Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the movement of air. Winds are commonly classified by their scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Neptune, Winds have various aspects, an important one being its velocity, another the density of the gas involved, another its energy content or wind energy. In meteorology, winds are referred to according to their strength. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts, strong winds of intermediate duration are termed squalls. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their strength, such as breeze, storm. The two main causes of large-scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, and the rotation of the planet, within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land breeze cycle can define local winds, in areas that have variable terrain, Wind powers the voyages of sailing ships across Earths oceans.
Hot air balloons use the wind to take trips, and powered flight uses it to increase lift. Areas of wind caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft. When winds become strong and man-made structures are damaged or destroyed, Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of aeolian processes such as the formation of fertile soils, such as loess, and by erosion. Wind affects the spread of wildfires, Winds can disperse seeds from various plants, enabling the survival and dispersal of those plant species, as well as flying insect populations. When combined with temperatures, wind has a negative impact on livestock. Wind affects animals food stores, as well as their hunting, Wind is caused by differences in the atmospheric pressure. When a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the pressure area. On a rotating planet, air will be deflected by the Coriolis effect, the two major driving factors of large-scale wind patterns are the differential heating between the equator and the poles and the rotation of the planet.
Outside the tropics and aloft from frictional effects of the surface, near the Earths surface, friction causes the wind to be slower than it would be otherwise
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. Documentary has been described as a practice, a cinematic tradition. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film and he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de lhistoire and La photographie animée. Both were published in 1898 in French and among the written works to consider the historical. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect, the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as a factual film which is dramatic. Others further state that a documentary stands out from the types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion. Documentary practice is the process of creating documentary projects. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of journalism, early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event.
They were single-shot moments captured on film, a train entering a station and these short films were called actuality films, the term documentary was not coined until 1926. Many of the first films, such as made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons, the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and a half, using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States, in May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations, Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of.
These and five other of Doyens films survive, all these short films have been preserved. I must say I forgot those works and I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me, not many scientists have followed your way. Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century
Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian, Republica Moldova, listen, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north and south. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878, Bessarabia remained a province of the Russian Empire until 1917, when during the Russian Revolution it became an autonomous and nominally independent Moldavian Democratic Republic. In 1918, following a vote of its assembly, Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania, the decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924, created within the Ukrainian SSR, on a territory east of Bessarabia, a so-called Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, the Soviets decided to split the region between a newly established Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian SSR.
The Moldavian SSR included two-thirds of the territory of Bessarabia, on 27 August 1991, as part of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The current Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994, the strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms, Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. The name Moldova derives from the Moldova River, the valley of this served as a political centre at the time of the foundation of the Principality of Moldavia in 1359. The origin of the name of the river remains unclear, the dogs name, given to the river, extended to the Principality. For a short time in the 1990s, at the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the country began to use the Romanian name, Moldova.
Officially, the name Republic of Moldova is designated by the United Nations, in 2010, Oldowan flint tools were discovered at Bayraki that are 800, 000–1.2 million years old. This demonstrates that humans were present in Moldova during the early Paleolithic era. The inhabitants of this civilization, which lasted roughly from 5500 to 2750 BC, practiced agriculture, raised livestock, hunted, in antiquity, Moldovas territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, and Byzantine Empires. The Principality of Moldavia, established in 1359, was bounded by the Carpathian Mountains in the west, the Dniester River in the east, and the Danube River and Black Sea to the south. Its territory comprised the territory of the Republic of Moldova, the eastern eight counties of Romania. Like the present-day republic and Romanias north-eastern region, it was known to the locals as Moldova, Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and, beginning in the 15th century, by the Turks.
In 1538, the principality became a tributary to the Ottoman Empire, the title used in the document of 6 July 1600 was The King of the country of Romania, Ardeal and of all of Moldavia
Union of Bessarabia with Romania
On April 91918, the Sfatul Țării, or National Council, of Bessarabia proclaimed union with the Kingdom of Romania. In 1856, the Treaty of Paris returned the south of Bessarabia to Moldavia, but in 1878, at the time of annexation, Moldavian population predominated in Bessarabia. Other groups, such as Gagauz and Germans, the Tsarist policy in Bessarabia was in part aimed at denationalization of the Moldavian element by forbidding after the 1860s education and Liturgy in Romanian. However, the effect was a low literacy rate rather than denationalization. Some Romanian historians claimed that a strong sentiment of frustration and resentment to the Russian control had started to appear before the beginning of World War I and this was in spite of the fact that the national referendum necessary under the law had not taken place. On April 91918, Sfatul Țării voted in favour of the union, with the conditions, Sfatul Țării would undertake an agrarian reform. There were 86 votes for,3 votes against and 36 deputies abstained, the vote, which renounced Bessarabias autonomy, has been judged illegitimate, since there was no quorum, only 44 of the 125 members took part in it.
