Leonid Arkadevich Taranenko is a former Soviet/Belarusian weightlifter. His 266 kg clean and jerk in 1988 is still the largest amount lifted in competition, though it is no longer an official world record due to subsequent restructuring of weight classes. Taranenko trained at VSS Uradzhai in Minsk, his first major success took place at the 1980 Olympics, competing for the Soviet Union, he won the gold medal in the 110 kilogram class with a 422.5 kg total. He was unable to compete in the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles due to the Soviet boycott, but competed in the 1984 Friendship Games, where he won the 110 kg class with a world record total of 442.5 kg, exceeding the winning total in Los Angeles by 52.5 kg. After this, Taranenko moved up to the super-heavyweight class. Lifting in Canberra, Australia on November 26, 1988, he set a world record of 266 kg in the clean and jerk, 476 kg in the total, having lifted 210 kg in the snatch. While these results are no longer recognized as official world records due to subsequent restructuring of the competitive weight classes, as of 2019, his 266kg clean and jerk remains the highest achieved in competition, while his total of 476kg remained the highest achieved until broken by Lasha Talakhadze of Georgia at the 2017 World Championships.
In 1992, Taranenko represented the Unified Team at the Olympics in Barcelona. He took the silver medal in the super-heavyweight class with a total of 425 kg. Taranenko's other victories include the 110 kg class titles at the 1980 World and European championships, super-heavyweight titles at the 1990 World championship and 1988, 1991, 1996 European championships. Snatch: 210 kg in the class over 110 kg Clean and jerk: 266 kg Total: 442.5 kg 1984 in Varna in the class to 110 kg Total: 476 kg, in Canberra, Australia on November 26, 1988, in the class over 110 kg. Back Squat: 380 kg with a two-second pause at rock-bottom Front Squat: 300 kg for a triple Olympic Press: 230 kg IWRP Profile World records and titles by Leonid Taranenko
Yury Petrovich Vlasov is a Soviet writer and retired heavyweight weightlifter and politician. He competed at the 1960 and 1964 Olympics and won a gold medal in 1960 and a silver in 1964. During his career Vlasov set 31 ratified world records, he retired in 1968 and became a prominent writer and a politician. He was a member of the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union and of the Russian State Duma and took part in the 1996 Russian presidential election. Yury was born in Makeyevka, Ukrainian SSR, to the family of Pyotr Vlasov, a military journalist and Komintern agent, his father worked as the General Consul in Shanghai and the Ambassador to Burma. Both his parents were born in Russia. Yury studied at the Saratov Suvorov military school at the Zhukovsky Air Force Academy in Moscow, from which he graduated with honors in 1959. In 1956, while studying at the Academy he became interested in weightlifting, joined the Armed Forces sports society and soon became Master of Sport of the USSR.
He was noticed in 1958. Between 1959 and 1963 he won all the competitions he participated in, with a major success at the Rome 1960 Summer Olympics where he set three world records and became the first man to clean and jerk more than 200 kg, he was proclaimed the best sportsmen of the 1960 Olympics and the "Strongest Man on the Planet". He was considered a nerdish intellectual in rim glasses, going against the stereotypes attached to weightlifting. At the 1964 Summer Olympics he finished second, after another Soviet weightlifter, Leonid Zhabotinsky. Vlasov was breaking world records at the 1964 Olympics and was aiming to retire from competitions with the gold medal, he was bitterly disappointed by the tactical tricks played by Zhabotinsky during the final clean-and-jerk event, which he considered dishonest – Zhabotinsky intentionally failed his second attempt, talked and behaved as if he does not compete for the gold medal. In reality Zhabotinsky positioned himself behind Vlasov, who started the event first, in his last attempt would order any weight required to win the overall competition.
Although Vlasov announced his retirement after the 1964 Olympics, he resumed top-level training in 1966 for financial reasons. He set his last world record on 15 May 1967, by pressing 199 kg. Vlasov retired from senior competitions in June 1968. Around the same time he retired from the Soviet Army, where he worked as a sports instructor, he held the rank of Captain. In 1969, while lecturing in Norway, he was asked to lift 200 kg, which he did despite a year-long break in training. Olympic champion. At the peak of his popularity Vlasov was included to international delegations visiting foreign leaders, such as Fidel Castro and Charles de Gaulle, he was a favorite of Nikita Khrushchev. Arnold Schwarzenegger, seven-times Mr. Olympia, considered Vlasov as a major motivation for his career as a bodybuilder and a strongman, they first met at the 1961 World Championships in Vienna when Schwarzenegger was only 14. Vlasov does not recall what he said to Schwarzenegger but remembers that he was excited after winning the championships and encouraged Schwarzenegger to continue strength training no matter what.
