalfeldmarschall in the navy was Großadmiral. Unlike Kaiser Wilhelm II, Adolf Hitler distributed the rank more widely, promoting 26 Heer and Luftwaffe officers in total and two Kriegsmarine Grand Admirals. Four weeks after the Heer and Luftwaffe had won the Battle of France, in the promotion Hitler noted that no German or Prussian field marshal at that point in history had ever been captured alive. Paulus surrendered the day anyway, claiming Ich habe nicht die Absicht. A disappointed Hitler commented, Thats the last field marshal I make in this war, Generalfeldmarschall was the highest regular general officer rank in the German Wehrmacht, comparable to NATO rank codes OF10, and to the five-star rank in anglophone armed forces. It was equivalent to Großadmiral of the German Kriegsmarine and he bestowed generous presents on his highest officers, with Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb receiving RM250,000 for his 65th birthday from Hitler.
Promotion to the rank did not guarantee Hitlers ongoing favor, however, as the tide of the war turned, Hitler took out his frustrations on his top commanders, relieving most of the Generalfeldmarschalls of duty before the wars conclusion. Von Bock, Von Brauchitsch, Von Leeb, and List were all relieved of their posts in 1942 for perceived failures during Operation Barbarossa, paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist, Von Manstein and Sperrle were similarly retired in 1944 and Von Rundstedt and Maximilian von Weichs in March 1945. Grand Admiral Erich Raeder was retired in January 1943 following an argument with Hitler over the future of the German surface fleet. Walther Model, one of Hitlers most successful commanders, had nevertheless lost the Fuhrers confidence by wars end and committed suicide to avoid capture, ferdinand Schörner ignominiously abandoned his command to save himself in the wars last days. Von Kluge, Von Witzleben and Rommel were either executed or forced to suicide for their real or imagined roles in assassination plots against Hitler.
By wars end, only Keitel, Robert Ritter von Greim, the Nationale Volksarmee of the Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR created the rank of Marschall der DDR on 25 March 1982
Frederick III, German Emperor
Frederick III was German Emperor and King of Prussia for ninety-nine days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors. Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl, known informally as Fritz, was the son of Emperor Wilhelm I and was raised in his familys tradition of military service. Following the unification of Germany in 1871 his father, King of Prussia, Frederick was suffering from cancer of the larynx when he died on 15 June 1888, aged fifty-six, following unsuccessful medical treatments for his condition. Frederick married Victoria, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, the couple were well-matched, their shared liberal ideology led them to seek greater representation for commoners in the government. Frederick, in spite of his conservative militaristic family background, had developed liberal tendencies as a result of his ties with Britain, liberals in both Germany and Britain hoped that as emperor, Frederick III would move to liberalize the German Empire. Frederick and Victoria were great admirers of Prince Albert, Victorias father and they planned to rule as consorts, like Albert and Queen Victoria, and to reform what they saw as flaws in the executive branch that Bismarck had created for himself.
The office of Chancellor, responsible to the Emperor, would be replaced with a British-style cabinet, government policy would be based on the consensus of the cabinet. Frederick described the Imperial Constitution as ingeniously contrived chaos and he sought to guard against such a turn by keeping the Crown Prince from a position of any influence and by using foul means as well as fair to make him unpopular. The timing of Fredericks death and the length of his reign are important topics among historians, Frederick William was born in the New Palace at Potsdam in Prussia on 18 October 1831. He was a scion of the House of Hohenzollern, rulers of Prussia, Fredericks father, Prince William, was a younger brother of King Frederick William IV and, having been raised in the military traditions of the Hohenzollerns, developed into a strict disciplinarian. Because of their differences, the couple did not have a marriage and, as a result, Frederick grew up in a troubled household. He had one sister, who was eight years his junior, Frederick had a very good relationship with his uncle, King Frederick William IV, who has been called the romantic on the throne.
Frederick grew up during a tumultuous political period as the concept of liberalism in Germany, the liberals desired a government ruled by popular representation. When Frederick was 17, these emergent nationalistic and liberal sentiments sparked a series of uprisings across the German states. In Germany, their goal was to protect freedoms, such as the freedom of assembly and freedom of the press, although the uprisings ultimately brought about no lasting changes, liberal sentiments remained an influential force in German politics throughout Fredericks life. Despite the value placed by the Hohenzollern family on a military education. Accordingly, Frederick was thoroughly tutored in military traditions and the liberal arts. His private tutor was Ernst Curtius, a famous archaeologist, Frederick was a talented student, particularly good at foreign languages, becoming fluent in English and French, and studying Latin
Charles Abel Douay was a general in the French army during the reign of the Emperor Napoleon III. He commanded troops in numerous French campaigns in Europe and overseas and he was killed in battle at the age of sixty-one, near Wissembourg during the Franco-Prussian War. Charles Abel Douay was born in the city of Draguignan on 2 March 1809 and he became a well-known and well-respected military officer, described roundly as an able and intrepid soldier. He served in Algeria, in the Crimean War, and in Italy in 1859 and he was the elder brother of General Félix Charles Douay, who was a distinguished career officer. At the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War, Abel Douay had already settled into his position as president of the academy at Saint-Cyr. The subsequent Battle of Wissembourg proved a disaster for the French, demoralized by the loss of their commander, Douays outnumbered division fell back. By the end of the month, a loss at the Battle of Sedan eliminated Mac-Mahons entire army and, with it.