In the autumn of 1919, general elections were held in Bessarabia to elect 90 deputies and 35 senators to the Romanian parliament - the Constituent Assembly. During the peace talks between the Great Powers and Romania, on 1 February 1919, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George talked with Ion I. C. The Territorial Commission on Romanian Affairs was formed, by which the representatives of the Big Four Powers presented their proposals and decided Romanians territorial future. The commission was formed by Clive Day and Charles Seymour, Sir Eyre Crowe and Alan Leeper, André Tardieu and Guy Laroche, during the debates the only issue related to Romania on which the representatives agreed was that Bessarabia should belong to Romania. However, the United States refused to sign the Treaty on the grounds that Russia was not represented at the conference, the newly communist Russia did not recognize Romanian rule over Bessarabia, a stand that was tacitly accepted by many other countries such as the United States.
The union was recognized by the United Kingdom and Italy in the Treaty of Paris, the treaty did not, come into force as Japan, one of the signatories, failed to ratify it. Soviet Russia was not represented as a party at the treaty conference, a mutual treaty between the Soviets and Romania was not signed due to the formers claims over Bessarabia. In the Kellogg-Briand Treaty of 1928 and the Treaty of London of July 1933, transnistria, at the time part of the Ukrainian SSR, itself part of the Soviet Union, was formed into the Moldavian ASSR after the failure of the Tatarbunar uprising. The land reform legislated by Sfatul Țării in 1918-1919 resulted in the redistribution of land among the population of the region. The actual process dragged out until the early 1930s, with the allotted land falling short of the prescribed 6 hectares per eligible individual. The reform was further marred by corruption and preferential allotment to Romanian state functionaries and officers, the literacy rate grew to over 40% by 1930, the region continued to lag educationally
Cantemir is a district in the south of Moldova, with the administrative center at Cantemir. As of January 1,2011, its population was 62,800, localities with the earliest documentary attestation of the district are, Haragîș, Stoianeuca, Lărguța, Cîrpești localities approved for the first time in the period 1443-1489. In the 16th and 17th centuries, most of all to develop trade, in 1812, after the Russo-Turkish War, is the occupation of Basarabia, Russian Empire during this period, there is an intense russification of the native population. In 1856–78, after the Crimean War district is part of the Romania, in 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire, Bessarabia united with Romania in this period, the district is part of the Ismail County. In 1940 after Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Basarabia is occupied by the USSR, in 1991 as a result of the proclamation of Independence of Moldova and residence of the Cahul County, and in 2003 became administrative unit of Moldova. Cantemir district is located in the part of the Republic of Moldova.
Neighborhood has the districts, Leova District in north, east Gagauzia, Cahul District in southern and border state in west to Romania. The relief is hilly plain with the maximum altitude is 301 m hill Tigheci in the western part of district. Erosion processes with a medium intensity, temperate continental climate with an annual average district temperature +11 c. July average temperature +23 C, of January -3 C, average wind speed 3–6 m \ s. Typical European steppe fauna, with the presence of mammals such as foxes, deer, wild boar, wild cat, ermine. Of birds, crows, starling, forests occupy 11. 3% of the district are complemented by tree species such as oak, hornbeam, maple and others. From plants, knotweed, fescue and many others, the main river in the district is Prut, crosses district in the west. The share of land is 49,602 ha of them occupy 40902 ha of arable land, plantations of orchards -2272 ha, vineyards -5660 ha. Main crops, sunflower, soybeans, vegetables, at activates Cantemir district,41 educational institutions.