In 1988, while filming Red Heat in Moscow, Schwarzenegger insisted on meeting Vlasov, who by fell out of grace of Soviet leaders, gave him his photograph signed "To my Idol Yuri Vlasov". For his weightlifting victories Vlasov was awarded the Order of Lenin and Order of the Badge of Honour, he is a member of the Union of Russian Writers. Vlasov's health deteriorated in 1978–1979, which he related to a nervous breakdown due to his writing activities but not to weightlifting, he had a few surgeries on his spine. In the 1980s he returned to the top sport as a functionary – between 1985 and 1987 he was president of the Soviet Weightlifting Federation, from 1987 to 1989 headed the Soviet Bodybuilding Federation. A doping-free athlete, he was stunned by the massive use of anabolic steroids by weightlifters and bodybuilders in those years. Vlasov continued training with weights through most of his life. In 2004, aged 69, he took part in a masters competition in Moscow and lifted 185 kg in the clean and jerk event.
By he lowered his body weight to 109 kg, while his maximum senior weight was 136.4 kg at the 1964 Olympics. Vlasov became a professional writer and journalist years before his retirement from competitions – his short stories were published by Soviet newspapers back in 1959. In 1961 he won a prize for best sports story from the Union of Soviet Writers. Starting from the 1962 European Championships, he was attending international competitions not only as a weightlifter, but as a special correspondent to the major Soviet newspaper Izvestia. Before the 1964 Olympics he published his first book, a collection of short stories titled Overcoming Yourself. After retiring from competitions and from the military service in 1968 Vlasov dedicated himself to writing, he published over 15 novels, most notably the Flaming Cross trilogy about life during and after the
Giuseppe Tonani was an Italian heavyweight weightlifter who won a gold medal at the 1924 Olympics, placing seventh in 1928. Earlier in 1920 he was part of the Italian Olympics tug of war team
Zaporizhia known as Zaporozhye Alexandrovsk, is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the administrative centre of the Zaporizhia Oblast; the city population is the sixth largest in Ukraine. Zaporizhia is known for its island of Dnieper Hydroelectric Station, it is important industrial centre producing steel, aircraft engines, transformers for substations, other heavy industry goods. Until 1921 the city bore the name of Aleksandrovsk after the name of a fortress, a part of the Dnieper Defence Line of Russian Empire. In 1921 the city name was changed to Zaporizhia; the city's name "Zaporizhia" means the position of the city located beyond the rapids. Archaeological finds show that about two or three thousand years ago Scythians lived around a modern city. Khazars, Kuman and Slavs dwelt there; the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks passed through the island of Khortytsia. These territories were called the "Wild Fields", because they were not under the control of any state (it was the land between the eroded borders of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Ottoman Empire.
In 1552 Dmytro Vyshnevetsky erected wood-earth fortifications on the small island Little Khortytsia, near the western shore of Khortytsia island. The scientists consider these fortifications to be a prototype for the Zaporizhian Sich — the stronghold of the paramilitary peasant regiments of Cossacks. In 1770 the fortress of Aleksandrovskaya was erected and is considered to be the year of the foundation of Zaporizhia; as a part of the Dnieper Defence Line the fortress protected the southern territories of Russian Empire from Crimean Tatar invasions. It is uncertain in; some believe that it was the general who served Catherine the Great. Other possibilities are Alexander Rumyantsev. In 1775, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Küçük Kaynarca peace treaty, according to which the southern lands of the Russian Plain and Crimean peninsula became Russian-governed territories; as a result, the Aleksandrovskaya Fortress lost its military significance and converted into a small provincial rural town, known from 1806 under the name Alexandrovsk.
