Frederick IV, Duke of Austria
Frederick IV known as Frederick of the Empty Pockets, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1402 until his death. As a scion of the Habsburg Leopoldian line, he ruled over Further Austria and the County of Tyrol from 1406 onwards. Frederick was the youngest son of Duke Leopold III and his wife Viridis, a daughter of Bernabò Visconti, Lord of Milan. According to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, his father ruled over the Habsburg Inner Austrian territories of Styria, Carniola, as well as over Tyrol and the dynasty's original Further Austrian possessions in Swabia. After the early death of Duke Leopold in the 1386 Battle of Sempach and his elder brothers William, Leopold IV and Ernest remained under the tutelage of their uncle Duke Albert III of Austria; as an inheritance dispute arose upon Duke Albert's death in 1395, the young Leopoldian dukes insisted on their rights: the next year, William went on to rule the Inner Austrian lands and Leopold IV ascended as Count of Tyrol. When Frederick came of age in 1402, he was formally assigned to administrate his father's inheritance in the scattered Habsburg territories in Swabia, referred to collectively as Further Austria and took his residence in Freiburg im Breisgau.
Another division of the Leopoldian territories took place after William' death in 1406: Duke Leopold IV, now eldest heir, ceded Tyrol to Frederick, however, he did not become sole ruler in Further Austria until Leopold's death in 1411. The early years of Frederick's reign were marked by internal conflicts, he had to overcome the opposition of Tyrolean nobles in 1406/07 and a rebellion in the Bishopric of Trent. He had to deal with the independence movement in the Swabian Appenzell lands, where the conflict with the Prince-Abbots of St Gall had escalated in 1401, sparking the Appenzell Wars. Frederick had to withstand in a series of longstanding military conflicts, until a peace was concluded in 1410. However, the Appenzell area became a protectorate of the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1411. Back in Tyrol, he had to face the invading forces of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria, whom he defeated in the Lower Inn Valley. Upon the death of Duke Leopold IV in 1411, the surviving younger brothers Frederick and Ernest again divided the Leopoldian possessions.
With Further Austria, Frederick became undisputed ruler over the Habsburg territories in the Alsace region and of the Burgau margraviate. In 1417 he inherited the former Kyburg estates from the extinct comital Habsburg-Laufenburg branch. Several border conflicts with the Republic of Venice led to the loss of Rovereto in the Lagarina Valley. Under the terms of the Western Schism, Duke Frederick sided with Antipope John XXIII, whom he helped on his flight from the Council of Constance in March 1415; the Luxembourg king Sigismund had John arrested in Breisgau and placed Frederick under the Imperial ban. Thanks to the support of the local populace he managed to keep Tyrol, though he lost the western Aargau, the Freiamt and County of Baden estates, in the old homeland of the Habsburgs, to the Swiss. In 1420, Frederick moved his Tyrolean court from Meran to Innsbruck. After several rebellions by local nobles, his rule over Tyrol had stabilized due to the successful beginning of silver mining that brought an increase in prosperity to the region.
After the death of his brother Ernest on 10 June 1424, Duke Frederick took over the regency over Inner Austria for his minor nephews Frederick V and Albert VI. In his years, however, he again had to cope with another rebellion against his Tyrolean rule, instigated by Prince-Bishop Alexander of Trent. Frederick died at his court despite his nickname a rich man, his son and heir Sigismund was called der Münzreiche. Frederick was buried in the Cistercian abbey of Tyrol. On 24 December 1407, Frederick married Elizabeth of the Palatinate, daughter of King Rupert of Germany, in Innsbruck, they had one daughter, but both mother and child died shortly after the birth on 27 December 1408. On 11 June 1411, Frederick married Anna, daughter of the Welf duke Frederick I of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Only Sigismund survived until adulthood, he succeeded his father in Further Austria. Encyclopedia of Austria
Bernabò or Barnabò Visconti was an Italian soldier and statesman, Lord of Milan. He was born in the son of Stefano Visconti and Valentina Doria. From 1346 to 1349 he lived in exile. On 27 September 1350 Bernabò married Beatrice Regina della Scala, daughter of Mastino II, Lord of Verona and Taddea da Carrara, forged both a political and cultural alliance between the two cities, his intrigues and ambitions kept him at war continuously with Pope Urban V, the Florentines and Savoy. In 1354, at the death of Giovanni, he inherited the power of Milan, together with his brothers Matteo and Galeazzo. Bernabò received the eastern lands. Milan itself was to be ruled in turn by the three brothers; the vicious Matteo was murdered in 1355 at the order of his brothers, who divided his inheritance between them. In 1356, after having offended the emperor, he pushed back a first attack upon Milan by the imperial vicar Markward von Randeck, imprisoning him. In 1360 he was declared heretic by Innocent VI at Avignon and condemned by Emperor Charles IV.