Total number of students, including 8967 children in schools,130 students in school in the Cantemir city. Cantemir district granted priority mainly right-wing parties, in Moldova represented by the AEI. PCRM is a fall in percentage the last three elections
Russification or Russianization is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one. The major areas of Russification are politics and culture, in politics, an element of Russification is assigning Russian nationals to leading administrative positions in national institutions. In culture, Russification primarily amounts to domination of the Russian language in official business, the shifts in demographics in favour of the ethnic Russian population are sometimes considered as a form of Russification as well. In this sense, although Russification is usually conflated across Russification, Russianization and Sovietization, for example, did not automatically lead to Russification – change in language or self-identity of non-Russian peoples to being Russian. An early case of Russification took place in the 16th century in the conquered Khanate of Kazan, the main elements of this process were Christianization and implementation of the Russian language as the sole administrative language.
After the Russian defeat in the Crimean War in 1856 and the Polish rebellion of 1863, Russia was populated by many minority groups, and forcing them to accept the Russian culture was an attempt to prevent self-determinationist tendencies and separatism. In the 19th century, Russian settlers on traditional Kirghiz land drove many of the Kirghiz over the border to China, indigenous to large parts of western and central Russia are the Uralic peoples, such as the Vepsians, Mordvins and Permians. Historically, the Russification of Uralic peoples begins already with the eastward expansion of the East Slavs. The Russification of the Komi began in the 13th to 14th centuries, komi-Russian bilingualism has become the norm over the 19th and has led to increasing Russian influence in the Komi language. As a result, several of Russias indigenous languages and cultures are considered endangered. E. g. between the 1989 and 2002 censuses, the numbers of the Mordvins have totalled over 100,000. Russification intensified after the November Uprising of 1831, and in particular after the January Uprising of 1863, in 1864, the Polish and Belarusian languages were banned in public places, in the 1880s, Polish was banned in schools and on school grounds and offices of Congress Poland.
Research and teaching of the Polish language, history or of Catholicism were forbidden, illiteracy rose as Poles refused to learn Russian. Students were beaten for resisting Russification, a Polish underground education network was formed, including the famous Flying University. According to Russian estimates, by 1901 one-third of the inhabitants in the Congress Kingdom was involved in education based on Polish literature. From 1840s Russia even considered introducing Cyrillic script for spelling Polish language, with the first school books printed in 1860s, a similar development took place in Lithuania. Muravyov banned the use of Latin and Gothic scripts in publishing and he was reported saying, What the Russian bayonet didnt accomplish, the Russian school will. The knygnešiai became a symbol of the resistance of Lithuanians against Russification, the campaign promoted the Russian Orthodox faith over Catholicism
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the Eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae. There are seventeen species of hedgehog in five genera, found through parts of Europe and Africa, there are no hedgehogs native to Australia, and no living species native to the Americas. Hedgehogs share distant ancestry with shrews, with gymnures possibly being the intermediate link, like many of the first mammals, they have adapted to a nocturnal way of life. Hedgehogs spiny protection resembles that of the porcupines, which are rodents, and echidnas. The name hedgehog came into use around the year 1450, derived from the Middle English heyghoge, from heyg, because it frequents hedgerows, other names include urchin and furze-pig. The collective noun for a group of hedgehogs is array, hedgehogs are easily recognized by their spines, which are hollow hairs made stiff with keratin. Their spines are not poisonous or barbed and unlike the quills of a porcupine, the immature animals spines normally fall out as they are replaced with adult spines.
Spines can shed when the animal is diseased or under extreme stress, a defense that all species of hedgehogs possess is the ability to roll into a tight ball, causing all of the spines to point outwards. The hedgehogs back contains two large muscles that control the position of the quills, when the creature is rolled into a ball, the quills on the back protect the tucked head and belly, which are not quilled. Hedgehogs are primarily nocturnal, though some species can be active during the day, hedgehogs sleep for a large portion of the day under bushes, rocks, or most commonly in dens dug in the ground, with varying habits among the species. All wild hedgehogs can hibernate, though not all do, depending on temperature, hedgehogs are fairly vocal and communicate through a combination of grunts, snuffles and/or squeals, depending on species. Hedgehogs occasionally perform a ritual called anointing, when the animal encounters a new scent, it will lick and bite the source, form a scented froth in its mouth and paste it on its spines with its tongue.