In 1789, Mennonites from Danzig accepted the invitation from Catherine the Great to settle several colonies in the area of the modern city. The island of Khortitza was gifted to them for "perpetual possession" by the Russian government. In 1914, the Mennonites sold the island back to the city; the Mennonites built agricultural factories in Alexandrovsk. During the Russian Revolution and by World War II most of the Mennonites had fled to North and South America as well as being forcfully relocated to eastern Russia. At present, few Mennonites live in Zaporizhia, although in the area many industrial buildings and houses built by Mennonites are preserved. In 1829, it was proposed to build a cable ferry across the Dnieper; the ferry could carry a dozen carts. The project was approved by Tsar and was used in other parts of the Russian Empire. In 1904 the ferry was replaced by the Kichkas Bridge, built in the narrowest part of the river called "Wolf Throat", near to the northern part of the Khortytsia Island.
The first railway bridge over the Dnieper was the Kichkas Bridge, designed by Y. D. Proskuryakov and E. O. Paton; the construction works were supervised by F. W. Lat; the total bridge length was 336 meters. It crossed the river with a single span of 190 m; the upper tier carried a double-track railway line, whilst the lower tier was used for other types of vehicles. It was built at the narrowest part of the Dnieper river known as Wolf Throat. Construction started in 1900, it opened for pedestrian traffic in 1902; the official opening of the bridge was 17 April 1904, though railway traffic on the bridge only commenced on 22 January 1908. The opening of the Kichkas Bridge led to the industrial growth of Alexandrovsk. In 1916, during the World War I, the aviation engines plant of DEKA Stock Association was transferred from Saint Petersburg; the Kichkas Bridge was of strategic importance during the Russian Civil War, carried troops, the wounded and medical supplies. Because of this bridge and its environs was the scene of fierce fighting from 1918 to 1921 between the Red Army and the White armies of Denikin and Wrangel and German-Austrian troops, after their defeat, the struggle with insurgents led by Grigoriev and Makhno.
The bridge was damaged a number of times. The most serious damage was inflicted by Makhno's troops when they retreated from Alexandrovsk in 1920 and blew a 40 m wide gap in the middle of the bridge. People's Commissar of Railways Dzerzhinsky of the Bolshevik government ordered the repair of the bridge; the metallurgical plant of Bryansk joint-stock company in Dnipropetrovsk built a replacement section. The Kichkas Bridge reopened on 14 September 1921. On 19 October 1921, the Soviet Council of Labour and Defence awarded the Yekaterininsky railroad the Order of the Red Banner of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic for the early restoration of the Kichkas Bridge. At the beginning of 20th century, Zaporizhia was a s
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
1968 Summer Olympics
The 1968 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, from October 12th to the 27th. These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America and the first to be staged in a Spanish-speaking country, they were the first Games to use an all-weather track for track and field events instead of the traditional cinder track. The 1968 Games were the third to be held in the last quarter of the year, after the 1956 Games in Melbourne and the 1964 Games in Tokyo; the Mexican Student Movement of 1968 happened concurrently and the Olympic Games were correlated to the government's repression. On October 18, 1963, at the 60th IOC Session in Baden-Baden, West Germany, Mexico City finished ahead of bids from Detroit, Buenos Aires and Lyon to host the Games; the 1968 torch relay recreated the route taken by Christopher Columbus to the New World, journeying from Greece through Italy and Spain to San Salvador Island, on to Mexico. American sculptor James Metcalf, an expatriate in Mexico, won the commission to forge the Olympic torch for the 1968 Summer Games.
In the medal award ceremony for the men's 200 meter race, black American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos took a stand for civil rights by raising their black-gloved fists and wearing black socks in lieu of shoes. The Australian Peter Norman, who had run second, wore an American "civil rights" badge as support to them on the podium. In response, the IOC banned Smith and Carlos from the Olympic Games for life, Norman's omission from Australia's Olympic team in 1972 was as punishment. George Foreman won the gold medal in heavyweight boxing division by defeating Soviet Ionas Chepulis via a second-round TKO. After the victory, Foreman waved a small American flag; the high elevation of Mexico City, at 2,240 m above sea level, influenced many of the events in track and field. No other Summer Olympic Games before or since have been held at high elevation. In addition to high elevation, this was the first Olympics to use a synthetic all-weather surface for track and field events; the tracks at previous Olympics were conventional cinder.