The ensuing conflict ended with a dismaying defeat at San Ruffillo against the imperial troops under Galeotto I Malatesta. In 1362, after the death of his sister's husband, Ugolino Gonzaga, caused him to attack Mantua. Warring on several different fronts, in December of that year he sued for peace with the new pope, Urban V, through the mediation of King John II of France. However, because Barnabò neglected to return the papal city of Bologna and to present himself at Avignon, on 4 March 1363 he was excommunicated once more, together with his children, one of whom, was captured by the Papal commander Gil de Albornoz. With the peace signed on 13 March 1364, Visconti left the occupied Papal lands, in exchange for the raising of the ban upon a payment of 500,000 florins. In spring 1368 Visconti allied with Cansignorio della Scala of Verona, attacked Mantua, still ruled by Ugolino Gonzaga; the situation was settled in the year through an agreement between him and emperor. Two years he besieged Reggio, which he managed to acquire from Gonzaga in 1371.
The following war against the Este of Modena and Ferrara raised again Papal enmity against the Milanese, now on the part of Gregory XI. In 1370, he ordered the construction of the Trezzo Bridge the largest single-arch bridge in the world. In 1373, the pope sent two papal delegates to serve Bernabò and Galeazzo their excommunication papers. Bernabò, placed the two papal delegates under arrest and refused their release until they had eaten the parchment and silken cord which they had served him, he managed to resist, despite the outbreak of a plague in Milan, whose consequences he suppressed with frantic energy. In 1378 he allied with the Republic of Venice in its War of Chioggia against Genoa, his troops were however defeated in September 1379 in the Val Bisagno. Bernabò, whose despotism and taxes had enraged the Milanese — he is featured among the exempla of tyrants as victims of Fortune in Chaucer's Monk's Tale as "god of delit and scourge of Lumbardye" — was deposed by his nephew Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1385.
Imprisoned in the castle of Trezzo, he was poisoned in December of that year. Bonino da Campione sculpted the equestrian statue of Bernabò Visconti for the church of San Giovanni in Conca around 1363, its positioning near the church's main altar was regarded as problematic by contemporaries and it was commented on by poet and intellectual Petrarch among others. The equestrian statue was reused – with changes and additions carried out by the same Bonino in 1385-86 – as Bernabò's funerary monument in the same church, it is now preserved in the Castello Sforzesco in Milan. An erratic small-size male head in marble now in the storerooms of Castello Sforzesco has been rediscovered and tentatively identified as a portrait of the elderly Bernabò; this work too has been attributed to Bonino da Campione. Bernabò was an ally of Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria: three of his daughters were married with Stephen's descendants, he had 17 legitimate children with his wife Beatrice Regina della Scala: Taddea Visconti, Duchess of Bavaria, married on 13 October 1364 Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria, by whom she had three children including Isabeau of Bavaria, Queen consort of King Charles VI of France Viridis Visconti, married Leopold III, Duke of Inner Austria, by whom she had six children.
Marco Visconti, married Elisabeth of Bavaria Rodolfo Visconti, Lord of Parma Ludovico Visconti, married Violante Visconti, widow of Lionel of Antwerp and Secondotto, Marquess of Montferrat. They had a son, who left descendants. Carlo Visconti, married Beatrice of Armagnac, daughter of John II, Count of Armagnac and Jeanne de Périgord, by whom he had four children. Valentina Visconti, married firstly in 1378, King Peter II of Cyprus, by whom she had one daughter who died in early infancy. Agnese Visconti, married in 1380 Francesco I Gonzaga, by whom she had one daughter. Agnes was executed for alleged adultery. Antonia Visconti, married Eberhard III, Co
Catherine of Burgundy
Catharine of Burgundy was the second daughter of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and Margaret III, Countess of Flanders. She was Duchess of Further Austria, she was married on August 15, 1393 with Leopold IV, Duke of Austria, gaining the county of Ferrette for her dowry. Following Leopold's death in 1411, his brother Frederick occupied the county of Ferrette despite Catherine and her nephew Duke Philip of Burgundy's negotiations, she lived in her residence in the Alsace, close to her native Burgundy. The marriage remained childless and when her husband died in 1411. Around 1415, she remarried with Maximilian Smassmann von Rappoltstein; this marriage remained childless and they divorced in 1421. She was buried in the Chartreuse de Champmol. Genealogical database by herbert Stoyan at Uni-Erlangen Marek, Miroslav. "Marriage". Genealogy. EU
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Stefano Visconti was a member of the House of Visconti that ruled Milan from the 14th to the 15th century. He was the son of Matteo I Visconti. In 1318 he married Valentina Doria, daughter of Bernabò Doria from Sassello and of Eliena Fieschi, with whom he had three children: Matteo II, Galeazzo II and Bernabò, who shared the rule in Milan after his death. Stefano died in the night of July 4, 1327, after a banquet he gave Louis the Bavarian, shortly after he was crowned King of Italy, his contemporaries linked his death to an attempted poisoning of the King, leading to the imprisonment of three of Stefanos' four brothers, Galeazzo and Luchino, as well as of his nephew, the future Lord of Milan, Azzo Visconti, in the fortress of Monza: This event marked a crisis of the relations between the Holy Roman Empire and the Visconti. The magnificent tomb of Stefano and his wife Valentina, carved in 1359 by Bonino da Campione, is located in the Basilica Sant'Eustorgio in Milan
Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Germany
Elisabeth of Bavaria, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Queen consort of Germany from 1246 to 1254 by her marriage to King Conrad IV of Germany. She was born at Trausnitz Castle in Landshut, the eldest daughter of Otto II Wittelsbach and his wife Agnes of the Palatinate, herself a daughter of the Welf count palatine Henry V and Agnes of Hohenstaufen. Otto II succeeded his father Louis I as Bavarian duke and as Count palatine in 1231. In the conflict between the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II and the Roman Curia, he sided with the pope, but became a supporter of Frederick in 1241. Otto II had betrothed Elisabeth to Duke Frederick II of Austria, the new political alliance would lead to the marriage of the elder daughter of the Wittelsbach and the elder son of the Hohenstaufen, Conrad IV; the wedding ceremony took place on 1 September 1246 at Vohburg in Bavaria, against fierce protests by the papal legate Albert von Behaim. Conrad IV had inherited the title of a King of Jerusalem from his mother Yolande of Brienne.
Appointed Duke of Swabia in 1235, he was elected King of the Romans in 1237 to represent his father in his German dominions. Upon Frederick's death on 13 December 1250, still involved in a war against Pope Innocent IV and his allies, he succeeded him as King of Sicily, he would continue the war and left for Sicily in 1251, leaving his wife behind, who gave birth to their only child Conradin in March next year. On 21 May 1254 Conrad IV died of malaria at his army camp in Lavello, without having seen his son. During the interregnum after the death of Emperor Frederick II, Elisabeth tried to secure the rights of her minor son Conradin, backed by her brothers, the Bavarian dukes Henry XIII and Louis II. In 1256 Elisabeth had to witness the execution of Louis' wife Maria of Brabant, whereafter she gave Conradin to the Bishop of Constance for care and education. Beset by intriguing Pope Alexander VI, she agreed to appoint Conradin's uncle Manfred, an illegitimate son of Frederick, regent in the Kingdom of Sicily on her son's behalf.
However, she could not prevent the election of Richard of Cornwall as King of the Romans in 1256/57. Elisabeth remained a widow for five years. On 6 October 1259 in Munich, she married her second husband Count Meinhard II of Gorizia–Tyrol, a member of the Meinhardiner dynasty, who became Duke of Carinthia in 1286, her second husband, just released from custody by Archbishop Philip of Salzburg, was of inferior status and about ten years younger than her his Tyrolean domains comprised the strategically important mountain passes across the Alps to Italy. The couple had six surviving children. Elisabeth's relationship to her firstborn son Conradin remained a reserved one; when Charles of Anjou defeated Manfred of Sicily in the 1266 Battle of Benevento, her brother Louis and her husband Meinhard encouraged Conradin's decision to go on campaign. In August 1267, mother and son met for a last time at Hohenschwangau Castle before Conradin left for Italy, together with his uncle and his stepfather, who however deserted him in Verona.
After Elisabeth heard of his defeat and execution in 1268, she had the Santa Maria del Carmine Church erected in Naples in his memory. In 1272 she founded the Cistercian abbey of Stams in Tyrol, together with her husband Meinhard, where she is buried. Elisabeth and Conrad would only have one son: Conradin. Elisabeth and her second husband Meinhard had six children: Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol, wife of Albert I, Duke of Austria, became queen consort of the Romans in 1298. Otto III of Carinthia, father of Elisabeth of Carinthia, queen-consort of Sicily as wife of Peter II of Sicily. Albert II, died 1292. Louis, died 1305. Henry I, king of Bohemia 1306 and 1307–10, Duke of Carinthia 1310–35, Count of Tyrol Agnes of Carinthia, wife of Frederick I, Margrave of Meissen, grandson of Emperor Frederick II, her only son Frederick of Meissen predeceased his father. Marek, Miroslav. "A listing of descendants of the Wittelsbach family". Genealogy. EU
Ducal Crypt, Vienna
The Ducal Crypt is a burial chamber beneath the chancel of Stephansdom in Vienna, Austria. It holds 78 containers with hearts, or viscera of 72 members of the House of Habsburg. Before his death at age 25 in 1365, Duke Rudolf IV3 had ordered a crypt to be built for his remains in the new cathedral he commissioned, it has sheltered those remains for over 650 years, he ordered a cenotaph for himself to be placed upstairs above the crypt, in front of the high altar. That symbolic tomb was moved to the north choir and his epitaph written in secret symbols was placed on the wall of that choir; the family of the ruling line of Austrian dukes was buried here after Rudolf IV, but after the dynasty became emperors they were buried in various cities. After the Imperial Crypt at the Kapuzinerkirche opened in 1633, it became the new dynastic burial place. Embalmers have known since the time of the Ancient Egyptians that it is necessary to remove the internal organs if the rest of the body is to be preserved.