Anointing is sometimes called anting because of a behavior in birds. In addition, hedgehogs are one of four known mammalian groups with mutations that protect against another snake venom, the olfactory regions have not been thoroughly studied in the hedgehog. In mammals, the part of the brain is covered by neopallium. This difficulty is not impossible, as it varies from one species to another, tests have suggested that hedgehogs share the same electrical activity as cats. Although traditionally classified in the now abandoned order Insectivora, hedgehogs are omnivorous and they feed on insects, snails and toads, bird eggs, mushrooms, grass roots, berries and watermelons. Berries constitute a part of an Afghan hedgehogs diet in early spring after hibernation
The European polecat — known as the black or forest polecat, or fitch — is a species of mustelid native to western Eurasia and North Africa. It is of a dark brown colour, with a pale underbelly. Occasionally, colour mutations, including albinos and erythrists, occur and it is much less territorial than other mustelids, with animals of the same sex frequently sharing home ranges. Like other mustelids, the European polecat is polygamous, though pregnancy occurs directly after mating and it usually gives birth in early summer to litters consisting of five to 10 kits, which become independent at the age of two to three months. The European polecat feeds on rodents, amphibians. It occasionally cripples its prey by piercing its brain with its teeth and stores it, still living, the European polecat originated in Western Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, with its closest living relatives being the steppe polecat, the black-footed ferret and the European mink. The European polecat is the ancestor of the ferret, which was domesticated more than 2000 years ago for the purpose of hunting vermin.
The species has otherwise been viewed negatively by humans. In the British Isles especially, the polecat was persecuted by gamekeepers, during modern times, the polecat is still scantly represented in popular culture when compared to other rare British mammals, and misunderstandings of its behaviour still persist in some rural areas. As of 2008, it is classed by the IUCN as Least Concern due to its range and large numbers. The word polecat first appeared after the Norman Conquest of England, while the second syllable is largely self-explanatory, the origin of the first is unclear. It is possibly derived from the French poule, meaning chicken, likely in reference to the fondness for poultry, or it may be a variant of the Old English ful. In Middle English, the species was referred to as foumart, meaning foul marten, in Old French, the polecat was called fissau, which was derived from the Low German and Scandinavian verb for to make a disagreeable smell. This was corrupted in English as fitchew or fitchet, which became the word fitch.
The word fitchet is the word for the North American fisher. In some countries such as New Zealand, the term fitch has taken on a use to refer to related creatures such as ferrets. A2002 article in The Mammal Societys Mammal Review contested the European polecats status as an animal indigenous to the British Isles on account of a fossil record. In contrast, attestations of the Welsh word for marten, date back at least to the 10th century Welsh Laws
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, graupel, Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and precipitates. Thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated, Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called showers, moisture that is lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain is occurring. A stationary front is often present near the area of freezing rain, provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus.
Eventually, the droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy, thundersnow is possible within a cyclones comma head and within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation, on the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. The movement of the trough, or intertropical convergence zone. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 cubic kilometres of it over the oceans and 107,000 cubic kilometres over land. Given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes.
Precipitation may occur on celestial bodies, e. g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most likely takes the form of frost. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 km3 of it over the oceans, given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall, Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice
Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval. Climate differs from weather, in that weather only describes the conditions of these variables in a given region. A regions climate is generated by the system, which has five components, hydrosphere, lithosphere. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was the Köppen climate classification, the Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic Classification systems focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region. Paleoclimatology is the study of ancient climates, Climate models are mathematical models of past and future climates. Climate change may occur long and short timescales from a variety of factors. For example, a 3°C change in mean annual temperature corresponds to a shift in isotherms of approximately 300–400 km in latitude or 500 m in elevation, species are expected to move upwards in elevation or towards the poles in latitude in response to shifting climate zones.
Climate is commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period, the standard averaging period is 30 years, but other periods may be used depending on the purpose. Climate includes statistics other than the average, such as the magnitudes of day-to-day or year-to-year variations, the classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. The World Meteorological Organization describes climate normals as reference points used by climatologists to compare current climatological trends to that of the past or what is considered normal, a Normal is defined as the arithmetic average of a climate element over a 30-year period. A30 year period is used, as it is enough to filter out any interannual variation or anomalies. The WMO originated from the International Meteorological Organization which set up a commission for climatology in 1929.
At its 1934 Wiesbaden meeting the commission designated the thirty-year period from 1901 to 1930 as the reference time frame for climatological standard normals. In 1982 the WMO agreed to update climate normals, and in these were completed on the basis of climate data from 1 January 1961 to 31 December 1990. The difference between climate and weather is usefully summarized by the popular phrase Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get. Over historical time spans there are a number of nearly constant variables that determine climate, including latitude, proportion of land to water and these change only over periods of millions of years due to processes such as plate tectonics