For the first time and West Germany competed as separate teams, after being forced by the IOC to compete as a combined German team in 1956, 1960, 1964. Al Oerter won his fourth consecutive gold medal in the discus to become only the second athlete to achieve this feat in an individual event, the first in track & field. Bob Beamon leapt 8.90 m in the long jump, an incredible 55 cm improvement over the previous world record. It remained the Olympic record and stood as the world record for 23 years, until broken by American Mike Powell in 1991. Jim Hines, Tommie Smith and Lee Evans set long-standing world records in the 100 m, 200 m and 400 m, respectively. In the triple jump, the previous world record was improved five times by three different athletes. Winner Viktor Saneev won in 1972 and 1976, won silver in 1980. Dick Fosbury won the gold medal in the high jump using his unconventional Fosbury flop technique, which became the dominant technique in the event. Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia won four gold medals in gymnastics and protested the Soviet invasion of her country.
Debbie Meyer became the first swimmer to win three individual gold medals, in the 200, 400 and 800 m freestyle events. The 800 m was a new long-distance event for women. Meyer was only 16 years old, a student at Rio Americano High School in California. Meyer was the first of several American teenagers to win the 800 m. American swimmer Charlie Hickcox won three gold medals and one silver medal; the introduction of doping tests resulted in the first disqualification because of doping: Swedish pentathlete Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall was disqualified for alcohol use. John Stephen Akhwari of Tanzania became internationally famous after finishing the marathon, in the last place, despite a dislocated knee; this was the first of three Olympic participation by Jacques Rogge. He competed in yachting and would become the president of the IOC. Norma Enriqueta Basilio de Sotelo of Mexico became the first woman to light the Olympic cauldron with the Olympic flame, it was the first games. Africans won at least one medal in all running events from 800 meters to the marathon, in so doing they set a trend for future games.
Most of these runners came from high-altitude areas of countries like Kenya and Ethiopia, they were well-prepared for the 2240 m elevation of Mexico City. Kipchoge Keino of Kenya, competing in spite of unexpected bouts of severe abdominal pain diagnosed as a gall bladder infection, finished the 10,000 meters in spite of collapsing from pain with two laps to go, won silver in the 5000, won gold in the 1500 meters, it was the first Olympic games in which the closing ceremony was transmitted in color to the world, as well as the events themselves. South Africa was provisionally invited to the Games, on the understanding that all segregation and discrimination in sport would be eliminated by the 1972 Games. However, African countries and African American athletes promised to boycott the Games if South Africa was present, Eastern Bloc countries threatened to do likewise. In April 1968 the IOC conceded that "it would be most unwise for South Africa to participate". Responding to growing social unrest and protests, the government of Me
Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia; the origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin. The emergence of Cossacks is dated to the 14th or 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Cossack Host; the Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Cossack state under Russian rule.
The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate. The Don Cossack Host, established by the 16th century, allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia and the Yaik and the Terek rivers. Cossack communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Cossacks. By the 18th century Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders; the expansionist ambitions of the Empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, self-rule, independence. Cossacks such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa and Yemelyan Pugachev led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence; the empire responded with ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Cossack Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–08, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708, the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.
By the end of the 18th century Cossack nations had been transformed into a special military estate, "a military class". Similar to the knights of medieval Europe in feudal times or the tribal Roman auxiliaries, the Cossacks came to military service having to obtain charger horses and supplies at their own expense; the government provided only supplies for them. Cossack service was considered the most rigorous one; because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries, such as the Great Northern War, the Seven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, the Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Persian Wars, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Cossacks extensively to perform police service, they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders. During the Russian Civil War and Kuban Cossacks were the first people to declare open war against the Bolsheviks.
By 1918 Russian Cossacks declared the complete independence and formed independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic. The Ukrainian State emerged. Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the Holodomor. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in post-Soviet conflicts. In Russia's 2002 Population Census, 140,028 people reported their ethnicity as Cossacks. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Ukraine and the United States. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to the Old East Slavic word козакъ, kozak, a loanword from Cuman, in which cosac meant "free man", from Turkish/Turkic languages quazzaq rabble rouser, trouble maker, outcast rebel, from Tatar languages Kazak skinny bollard The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.
In modern Turkish it is pronounced as "Kazak". In written sources the name is first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century. In English, "Cossack" is first attested in 1590, it is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongols broke the power of the Cumans, who had assimilated the previous population on that territory, it is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks. However, Slavic settlements in southern Ukraine started to appear early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Oleshky, dating back to the 11th century. Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.
Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Belarusians, Turks and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe. However some Turkologists arg