The containers with those organs were put in the coffin, but when the heir to the Imperial Throne, King Ferdinand IV of the Romans, died in 1654, he specified in his will that the container with his heart be placed in the Augustinerkirche, his body in the Imperial Crypt in the Kapuzinerkirche, the urn with his viscera in the crypt at the Stephansdom. His instructions resulted in the foundation of the Herzgruft at the Augustinerkirche, his younger brother, Emperor Leopold I, pursued a tradition imitating that distribution of remains, enlarged the Imperial Crypt to make it large enough for additional future burials. The urns with viscera were thereafter deposited in the Ducal Crypt in the Stephansdom. There are now 33 persons. By 1754 the small rectangular Ducal Crypt was overcrowded with 12 sarcophagi and 39 urns, so the area was expanded with an oval chamber being added beyond the east end of the rectangular one. New sarcophagi were made for some of the bodies. In 1956 the crypt was renovated and the contents were rearranged.
The sarcophagi of Duke Rudolf IV3 and his wife4 were placed upon a pedestal and the 62 urns containing organs were moved from the two rows of shelves around the new section to cabinets in the original chamber. Deposition in the crypt has not always been permanent. Emperor Frederick III lay here for only 20 years after his death, until his magnificent tomb upstairs in the south choir was ready; the body of his brother, Archduke Albert VI, was removed after 300 years. The greatest influx, other that the regular arrival of visceral urns, came as a result of the Austrian version of the Dissolution of the English Monasteries under Emperor Joseph II in 1782; when the religious institutions holding bodies of some of the members of the dynasty were closed, they needed to be moved. The Imperial Crypt at that time had only half the space it has today, held 57 bodies; the emperor ordered that the bodies of two persons1 14 who had died before the Imperial Crypt opened be brought to the Ducal Crypt instead.
Another person, Empress Eleanor,16 would have been entitled to space in the Imperial Crypt, but because her husband19 was not buried there either, her body was sent to the Ducal Crypt. It is around this time that the body of Duke Albert VI was removed to make room for others, that the body15 whose sarcophagus is inscribed with only the year and name of the parents arrived. Identified through other evidence as one-year-old Anna of Lorraine, it is known that her brother Charles V, Duke of Lorraine married Archduchess Eleanora Maria Josepha 21 in 1678, that marriage may have some connection with this non-Habsburg being brought here, but the exact reason is unclear; the last item interred here is the urn with the viscera of Archduke Franz Karl78, father of Emperor Franz Joseph, in 1878. The Ducal Crypt shelters the bodies of: "the handsome" son of King Albert I, father of Duke Albert II and grandfather of Duke Rudolf IV.3 His remains were moved here in 1782 when the Carthusian monastery he founded at Mauerbach, his original burial place, was closed during the anti-clerical reforms of Emperor Joseph II "Sunny".
Second son of Duke Albert II and the 15-year-old brother of Rudolf IV.3 "the founder," eldest son of Duke Albert II. Rudolf commissioned the present cathedral, founded the University of Vienna before his death in Milan at age 25, he was entombed in S. Giovanni in Concha and moved to here; the University lays a wreath on his tomb every 12 March to commemorate its founding by him. Wife of Rudolf IV3 and daughter of Emperor Charles IV. After the death of Rudolf she married Otto Duke of Bavaria. "with the pigtail," third son of Duke Albert II and younger brother of Rudolf IV.3 Died at age 46. Son of Albert III.5 Died at age 27. Oldest son of Rudolf IVs youngest brother, Leopold III. "the fat" younger son of Rudolf IVs youngest brother, Leopold III. Infant son of Duke Albert V. 9-month-old son of Emperor Maximilian II. 15-month-old son of Emperor Maximilian II. one-month-old daughter of Emperor Maximilian II. Widow of King Charles IX of France and daughter of Emperor Maximilian II. In 1782 her body was moved here from the convent she had founded.
Young daughter of Duke Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine, a former Cardinal. Second wife of Emperor Ferdinand II.19 Her remains were moved here in 1782 from the Carmelite convent "Siebenbüchnerinnen" in Vienna that she had founded. Gated niches in the original chamber protect 62 copper urns containing the viscera (in