The massive scale of the quickly became apparent – total Prussian forces are estimated between 50,000 to 80,000. By mid-morning Abel Douay was already organizing for a withdrawal when he was killed by a burst of artillery, the withdrawal turned into a rout, with over a thousand French soldiers dead and a thousand more taken prisoner. The death of Abel Douay was a deeply demoralizing blow to the French army, however, were as shocked as Napoleon III, who immediately issued a flurry of new orders reconstituting the armys command structure and strategic guidelines. General Félix Douay was stationed along the front as his older brother. He too served as a commander, leader of the French 7th Corps. A solemn portrayal of this scene was created by the Prussian history painter Anton von Werner. General Abel Douay is buried in a stately tomb just outside Wissembourg together with many of his fallen soldiers, a large monument to the battle was erected near his tomb at the end of the First World War. The campaign of Sedan, the downfall of the second empire, the Franco-Prussian War, the German invasion of France, 1870–1871.
Margueritte, Margueritte, Lees, handbook for North Germany, from the Baltic to the Black Forest, and the Rhine. Cassells History of the War Between France and Germany, 1870-1871, the Franco-Prussian War, the German conquest of France in 1870-1871. The Historians History of the World, France, 1815-1904, service historique de la défense – File of General Charles Abel Douay
Battle of Wissembourg (1870)
The Battle of Wissembourg or Battle of Weissenburg, the first of the Franco-Prussian War, was joined when three German army corps surprised the small French garrison at Wissembourg on August 4,1870. The defenders, greatly outnumbered, fought stubbornly, in June,1870 Napoleon III had moved the French army into Lorraine and occupied Saarbrücken. Napoleon wished to win a significant battle on German soil and ordered Marshal Patrice Mac-Mahon to bring up the French I and V Corps, Mac-Mahons objective was to reach Wissembourg where he already had one division stationed under General Abel Douay. Once there he would concentrate his forces for a strike into Germany, the German III Army under Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm and his able Chief of Staff, General von Blumenthal, was already moving towards Wissembourg. Neither side was aware of the others movements. At the outbreak of war, General Ducrot, commanding the 6th French Division at Strasbourg, the sub-prefect of Wissembourg protested this decision, not sharing Ducrots doubts on the wisdom of diluting the 6th division along the German frontier.
The 1st Cavalry Brigade would patrol the frontier east of Wissembourg up to Schleithal, Ducrots familiarity with the terrain earned him the responsibility of overseeing the deployment of the various units in the area, including Douays 1st Division. Finally, Douay was to relieve the 96th infantry regiment in the village of Climbach, at this point Ducrot received gravely flawed intelligence. General Frossard, without instructions, hastily withdrew the elements of Army of the Rhine in Saarbrücken back to Spicheren, Marshal MacMahon, now closest to Wissembourg, spread his four divisions over 20 miles to react to any Prussian invasion. This organization of forces was due to a lack of supplies, what made a bad situation much worse was the conduct of General Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot, commander of the 1st Division. Two days later, he told MacMahon that he had not found and it looks to me as if the menace of the Bavarians is simply bluff. Even though Ducrot shrugged off the possibility of an attack by the Germans, MacMahon tried to warn the other divisions of his army, without success.
During the day, elements of a Bavarian and two Prussian corps became engaged and were aided by Prussian artillery, which blasted holes in the defenses of the town. Douay held a strong position initially, thanks to the accurate long-range fire of the Chassepots. Douay was killed in the morning when a caisson of the divisional mitrailleuse battery exploded near him. The fighting within the town had become extremely intense, becoming a door to battle of survival. Despite a never-ending attack of Prussian infantry, the soldiers of the 2nd Division kept to their positions, the people of the town of Wissembourg finally surrendered to the Germans. The French troops who did not surrender retreated westward, leaving behind 1,000 dead and wounded and another 1,000 prisoners, the final attack by the Prussian troops cost c. 1,000 casualties